Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) (J REFRACT SURG)

Publisher: International Society of Refractive Surgery, Slack

Journal description

The Journal of Refractive Surgery, the official publication of the International Society of Refractive Surgery and its affiliated societies, is a bimonthly forum for original research, review, and evaluation of refractive and corneal surgical procedures. In addition to peer-reviewed scientific articles, regular features such as New Ideas, Case Reports, Consultations in Refractive Surgery, New Commentary, Abstracts, and Opinions help keep the surgeon abreast of this ever-changing specialty.

Current impact factor: 2.78

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.781
2012 Impact Factor 2.474
2011 Impact Factor 2.541
2010 Impact Factor 2.491
2009 Impact Factor 2.32
2008 Impact Factor 1.914
2007 Impact Factor 1.696
2006 Impact Factor 2.097
2005 Impact Factor 1.948
2004 Impact Factor 2.399
2003 Impact Factor 1.877
2002 Impact Factor 2.307
2001 Impact Factor 1.995
2000 Impact Factor 2.061
1999 Impact Factor 1.847
1996 Impact Factor 1.224

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.61
Cited half-life 5.40
Immediacy index 0.67
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.89
Website Journal of Refractive Surgery website
Other titles Journal of refractive surgery
ISSN 1081-597X
OCLC 56970461
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On Institutional Repositories
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH authors may deposit in PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the value of intraoperative aberrometry in cases of toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and positioning. In this non-randomized retrospective comparative trial, two groups of eyes underwent cataract extraction with toric IOL implantation: the aberrometry group (n = 37 eyes), where toric IOL power and alignment were determined before surgery with automated keratometry, standard optical biometry, and an online calculator and then refined using intraoperative aberrometry, and the toric calculator group (n = 27 eyes), where IOL selection was performed in a similar manner but without intraoperative aberrometry. The primary outcome measure was mean postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (RRA). Mean RRA measured at follow-up after surgery was 0.46 ± 0.42 and 0.68 ± 0.34 diopters (D) in the aberrometry and toric calculator groups, respectively (P = .0153). A 75% and 57% reduction in cylinder was noted between preoperative keratometric astigmatism and postoperative RRA in the aberrometry and toric calculator groups, respectively (P = .0027). RRA of 0.25 D or less, 0.50 D or less, 0.75 D or less, and 1.00 D or less was seen 38%, 78%, 86%, and 95% of the time, respectively, in the aberrometry group and 22%, 33%, 74%, and 89% of the time, respectively, in the toric calculator group. These data show that the chance of a patient being in a lower postoperative RRA range increased when intraoperative aberrometry was used (P = .0130). Patients undergoing cataract extraction with toric IOL placement aided by intraoperative aberrometry were 2.4 times more likely to have less than 0.50 D of RRA compared to standard methods. [J Refract Surg. 2015:31(4):237-242.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):237-242. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-03
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the performance of a novel keratometer based on reflections of colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and compare it with devices based on Placido rings, monochromatic LEDs, and Scheimpflug images. Sixty-three eyes of 63 patients with virgin corneas underwent keratometry with color-LED corneal topography (Cassini; i-Optics, The Hague, The Netherlands) and with devices based on Placido ring reflections (Keratron; Optikon, Rome, Italy), monochromatic LED reflections (Lenstar; Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland), and Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam; Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany). Three repeated measurements were performed with each device. Comparability and repeatability of corneal power and cylinder measurements were assessed. The Bonferroni-corrected α-threshold for statistical significance was 0.016. Corneal power measurements with the Cassini topographer were not statistically significantly different from those with the Pentacam (P = .64). They were statistically significantly lower than those with the Keratron and Lenstar (P < .01), but the differences were of negligible clinical relevance. Cylinder measurements with the Cassini topographer were not statistically significantly different from those with any other device (P = .46). Repeatability of Cassini corneal power measurements was not statistically significantly different from that of the Keratron (P = .02), but was statistically significantly lower than that of the Lenstar and Pentacam (P < .001). Repeatability of Cassini cylinder measurements was statistically significantly higher than that of the Pentacam and Keratron (P < .001), but was not statistically significantly different from that of the Lenstar (P > .05). Corneal power and cylinder measurements with color-LED corneal topography yielded values that were comparable to those of other commonly used devices. Repeatability of corneal power measurements was lower compared to some devices, but repeatability of cylinder measurements was relatively high. This may be of particular interest when using toric intraocular lenses. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(4):249-256.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):249-256. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150212-01
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of the percent tissue altered (PTA) with the occurrence of ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious preoperative corneal topography. This retrospective comparative case-control study compared associations of reported ectasia risk factors in 129 eyes, including 57 eyes with suspicious preoperative Placido-based corneal topography that developed ectasia after LASIK (suspect ectasia group), 32 eyes with suspicious topography that remained stable for at least 3 years after LASIK (suspect control group), and 30 eyes that developed ectasia with bilateral normal topography (normal topography ectasia group). Groups were subdivided based on topographic asymmetry into high- or low-suspect groups. The PTA, preoperative central corneal thickness (CCT), residual stromal bed (RSB), and age (years) were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Average PTA values for normal topography ectasia (45), low-suspect ectasia (39), high-suspect ectasia (36), low-suspect control (32), and high-suspect control (29) were significantly different from one another in all comparisons (P < .003) except high- and low-suspect ectasia groups (P = .033), and presented the highest discriminative capability of all variables evaluated. Age was only significantly different between the high-suspect ectasia and normal topography ectasia groups, and CCT was not significantly different between any groups. Stepwise logistic regression revealed the PTA as the most significant independent variable (P < .0001), with RSB the next most significant parameter. There remains a significant correlation between PTA values and ectasia risk after LASIK, even in eyes with suspicious corneal topography. Less tissue alteration, or a lower PTA value, was necessary to induce ectasia in eyes with more remarkable signs of topographic abnormality, and PTA provided better discriminative capabilities than RSB for all study populations. [J Refract Surg. 2015:31(4):258-265.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):258-265. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-05
  • Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):279. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-07
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical accommodation testing involves measuring either accommodative optical changes or accommodative biometric changes. Quantifying both optical and biometric changes during accommodation might be helpful in the design and evaluation of accommodation restoration concepts. This study aims to establish the accuracy of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in predicting the accommodative optical response (AOR) from biometric changes. Static AOR from 0 to 6 diopters (D) stimuli in 1-D steps were measured with infrared photorefraction and a Grand Seiko autorefractor (WR-5100 K; Shigiya Machinery Works Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan) in 26 human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Objective measurements of accommodative biometric changes to the same stimulus demands were measured from UBM (Vu-MAX; Sonomed Escalon, Lake Success, NY) images in the same group of subjects. AOR was predicted from biometry using linear regressions, 95% confidence intervals, and 95% prediction intervals. Bland-Altman analysis showed 0.52 D greater AOR with photorefraction than with the Grand Seiko autorefractor. Per-diopter changes in accommodative biometry were: anterior chamber depth (ACD): -0.055 mm/D, lens thickness (LT): +0.076 mm/D, anterior lens radii of curvature (ALRC): -0.854 mm/D, posterior lens radii of curvature (PLRC): -0.222 mm/D, and anterior segment length (ASL): +0.030 mm/D. The standard deviation of AOR predicted from linear regressions for various biometry parameters were: ACD: 0.24 D, LT: 0.30 D, ALRC: 0.24 D, PLRC: 0.43 D, ASL: 0.50 D. UBM measured parameters can, on average, predict AOR with a standard deviation of 0.50 D or less using linear regression. UBM is a useful and accurate objective technique for measuring accommodation in young phakic eyes. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(4):266-273.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):266-273. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-06
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of pupil size on image quality of a sectorial multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), the Lentis Mplus (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany), and the Acri.LISA IOL (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The authors measured the MTFs of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL and the Acri.LISA 366D IOL with three different sizes of pupil diameters: 3, 4, and 5 mm. The MTF was calculated from the cross-line spread function recorded with the OPAL Vector System (Image Science Ltd., Oxford, UK) by using fast Fourier-transform techniques. In distance focus, the image quality provided by the Lentis Mplus IOL was better than that of the Acri. LISA IOL with all pupil diameters. In near focus, the MTF of the Acri.LISA IOL was better with a 3-mm pupil, but poor with larger pupils. The aberration effect was equal in both IOLs in distance focus, but in near focus and with a 3-mm pupil, the Acri.LISA IOL was less affected by the aberration than the Lentis Mplus IOL. The Lentis Mplus IOL provides better distance image quality than the Acri.LISA IOL, whereas the near image quality of the Acri.LISA IOL is better with small-pupil diameter. The sectorial design makes this IOL more suitable for patients with a pupil diameter greater than 3 mm. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(4):230-235.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):230-235. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-02
  • Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):218-221. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-01
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the findings of three corneal measuring devices for calculating surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) during cataract extraction. Patients' records were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who had corneal astigmatism measurements before and at least 1 month after cataract surgery through 2.4-mm corneal incisions by all three tested devices (Lenstar LS900, Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland; IOLMaster 500, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA; and Atlas topographer, Carl Zeiss Meditec). Vector analysis was used to calculate the SIA for each measuring device. Seventy eyes of 49 patients were included. All three measuring devices had similar SIA results: the median SIAs were 0.45 diopters (D) for the Lenstar, 0.41 D for the IOLMaster, and 0.47 D for the Atlas topographer (P = .884). The three evaluated anterior corneal measuring devices produced similar results in measuring SIA. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(4):244-247.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 04/2015; 31(4):244-247. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150319-04
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare corneal curvatures, corneal power calculations, and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) with small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) following surgery for moderate to high myopia. A retrospective study of 736 eyes of 368 patients treated with SMILE and 148 eyes of 74 patients treated with FS-LASIK. Preoperative mean spherical equivalent was -7.3 ± 1.5 diopters in the SMILE group and -7.6 ± 1.3 diopters in the FS-LASIK group. Corneal curvatures, corneal power calculations performed by ray tracing, and HOAs measured with Scheimpflug technology before and 3 months after surgery were analyzed. Corneal curvatures changed significantly in the anterior corneal surface, but not in the posterior corneal surface, in both groups; after SMILE, the sagittal curvature was constant for the central 4-mm diameter, in contrast to FS-LASIK where the curvature showed a gradual steepening with increasing diameter. Corneal power calculations were different across the cornea depending on the measurement diameter between the two groups postoperatively. Measured over a 5-mm zone on the total cornea, FS-LASIK induced 0.11 μm more coma (P < .001) and 0.13 μm higher spherical aberration (P < .001) as compared to SMILE; similar results in other HOAs were seen for the anterior corneal surface. Negligible differences in HOAs were induced on the posterior corneal surface. SMILE and FS-LASIK produced distinct changes in anterior corneal shape evident in different postoperative corneal curvatures and power measurements between the two groups. Postoperative HOAs were much lower after SMILE as compared to FS-LASIK. [J Refract Surg. 2015;XX(X):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150303-01
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    ABSTRACT: To report a case of clinically significant epithelial ingrowth after LASIK that was successfully treated with a hydrogel ocular sealant in combination with flap lifting and scraping technique. Case report. A 56-year-old woman underwent LASIK and a LASIK enhancement procedure in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Six months after the enhancement, visually significant epithelial ingrowth developed in both of her eyes. The left eye was treated with flap lifting, scraping, and suturing, and the right eye was treated with a hydrogel ocular sealant in combination with flap lifting and scraping. No recurrence was evident during a 6-month follow-up period and visual acuity improved in both eyes. No adverse effects were noticed. Recurrent epithelial ingrowth may be successfully avoided with the intraoperative use of a hydrogel ocular sealant combined with flap lifting and scraping. This approach could be used as an alternative to LASIK flap suturing. [J Refract Surg. 2015;XX(X):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150303-02
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance of corneal topographic astigmatism (CorT) based on total corneal power measurements. Anterior, posterior, and total corneal power measurements of 526 virgin eyes obtained using the CSO Sirius tomographer (Costuzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Scandicci, Florence, Italy) were analyzed. Individual CorTs were created from each set of data. These CorTs were assessed using ocular residual astigmatism (ORA), which quantifies corneo-refractive differences. A low standard deviation of the ocular residual astigmatism (ORAsd) indicates a low variability between corneal astigmatism and refractive cylinder. A low mean of the ORA magnitude indicates a close correlation of refractive cylinder and corneal astigmatism. The CorT based on total corneal power measurements had an ORAsd of 0.30 diopters (D) and a mean ORA magnitude of 0.53 D. The CorT candidates based on anterior corneal power measurements all had an ORAsd of at least 0.32 D, and the mean ORA magnitudes were all 0.64 D or greater. Both the ORAsd and mean ORA magnitude of the CorT based on total corneal power measurements were significantly less than those of the CorT based on anterior corneal power measurements (both P < .001, as estimated via bootstrapping). The CorT based on total corneal power measurements corresponds better, both in variability and closeness, with manifest refractive cylinder than the CorT based on anterior corneal power measurements. This total CorT would be fundamental when planning toric intraocular lenses or limbal relaxing incisions or other corneal astigmatic surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(3):182-186.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):182-186. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150224-02
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of anterior capsule opening performed with femtosecond laser capsulotomy at different energy settings in ex vivo porcine anterior lens capsule specimens. Twenty-five fresh porcine eyes per group were included in the study. Femtosecond laser capsulotomy was performed with three different pulse energy levels: 2 µJ (low energy group), 5 µJ (intermediate energy group), and 10 µJ (high energy group). The capsule openings were stretched with universal testing equipment until they ruptured. The morphologic profile of the cut capsule edges was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The high energy group had significantly lower rupture force (108 ± 14 mN) compared to the intermediate energy group (118 ± 10 mN) (P < .05) and low energy group (119 ± 11 mN) (P < .05), but the difference between the intermediate energy and low energy groups was not significant (P = .9479). The high energy group had significantly lower circumference stretching ratio (144% ± 3%) compared to the intermediate energy group (148% ± 3%) (P < .05) and low energy group (148% ± 3%) (P < .05), but the difference between the intermediate energy group and low energy group was not significant (P = .9985). Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the edge was only serrated with low and intermediate energy, but additional signs of collagen melting and denaturation were observed at high energy. Anterior capsule openings created at a high energy level were slightly weaker and less extensible than those created at low or intermediate levels, possibly due to the increased thermal effect of photo-disruption. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(3):153-157.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):153-157. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150220-02
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    ABSTRACT: To compare femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery without the use of ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) with standard phacoemulsification using OVD. This was a prospective, randomized, single-center trial of 37 patients (74 eyes) diagnosed as having significant cataract in both eyes. Randomly, one eye underwent standard phacoemulsification with OVD (the OVD group); this group acted as controls. The other eye was treated with the femtosecond laser; the subsequent manual part of the procedure was performed without OVD (non-OVD group). Time of surgery, amount of fluid used during phacoemulsification, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell count, and visual acuity were documented over the 6-month follow-up. There were no major complications and no significant difference in overall surgery time (non-OVD: 375 ± 81 seconds; OVD: 362 ± 43 seconds; P = .713) and in the quantity of fluid passing through the eye (non-OVD: 187 ± 35 mL; OVD: 186 ± 27 mL; P = .952) between groups. Endothelial cell loss after 6 months was not significantly different between groups (non-OVD: -2.4%; OVD: -2.7%; P = .880). Central corneal thickness was not different at 1 week postoperatively between groups (non-OVD: 575 ± 45 µm; OVD: 573 ± 46 µm; P = .820). Three patients in the OVD group and one patient in the non-OVD group experienced intraocular pressure greater than 25 mm Hg at 1 day postoperatively. There were no significant differences in corrected distance visual acuity between groups (logMAR non-OVD: 0.024; OVD: 0.038; P = .461). Femtosecond laser-assisted treatment allows the cataract surgeon to perform phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation without the use of OVD at no additional risk to the corneal endothelium. Furthermore, there was a tendency toward fewer increases in intraocular pressure in patients treated with the femtosecond laser. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(3):146-152.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):146-152. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150220-01
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate intersession and intrasession repeatability of aberration data obtained with a new visual simulator based on adaptive optics, which includes a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (Adaptive Optics Vision Analyzer; Voptica S.L., Murcia, Spain). Thirty-one healthy right eyes were included in the study. To evaluate intrasession repeatability, three consecutive measurements without repositioning the patient or realigning the eye were obtained. Intersession repeatability was evaluated in three sessions. Aberrometric data computed from the second to the fifth order for a 4-mm pupil were used. Statistical analysis included the repeated measures analysis of variance (or the Wilcoxon signed rank test), the coefficient of repeatability, the Bland-Altman method, and the intraclass correlation coefficient. No significant differences in the intrasession and intersession repeatability analysis for any of the parameters (P > .05) were found, suggesting a consistent variability of the instrument over time. Similar coefficient of repeatability values were obtained in the three sessions. The Bland-Altman analysis confirmed differences close to zero and the variations were independent of the mean within and between sessions. The intersession intraclass correlation coefficient values were generally above 0.75, suggesting moderate to high repeatability. However, some exceptions were found in the intrasession analysis. The findings suggest that the new instrument provides consistent and repeatable aberrometric data. It is therefore a suitable tool to perform consistent and repeatable visual simulations. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(3):188-194.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):188-194. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150224-03
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the iol-AMD technology (London Eye Hospital Pharma, London, UK), which includes two injectable, hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) in a pilot study of patients diagnosed as having cataract and dry age-related macular degeneration. The cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed after a preoperative evaluation using the iolAMD simulator in eyes with bilateral intermediate dry age-related macular degeneration. Outcomes were intraoperative and postoperative complications, subjective and objective visual acuity improvement, visual field changes, and postoperative diplopia. Three eyes of 2 patients were evaluated. The surgeries were uneventful. All eyes gained monocular reading vision at the 1-week postoperative visit. One patient with monocular implantation recognized diplopia for distance vision. Preoperative corrected distance visual acuity ranged from 20/800 to 20/125 and corrected near visual acuity was 20/800 or less. Two months after surgery, corrected distance and near visual acuities increased to levels between 20/40 and 20/25 (uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/60 to 20/32; uncorrected near visual acuity was 20/200 to 20/25). These early results showed that the iolAMD simulator is a promising technology improving near and distance visual acuity in eyes with intermediate dry macular degeneration. The prismatic IOL effect did not lead to diplopia when implanted bilaterally. The surgery was safely performed. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(3):158-162.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):158-162. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150220-03
  • Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):211-2.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine amount of change in wavefront aberrometric measurements from 1 day to 1 year after myopic LASIK. One hundred five eyes of 105 patients underwent wavefront-guided LASIK. Objective wavefront aberrometric refractions were recorded preoperatively, at postoperative day 1, and at postoperative year 1. Subjective manifest refractions were also collected at postoperative year 1. When comparing objective wavefront aberrometric refractions at postoperative year 1 to postoperative day 1, there was a mean 0.33 diopter spherical equivalent myopic shift. There was no significant difference in the number of eyes within 1.00 diopter of emmetropia spherical equivalent measured by wavefront aberrometric refraction at postoperative day 1 or year 1. There was a correlation of R(2) = 0.14 between degree of preoperative myopia and myopic shift. Higher-order aberrations were overall not increased at day 1 but increased significantly by year 1. Objective aberrometric refractions at postoperative day 1 can be useful in prediction of long-term refractive outcomes. There is a small myopic shift and an increase in higher-order aberrations when comparing wavefront aberrometry results at postoperative day 1 with those at postoperative 1 year. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(3):170-174.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 03/2015; 31(3):170-174. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150220-04