Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) (J REFRACT SURG)

Publisher: International Society of Refractive Surgery, Slack

Journal description

The Journal of Refractive Surgery, the official publication of the International Society of Refractive Surgery and its affiliated societies, is a bimonthly forum for original research, review, and evaluation of refractive and corneal surgical procedures. In addition to peer-reviewed scientific articles, regular features such as New Ideas, Case Reports, Consultations in Refractive Surgery, New Commentary, Abstracts, and Opinions help keep the surgeon abreast of this ever-changing specialty.

Current impact factor: 3.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 3.468
2013 Impact Factor 2.781
2012 Impact Factor 2.474
2011 Impact Factor 2.541
2010 Impact Factor 2.491
2009 Impact Factor 2.32
2008 Impact Factor 1.914
2007 Impact Factor 1.696
2006 Impact Factor 2.097
2005 Impact Factor 1.948
2004 Impact Factor 2.399
2003 Impact Factor 1.877
2002 Impact Factor 2.307
2001 Impact Factor 1.995
2000 Impact Factor 2.061
1999 Impact Factor 1.847
1996 Impact Factor 1.224

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.15
Cited half-life 5.70
Immediacy index 0.57
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.94
Website Journal of Refractive Surgery website
Other titles Journal of refractive surgery
ISSN 1081-597X
OCLC 56970461
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On Institutional Repositories
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH authors may deposit in PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 21/04/2015
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the 3-year refractive and visual outcomes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in patients with high myopia and to evaluate the optical changes from 3 months to 3 years after surgery. Methods: A total of 87 eyes (87 patients) undergoing SMILE for high myopia were included. Preoperative and 3-month and 3-year postoperative follow-up examinations included manifest refraction and uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities. Pentacam HR (Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany) was used to evaluate the total corneal refractive power and the root mean square of spherical aberration, coma, and total higher-order aberrations. The paired t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used. Results: The preoperative spherical equivalent averaged -7.30 ± 1.40 diopters (D); no significant changes occured between 3 months and 3 years after surgery (-0.30 ± 0.50 D vs -0.40 ± 0.60 D, P = .071). Uncorrected distance visual acuity was stable from 3 months to 3 years after SMILE (0.04 ± 0.17 logMAR vs 0.03 ± 0.19 logMAR; P = .28), whereas corrected distance visual acuity improved from -0.05 ± 0.15 to -0.08 ± 0.11 logMAR (P < .001). At 3 months, 82% and 93% of eyes were within ±0.50 and ±1.00 D, respectively. At 3 years, 78% and 90% were within ±1.00 D of the attempted refraction, respectively. Spherical and higher-order aberrations significantly decreased from 3 months to 3 years, whereas coma remained stable. A significant regression of 0.36 ± 0.29 D was seen in total corneal refractive power (P < .001). Conclusions: The refractive and visual outcomes seemed stable years after SMILE. A minor myopic regression was observed in total corneal refractive power but not in subjective refraction. There seems to be a significant long-term improvement in higher-order aberrations after surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(10):XX-XX.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 10/2015; DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150923-11
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To comparatively investigate efficacy of the enhanced Athens Protocol procedure, guided by novel Placido-derived topography with cyclorotation compensation (Cyclo-adjusted), to the previous similar cases, guided by Scheimpflug-derived tomography without cyclorotation compensation (Non-cyclo-adjusted). Methods Two groups were evaluated. In group-A (‘Cyclo-adjusted’ nA=110 eyes), Placido disc-derived topography guidance was employed with cyclorotation compensation, compared to group-B (‘Non-cyclo-adjusted’ nB=110 eyes) utilizing Scheimpflug-derived tomography guidance available in the past. Analysis was based on digital processing of Scheimpflug-imaging derived curvature difference maps pre- and 3 months post-operatively. Thus we objectively measured differences between targeted (surgical planning) and achieved ablation pattern. We computed the vector (r, ϑ) corresponding to the steepest corneal point (cone) on the pre-operative surgical planning map (rp, ϑp) and on the curvature difference map (rd, ϑd). We calculated differences between the peak topographic angular data: Δϑ=|ϑp - ϑd| and weighted angular difference WΔϑ= Δϑ·Δr. Results For group-A (Cyclo-adjusted) Δϑ was 7.18±7.53 (0 to 34)° and WΔϑ was 3.43±4.76 (0.00 to 21.41) mm. For group-B (Non-cyclo-adjusted) Δϑ was 14.50±12.65 (0 to 49)° and WΔϑ was 10.23±15.15 (0.00 to 80.56) mm. Group-A appeared superior to group B, in both the smaller average angular difference between attempted to achieved irregular curvature normalization and in weighted angular difference, by a statistically significant margin (Δϑ p-value =0.0058 and WΔϑ p-value =0.015). Conclusions This study suggests that employment of the novel Placido-derived topographic data of highly irregular corneas such as in keratoconus, treated with topography-guided profile with cyclorotation compensation, leads to markedly improved cornea normalization.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 10/2015; 31(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the characteristics and risk factors for occurrence of opaque bubble layer (OBL) during femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation for LASIK. Methods: One hundred ninety-eight eyes of 102 consecutive patients who underwent LASIK flap creation performed with the Alcon WaveLight FS200 laser (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort study. Preoperative manifest refraction, corneal keratometry, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, and programmed flaps parameters were collected. Digital images automatically recorded after flap creation were analyzed to measure OBL areas. Correlation tests were performed between preoperative corneal parameters and OBL areas. Results: The incidence rate of OBL was 48% (103 eyes). The mean OBL area as a percentage of the corneal flap area in the OBL group was 4.25% ± 7.16% (range: 0% to 32.9%). The central corneal thickness, corneal resistance factor, and corneal hysteresis were significantly positively correlated with the OBL area (r = 0.242, P = .001; r = 0.254, P = .028; and r = 0.351, P < .0001, respectively). Corneal hysteresis and OBL area were positively correlated, independently of the central corneal thickness and other confounder factors with standardized coefficient (r = 0.353 ± 0.227, P = .002). Conclusions: This study confirms the already known OBL risk factors with a larger cohort and suggests for the first time that an elevated corneal hysteresis is an independent predictive risk for OBL occurrence. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):608-612.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):608-12. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-06
  • Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):638-9. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150821-01
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine long-term changes in corneal transparency after riboflavin-ultraviolet A-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Methods: Charts and anterior segment data of patients after CXL for progressive keratoconus were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were examined using the Scheimpflug-based Pentacam corneal densitometry module (Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany) before CXL and at five postoperative follow-up visits: 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 36 months. Results: Forty-two eyes of 28 patients (mean age: 27.9 ± 8.6 years) were included. Total corneal light backscatter was higher 1 to 3 months after CXL than before CXL (P < .001). There were significant differences, especially in the anterior (P < .001) and central (P < .001) layer at total diameter and posterior layer (P = .014) and the three central annuli at total corneal thickness (0 to 2 mm: P < .001; 2 to 6 mm: P < .001; 6 to 10 mm: P = .002). Total corneal light backscatter at total corneal thickness and total diameter faded over time following CXL. The backscatter was significantly lower 24 to 36 months after CXL than before CXL (P < .001). Conclusions: Corneal densitometry peaks in the first months after CXL and returns to preoperative values approximately 1 year after CXL. Two years after CXL, corneal densitometry reaches values obtained for healthy, untreated corneas, thus achieving an improvement in corneal clarity over untreated keratoconic corneas. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):614-618.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):614-618. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-07
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate keratotomy (FS-AK) versus toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for correcting astigmatism in patients with cataract. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed. All patients had senile cataracts with corneal astigmatism (range: +1.00 to +3.00 diopters [D]) before cataract surgery. Twenty-five patients agreed to undergo toric IOL implantation (the toric IOL group). Twenty-three patients did not agree to undergo toric IOL implantation despite astigmatism; however, these patients were not satisfied with their remaining astigmatism following cataract surgery and requested astigmatism correction using FS-AK (the FS-AK group). Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were evaluated, and automated refraction, keratometry, and slit-lamp examinations were performed at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 5 months after surgery. Results: Refractive astigmatism decreased in both groups. The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinders were 1.71 ± 1.15 and 0.78 ± 1.06 D, respectively, in the FS-AK group (P < .001) and 1.67 ± 0.13 and 0.83 ± 0.097 D, respectively, in the toric IOL group (P < .001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups at any time during the follow-up period. Conclusions: FS-AK is a fast, customizable, adjustable, precise, and safe procedure for reducing refractive errors in patients with residual astigmatism after cataract surgery. The results of this procedure are comparable to the toric IOL. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):574-578.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):574-578. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-01
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the feasibility of performing myopic femtosecond small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with four different cap thicknesses (130, 140, 150, and 160 μm). Methods: In this retrospective, comparative, non-randomized clinical trial, a refractive lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue was cut with the VisuMax femtosecond laser system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) using different depths of the non-refractive lenticule cut. Manifest refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and Objective Scattering Index (OSI) were evaluated. Minimum follow-up time was 1 year. Results: Ninety-four eyes of 47 patients with myopia with (14 patients) and without (33 patients) astigmatism were treated. One year after the surgery, mean log-MAR UDVA, logMAR CDVA, SE, and OSI were 0.07 ± 0.12, 0.01 ± 0.37, 0.07 ± 0.57, and 0.88 ± 0.17, respectively (P < .05). There were no significant statistical differences in logMAR UDVA, logMAR CDVA, SE, or OSI (P > .05) variables when the different groups were compared for the same periods of time. Conclusions: No differences in visual acuity, refractive outcomes in optical visual quality, or complications were observed when using SMILE at four different depths. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):580-585.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):580-585. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-02
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate long-term outcomes of wavefront-guided LASIK with a new advanced aberrometer. Methods: Fifty eyes of 25 LASIK candidates with myopia and/or astigmatism underwent aberrometry (iDesign Advanced WaveScan; Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA), femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation, and excimer ablation. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalent (SEQ), and astigmatism outcomes were measured at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Results: The sphere, cylinder, and SEQ were -4.29 ± 1.94, -0.75 ± 0.76, and -4.67 ± 2.01 diopters (D), respectively, preoperatively and 0.03 ± 0.13, -0.09 ± 0.13, and -0.02 ± 0.14 D, respectively, 12 months postoperatively (P < .001). The postoperative log-MAR CDVA (-0.07 ± 0.09) and UDVA (-0.04 ± 0.09) were better than the preoperative logMAR CDVA (0.07 ± 0.10) (P < .01). Ninety-four percent achieved a 12-month logMAR UDVA of 0.0 or less (20/20 or better Snellen) and 100% achieved 0.3 or less (20/40 or better Snellen), compared to a preoperative logMAR CDVA of 0.0 or worse in 54% and 0.3 or less in 100%. Postoperative SEQ was within ±0.50 D in 98%. The regression plot for achieved (y) vs intended (x) correction at 12 months was (y = 0.98 × - 0.09, R(2) = 0.99, P < .001). No cases lost CDVA. The target and 12-month surgically induced astigmatisms (TIA and SIA) were 0.91 ± 0.75 and 0.82 ± 0.70, respectively. The regression plot between them was SIA = 0.91 × TIA - 0.01 (R(2) = 0.95, P < .001). The angle of error was -0.29° ± 12.6° and index of success was 0.13 ± 0.25. There was only a mild, nonsignificant increase of higher-order aberrations after surgery, and the postoperative wavefront was stable on follow-up. Conclusions: Wavefront-guided LASIK with iDesign aberrometry appears to be safe and effective in this long-term, consecutive case series. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):600-606.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):600-606. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-05
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) was performed to correct myopic astigmatism in a 39-year-old patient who had previously undergone deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for keratoconus, with clinically significant anisometropia and contact lens intolerance. Methods: Case report. Results: SMILE was planned in the right eye to reduce the refractive error and to allow spectacle correction. The surgical procedure was centered on the visual axis, a 5.20-mm optical zone was used, and the refractive lenticule was extracted through a 3.25-mm incision located inside the graft edge. The refractive target was achieved 1 week after surgery and remained stable until the 3-month follow-up visit, while the corrected distance visual acuity improved from 20/100 to 20/40. Complications were not observed and the graft remained clear. In vivo confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography highlighted a regular wound healing and refractive interface profile. Conclusions: This case report highlights the feasibility of using SMILE as an alternative procedure for correcting refractive errors after keratoplasty, but further prospective studies are needed to prove the long-term refractive outcomes and safety of this technique. [J Refract Surg. 2015:31(9):634-637.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):634-637. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-10
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the microstructure of the cornea after excimer and femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty (ELAK and FLAK) in eyes with Fuchs' dystrophy and keratoconus. Methods: Fifty-seven patients were divided into four groups according to corneal disease and surgical technique: Fuchs' dystrophy and ELAK (n = 9; mean age: 70.4 ± 10.6 years); Fuchs' dystrophy and FLAK (n = 13; mean age: 64.3 ± 11.2 years); keratoconus and ELAK (n = 9; mean age: 47.4 ± 13.9 years); and keratoconus and FLAK (n = 9; mean age: 43.5 ± 13.8 years). The control group comprised individuals without ocular disease (n = 17; mean age: 39.9 ± 17.3 years). In vivo investigation of the corneal graft and graft-host junction zone was performed with confocal corneal microscopy. Results: All corneal grafts were transparent and no rejection reaction could be observed during the follow-up period. Confocal microscopy revealed no difference in basal epithelial cell density compared to controls. Anterior keratocyte density was lower than in the control group (818 ± 131 cells/mm(2)) in all four treatment groups (596 ± 174, 586 ± 113, 529 ± 75, 552 ± 91 cells/mm(2)). Langerhans cells could barely be seen; there was no difference in the cutting edge configuration and wound integrity. Conclusions: In vivo confocal microscopy provided evidence that good alignment of graft-host junction could be created with both techniques. The excimer laser was not inferior to the femtosecond laser in performing corneal cuts. The low density of Langerhans cells revealed well-controlled cellular immunological response and sustained corneal integrity in both laser groups. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):620-626.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):620-626. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-08
  • Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):640. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150821-02
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare postoperative corneal nerve fiber regeneration after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK). Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent SMILE were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with SMILE in one eye (the SMILE group) and FS-LASIK in the fellow eye (the FS-LASIK group) and who had undergone a confocal microscopy study were retrospectively identified. Subbasal nerve fiber density was measured and compared between the groups preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Thirty eyes of 15 patients were included in the study. Preoperative characteristics of the eyes were similar between the groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference in subbasal nerve fiber density between the groups at 1 month (SMILE group: 1,505 ± 627 µm/mm(2) [range: 625 to 2,540 µm/mm(2)], FS-LASIK group: 1,107 ± 509 µm/mm(2) [range: 595 to 2,313 µm/mm(2)], P = .003) and 3 months (SMILE group: 1,534 ± 503 µm/mm(2) [range: 650 to 2,255 µm/mm(2)], FS-LASIK group: 1,194 ± 485 µm/mm(2) [range: 530 to 1,695 µm/mm(2)], P = .004) postoperatively. No statistically significant difference was detected at 1 week and 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Eyes treated with SMILE have a higher density of subbasal nerve fibers than eyes treated with FS-LASIK in the early postoperative period (1 week to 3 months) but the two procedures are equivalent by 6 months postoperatively. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(9):594-598.].
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; 31(9):594-598. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150820-04
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the technique of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery for management of posterior polar cataracts. The technique was performed in 25 eyes of 20 patients with posterior polar cataract and nuclear sclerosis grades II to III. A hybrid pattern of three cylinders (2, 4, and 6 mm) and three chops (6 mm in length) was used for nucleotomy. Block by block emulsification of the pre-chopped nucleus was done from the center outward, with the remaining outer rings acting as a protective cushion. Manual hydrodissection and hydrodelineation were avoided. There were no cases with posterior capsular tear in this series and the phacoemulsification procedure could be completed uneventfully with implantation of intraocular lens in the bag in all of the eyes. The postoperative uncorrected Snellen visual acuity was 20/25 or greater in all cases. The technique of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with a hybrid pattern of cylinder and chop is safe and effective in managing cases of posterior polar cataract, specifically for higher grades of nuclear sclerosis. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(X):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 09/2015; DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150824-01
  • Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 08/2015; 31(8):566. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150728-04
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate corneal power distribution using the ray tracing method (corneal power) in eyes undergoing small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery and compare the functional optical zone with two lenticular sizes. This retrospective study evaluated 128 patients who underwent SMILE for the correction of myopia and astigmatism with a lenticular diameter of 6.5 mm (the 6.5-mm group) and 6.2 mm (the 6.2-mm group). The data include refraction, correction, and corneal power obtained via a Scheimpflug camera from the pupil center to 8 mm. The surgically induced changes in corneal power (Δcorneal power) were compared to correction and Δrefraction. The functional optical zone was defined as the largest ring diameter when the difference between the ring power and the pupil center power was 1.50 diopters or less. The functional optical zone was compared between two lenticular diameter groups. Corneal power distribution was measured by the ray tracing method. In the 6.5-mm group (n = 100), Δcorneal power at 5 mm showed the smallest difference from Δrefraction and Δcorneal power at 0 mm exhibited the smallest difference from correction. In the 6.2-mm group (n = 28), Δcorneal power at 2 mm displayed the lowest dissimilarity from Δrefraction and Δcorneal power at 4 mm demonstrated the lowest dissimilarity from correction. There was no significant difference between the mean postoperative functional optical zones in either group when their spherical equivalents were matched. Total corneal refactive power can be used in the evaluation of surgically induced changes following SMILE. A lenticular diameter of 6.2 mm should be recommended for patients with high myopia because there is no functional difference in the optical zone. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(8):532-538.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 08/2015; 31(8):532-8. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150727-03
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    ABSTRACT: To present two cases of spontaneous haptic flexion and misalignment of a new single-piece microincisional aspheric intraocular lens (IOL) following uneventful microincisional phacoemulsification surgery and IOL implantation. Case reports. Both patients had decreased visual acuity and significant myopia and astigmatism in their operated eye at the postoperative first month visit. On dilated biomicroscopic examination, flexion of one haptic was observed in both cases. In one of the cases, the misaligned IOL was explanted and a different posterior chamber IOL was implanted. In the other case, the misaligned IOL was repositioned. Cataract surgeons should be aware of the risk for haptic flexion and misalignment of this new IOL, causing decreased visual acuity and significant refractive error in the early postoperative period. Satisfactory results can be achieved by either IOL exchange or repositioning the IOL. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(8):558-560.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 08/2015; 31(8):558-60. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150728-01
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the refractive outcomes and satisfaction of presbyopic hyperopes treated with central presbyopicLASIK (presbyLASIK) with induced micro-monovision. This retrospective study included 74 eyes of 37 patients treated with central presbyLASIK with micro-monovision using the Technolas 217P excimer laser (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH, Munich, Germany) between June 2011 and March 2014. Study parameters included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA), aberrometry, the central steep zone, and patient satisfaction. Median age was 54.3 ± 4 years (range: 46 to 63 years). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction was 0.00 ± 0.58 diopters (D) for dominant eyes and -0.51 ± 0.54 D for non-dominant eyes. Mean binocular UDVA was 0.01 ± 0.10 logMAR (Snellen 20/20) at 6 months and -0.01 ± 0.05 logMAR (Snellen 20/19) at 1 year postoperatively. Mean binocular UNVA was 0.18 ± 0.14 logMAR (Parinaud 2) (Jaeger 1) at 6 months and 0.18 ± 0.12 logMAR (Parinaud 2) (Jaeger 1) at 1 year postoperatively. At 6 months, 79.31% of patients achieved 20/25 and could read Parinaud 2 (Jaeger 1) binocularly. At 1 year, 84.21% of patients achieved 20/25 and could read Parinaud 2 (Jaeger 1) binocularly. The mean central steep zone was 2.35 ± 1.00 D. There were significantly more negative spherical aberration and vertical coma in the central 5 mm postoperatively (P < .05). The re-treatment rate was 6.75%. Eighty-three percent of these patients did not need any glasses for distance and near vision. This procedure may improve functional near, intermediate, and distance vision in presbyopic patients with low and moderate hyperopia. [J Refract Surg. 2015;31(8):540-546.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
    Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 08/2015; 31(8):540-6. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20150727-04