Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (J OCUL PHARMACOL TH )

Publisher: Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mary Ann Liebert


This peer-reviewed journal publishes research on all aspects of drug activity pertaining to preventing or controlling diseases of the eye. The official journal of the Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  • Impact factor
    Hide impact factor history
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics website
  • Other titles
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics (Online), Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's final version or publisher's version/PDF
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • On author's personal website, institution's intranet, or institutional repository
    • Authors may deposit in funder's designated repository after 12 months
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To present effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), resistant to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection. Methods: Files of the patients who had the diagnosis of CSC between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Eighty-five eyes of 81 patients' files have been investigated. Ten eyes of 10 patients that were resistant to IVB, with no history of photodynamic therapy, were included in to this study. Demographic details, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and central macular thickness (CMT) were studied to analyze the effectiveness of IVR. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.8 years (SD=4.7 years). The mean follow-up time after first IVR injection was 7.9 months (SD=1.5 months). The mean number of IVB and IVR injections was 2.0 (SD=0.7) and 1.3 (SD=0.4), respectively. The mean CMT before IVR injection was 392.4 μm (SD=66.3) and decreased to 194.1 μm (SD=9.3, P<0.001) at the last visit. The mean BCVA before IVR injection was 0.50logMAR (SD=0.23) and improved to 0.05logMAR (SD=0.06, P<0.001) at the last visit. In all cases after IVR injection, the subretinal fluid almost resolved completely, and leakage disappeared in fundus fluorescein angiography. Conclusion: Ranibizumab might be a promising option for the patients with CSC, resistant to bevacizumab in acute or early chronic stage.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2014; 2014.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Based on the hypothesis that oral nutraceuticals do not adequately reach all ocular tissues in the anterior segment, we evaluated the ability of a 3% concentration of the ingredients in a topical nutraceutical antioxidant formulation called Optixcare Eye Health (Optixcare EH) to ameliorate oxidative stress in rat models of age-related ocular diseases. Methods: Diabetes was induced by tail-vein injection of streptozotocin, and the development of cataracts was monitored by slit lamp. Young rats were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, and the reduction in lens glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) were measured. Oxidative stress in the neural retina was generated by exposure of dark-adapted rats to 1,000 lx of light, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Dry eye was induced in rats by twice daily (b.i.d.) subcutaneous scopolamine injections. Topical Optixcare EH was administered b.i.d. and compared in select experiments to the multifunctional antioxidant JHX-4, the topical aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) Kinostat™, oral Ocu-GLO™, and the topical ocular comfort agents Optixcare Eye Lube, Optixcare Eye Lube + Hyaluron, and Idrop Vet Plus hyaluronic acid. Results: In diabetic rats, topical ARI treatment prevented cataract formation while the nutraceuticals delayed their development with Optixcare EH>Ocu-GLO. In UV-exposed rats, the reduction of GSH and increase in 4-HNE in the lens were normalized in order JHX-4>Optixcare EH>Ocu-GLO. In the retina, oxidative stress markers were reduced better by oral JHX-4 compared with topical Optixcare EH. In the scopolamine-induced dry-eye rats, tear flow was maintained by Optixcare EH treatment, while none of the comfort agents examined altered tear flow. Conclusions: Topical administration of a 3% concentration of the ingredients in Optixcare EH reduces experimentally induced reactive oxygen species in rats exposed to several sources of ocular oxidative stress. In addition, Optixcare EH maintains tear volume in scopolamine-induced dry eye. This suggests that in the anterior segment, the ingredients in Optixcare EH may have clinical potential against ocular oxidative stress.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2014; 30(7):593-602.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract As an effective compound found mainly in the honeybee product propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been commonly utilized as a medicine and remedial agent, in a number of countries. Specifically, it might inhibit nuclear factor kappa B at micromolar concentrations and demonstrate antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiproliferative, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory features. This review article summarizes the recent progress regarding the favorable effects of CAPE on a number of eye disease models, including cataract and posterior capsule opacification, corneal diseases, retina and optic nerve-related diseases, ischemia/reperfusion injury of retina, inflammation and infection-related diseases. CAPE has been found to exhibit promising efficacy, with minimal adverse effects, in animal and cell culture studies of several eye diseases.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To examine the possible benefit of intraoperative use of mitomycin C (MMC) application in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and to assess its potential risk. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive literature search was performed according to a protocol set in advance. The participants included 811 patients of which 820 eyes were sampled for 14 RCTs. Only pertinent RCTs were identified and included in this meta-analysis. The primary efficacy measure was "patency of irrigation" at follow-up end point. The subjective outcome of "symptom relief" was also extracted as a secondary efficacy measure. For each study, relative risk was extracted. Heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses were performed. Results: RevMan version 5.0 software was used for statistical analysis. In the primary efficacy measure, the use of MMC can significantly increase the rate of "patency of irrigation" [risk ratio (RR), 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.17; P=0.0006]; the outcome of "symptom relief" was also affected by the use of MMC (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.26; P=0.003). Sensitivity analysis suggested that the result was comparatively reliable. Conclusion: Intraoperative use of MMC can bring about a positive effect to the outcomes of "patency of irrigation" and "symptom relief," which increases the success rate of DCR surgery.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2014; 30(8).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transdermal fentanyl (TDF) in the control of postoperative pain following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Methods: One hundred ninety-nine consecutive PRK cases (398 eyes) were retrospectively reviewed. For postoperative pain control, 96 patients (63 females) were treated with tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablets (2 tablets bid), 103 patients (73 females) were treated with TDF (12 μg/h). Postoperative pain intensity using the visual analog scale (VAS) during postoperative 3 days including the evening of the day of the operation and peak pain intensity, rated using the verbal descriptor scale (VDS) at postoperative 4 days, were compared between 2 groups. Overall adverse events in the 2 treatment groups were also compared. Results: The differences in mean pain intensity scores were significant between the control group and the fentanyl group (P=0.001, Repeated-measures analysis of variance). The proportion of severe pain (VAS>54 mm) was significantly lower in the fentanyl group than the control group by morning of postoperative 2 days (P<0.007). The proportion of patients who rated their peak pain intensity as "intolerable pain" was significantly higher (P=0.001) in the control group (30/96, 31.3%) than the fentanyl group (13/103, 12.6%). Total number of patients who reported adverse events was significant higher in the fentanyl group (P=0.013) than the control group. However, there were no irreversible or severe adverse events in both treatment groups and nausea was the most common (14/103, 13.6%) complaint reported in the fentanyl group. Conclusion: TDF was more effective in the control of postoperative pain after PRK than tramadol/acetaminophen and no irreversible or severe adverse effect was reported with 12 μg/h concentration. TDF could be considered as alternative regimen of analgesic method after PRK.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2014; 30(9).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To update in new biopolymers and innovations for ocular prostheses and visual implants for visual care. Methodology: The systematic review about biomaterials for ocular prostheses and visual implants was consulted on the following Journals Databases: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nature Eye, Ophthalmology, Br. J. Ophthalmology, Ophthalmic plastic in reconstructive surgery for a total review of 67 articles and 8 e-books were consulted with the following keywords: ocular prostheses and biopolymers, visual and ocular implants, artificial eye. Inclusion criteria: “ocular prostheses”, retinal prostheses systems (RPS) and “visual implants”. Search resources: MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO, Biblioteca virtual en salud (BVS). Results: The traditional concept of ocular prostheses (ocular, orbital, epithesis, maxillofacial) and visual implants (retinal, optic nerve, cortical, subretinal, epiretinal and cortical implants, artificial silicon retinas and suprachoroidal transretinal stimulation (STS)) among others are changing on now days due to the new advances in technologies and also to the developing of new biomaterials, new microelectrodes and neural devices of several types around the world. Now, real “artificial eyes” are not only the craniofacial, maxillofacial, ocular and orbital prostheses, that replaces an absent eye after an enucleation. But also, new materials such as cryolite glass, gel from cellulose produced by Zoogloea sp., glass, silicone and porous polyethylene, graphene, dental biopolymers among others are being implemented as a materials for heart, eye and other organs implants due to their characteristics to improve good biological compatibility, to be more resistant and to contribute to reduce allergies and improve durability. These implants are used for replacement of the orbital content of the anophthalmic cavities. In addition to this, the existing wearing protocols must be updated, as the three phases model of prosthetic eye wear: establishment of homeostasis deposits builds up, recovery from effects of handling the prosthesis, and the posterior homeostasis´s stabilization for mucus and deposits, must be reduced in a near future by means of surface nanofilm or the inclusion of new biopolymers for fabrication to prevent the adherences and anticipate to immune responses after the implantation of these foreign bodies.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The involvement of local and systemic oxidative stress in intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and optic nerve damage has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. In this study, we aim to evaluate the antioxidant effects of curcumin in BV-2 microglia oxidative damage and assess its neuroprotective effects in a chronic high IOP rat model. Methods: BV-2 microglia cell line was used in an in vitro study and Wistar rats were used in an in vivo study. Cultured BV-2 microglia cells were pretreated with 10, 1, or 0.1 μM curcumin for 1 h, and sustained oxidative stress was induced by subjecting BV-2 microglia to 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 h. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability. Changes of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Three episcleral veins were cauterized to induce high IOP in Wistar rats and measured by Tonopen. After 6 weeks of treatment with curcumin (10 mg/kg/day) by intragastric administration, surviving of retinal ganglion cells was quantified. Activation of caspase 3, cytochrome c, BAX, and BCL2 was quantified by Western blotting both in BV-2 microglia and in animal model. Data were analyzed with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software, and P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The in vitro study showed that when BV-2 microglia was pretreated with curcumin, the cell viability increased and the intracellular ROS and apoptosis significantly decreased. In the in vivo study, chronic mild IOP elevation was induced for 4 weeks. In the curcumin-treated group, curcumin protected rat BV-2 microglia from death significantly. In both H2O2-treated BV-2 microglia and glaucoma models, caspase 3, cytochrome c, and BAX were downregulated and BCL2 was upregulated in the curcumin-treated group. Conclusions: Curcumin affords neuroprotective effects by inhibiting oxidative damage and could be a new or adjunctive treatment for glaucoma.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2014; 30(8).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of valproic acid (VPA) on visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Thirty patients (60 eyes) with typical RP were recruited for the study. Of these, 15 patients received oral VPA (500 mg once daily) for a period of 1 year (group 1) and the remaining 15 received no treatment (group 2) and served as controls. The effect of VPA on visual function was determined in terms of visual acuity, amplitude and implicit time in multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and visual evoked response (VER) performed at presentation and at the third month, sixth month, and 1 year in both groups. Side effects of oral VPA were also monitored. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, 14 of 15 patients in group 1 had improvement in median best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from 1.8 [Range (R) 1-3] at baseline to 1.3 (R, 0.6-1.3) (P<0.001). In contrast, there was a slight decrease in median BCVA from 1.8 (0.8- 3) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) at baseline to 1.83 (P=0.3) in the control arm. There was also a statistically significant increase in improvement in amplitude and latency/implicit time in mfERG and VER in this group (P<0.001). However, no such improvement was observed in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, VPA seems to have a positive effect on the visual functions in RP patients. Long-term studies evaluating the dose modifications, genetic analysis, and change in visual fields will add to our current knowledge.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2014; 30(7):580-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo release characteristics of Tacrolimus (FK506) from an episcleral drug-delivery implant. Methods: For in vitro experiments, Tacrolimus-loaded implants (0.5 mL; at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL) were immersed in a balanced salt solution. Samples of the surrounding liquid were aspirated at different times over a 96-h period. For in vivo experiments, the experimental group received an implant loaded with Tacrolimus (0.5 mg/mL; 0.5 mL); the control group was given a subconjunctival injection of 0.5 mL Tacrolimus (0.5 mg/mL). On postoperative days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56, 3 animals were sacrificed, and their eyes were enucleated. Tacrolimus concentrations were determined by liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry. Ocular toxicity was evaluated by slit-lamp photography, fundus photography, intraocular pressure (IOP), and histology. Results: The implants released Tacrolimus in a biphasic pattern for 96 h in the in vitro study. The release kinetics were not dependent on the drug concentrations. The in vivo study showed statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment groups. Tacrolimus levels were particularly high in the conjunctiva, iris, ciliary body, cornea, sclera, choroid, and retina in the experimental group, while concentrations were low and only lasted for 1 week in the controls. Slit-lamp photography, fundus photography, IOP, and histology showed no evidence of toxic effects. Conclusions: The episcleral drug-delivery implant mechanically released Tacrolimus through the apertures of capsules and, consequently, may be a promising drug vehicle for the treatment of immune-mediated ocular disorders.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2014; 30(8).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To compare the efficacy of combined intrastromal injection and topical natamycin 5% to standard topical therapy alone in an experimental rabbit model of Fusarium keratitis. Methods: Fungal keratitis was induced in the right eyes of 12 New Zealand rabbits by stromal injection of Fusarium solani spore suspension into the cornea. Four days after inoculation, animals were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups (n=6 in each group). The study group received intrastromal injections of natamycin 5% on treatment day 1 and 4, combined with topical natamycin 5% eye drops given hourly between 8:00 and 20:00 for the first 2 days, followed by 4 times daily on days 3-11. The control group received only topical natamycin 5% at identical intervals. Eyes were examined clinically on days 1, 4, 7, and 11 for status of corneal healing, corneal vascularization, and hypopyon. Animals were sacrificed on day 11, and corneas were subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in terms of conjunctival hyperemia, size and density of corneal infiltrate, corneal edema, and total clinical score. In the study group, there was a significant improvement in the height of hypopyon in the anterior chamber, while there was also an increased amount of vascularization. Conclusions: This study showed that intrastromal injection of natamycin 5% combined with topical treatment has little beneficial effect over topical therapy in a Fusarium keratitis rabbit model. The addition of intrastromal injection should be reserved to the most severe or recalcitrant cases.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2014; 30(7).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To compare the toxicity effect of polyquaternium (PQ) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preservation of travoprost on the ocular surface. Methods: This prospective study included 44 eyes of 44 patients with newly diagnosed glaucoma. Twenty-two patients used PQ-preserved travoprost (PQ group) and 22 patients used BAK-preserved travoprost (BAK group). To investigate the effect on the ocular surface, conjunctival impression cytology (IC) was performed at baseline and the 1- and 6-month follow-up visits. Additionally, the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, and tear break-up time (TBUT) measurement were administered at baseline, and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up visits. Results: While both groups showed statistically significant IC grade increases at 1 and 6 months when compared with baseline measurements, IC grades were significantly higher for patients using PQ-preserved travoprost compared with patients using BAK-preserved travoprost. The Schirmer I test and TBUT scores were not statistically significant between group 1 and BAK group at baseline and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month visits (P>0.05). OSDI scores did not statistically differ at baseline and the 1-month measurements between the 2 groups (P>0.05), but the 3- and 6-month OSDI scores were significantly higher for BAK group (P=0.001). Differences in OSDI and Schirmer I test scores were statistically significant at 1, 3, and 6 months in both groups as compared with baseline values (P<0.05). Statistically significant differences in the TBUT scores were seen for both groups at 3 and 6 months, while BAK group, but not PQ group, had insignificant score differences at 1 month as compared with baseline values of PQ group (P=0.083). Conclusion: PQ-preserved travoprost was found to be safer and better-tolerated than BAK-preserved travoprost. PQ-preserved travoprost provided better ocular surface comfort, and therefore a better patient experience, which would likely result in higher treatment compliance.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2014; 30(7).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, actin geodesic arrangements were measured and then subjected to computational modeling to appreciate the response of different dome shapes to mechanical force. Methods: Polygonal actin arrangements (PAAs) and cross-linked actin networks (CLANs) were induced and imaged by Alexa Flour® 488 Phalloidin in bovine TM and human TM cells. Masked images were examined for size, circularity, and spoke and hub dimensions using ImageJ. Finite element modeling was used to create idealized dome structures and "realistic" PAA and CLAN models. The models were subjected to different loads simulating concentrated force and distortion measured. Results: We provide evidence that PAAs and CLANs are not identical. Both structures formed flattened domes but PAAs were 6 times larger than CLANs, significantly more circular and had greater height. The dimensions of the triangulations of hubs and spokes were, however, remarkably similar. Hubs were around 2 μm2 in area, whereas spokes were about 5 μm in length. Our modeling showed that temporary arrangements of polygonal actin structures (TAPAS) were because of their flattened shape, more resistant to shearing than compression when compared with idealized domes. CLANs were marginally more resistant to shearing than PAAs but because of size much more resistant to compression. Conclusions: Evidence is provided that there are 2 types of actin icosahedrons in cultured TM cells we collectively call TAPAS. Modeling suggests that TAPAS have rigidity and are better at dealing with shearing than compression forces. The 2 types of TAPAS, PAAs, and CLANs, have much in common but there are size and mechanical response differences that need to be taken into account in future experimentation.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the 2-year outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with or without intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Methods: Medical charts from 58 patients with PCV, who had been followed up for more than 2 years after initial treatment, were reviewed retrospectively. Visual outcomes were compared between 2 groups, consisting of 34 patients treated with PDT monotherapy without IVR and 24 with the combination of PDT and IVR, and the factors associated with the 2-year visual outcomes were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results: In the PDT monotherapy group, the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) of the bestcorrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly at 12 months (P = 0.026), but was not significantly different from the initial logMAR BCVA at 24 months (P = 0.21). By contrast, the logMAR BCVA improved significantly at 12 months and was maintained throughout the second 12-month period (P < 0.001 at all time points) in the combined PDT group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the initial BCVA (P < 0.001), the greatest linear dimension of the initial PDT (P = 0.006), and the combined PDT (P = 0.039) were predictors of visual outcomes at 24 months. Conclusions: Combined PDT with IVR is a better treatment modality compared with PDT monotherapy, and results in improvement of visual outcomes at 24 months after the initial treatment.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 11/2013; 29(9):832-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To review the existing evidence that supports the subconjunctival use of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in the treatment of various ophthalmic diseases. Methods: A literature search was performed for published articles about the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic characteristics of triamcinolone, as well as its potential ophthalmic use, focused mainly in the subconjunctival mode of delivery. Search terms included corticosteroids, triamcinolone, ocular, subconjunctival, and ophthalmic. Results: Corticosteroids represent the mainstay of treatment of ocular inflammation, exerting their action by affecting multiple pathways of the inflammatory response, making them particularly effective in the majority of cases. However, due to the number and severity of the side effects associated with their use, they have to be given with caution. Corticosteroids can be given topically, subconjunctivally, intraocularly, and systemically to treat a variety of ocular diseases with specific pharmacological and PK characteristics. Triamcinolone is one of the most widely used corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular inflammation. This glucocorticoid used subconjunctivally was proven to be particularly safe and effective in some common and important inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as anterior scleritis, uveitis, and corneal graft rejection. Further, there are other indications for its successful use where data exist, but somehow less abundant. Conclusions: This article highlights the potential of TA to complement the treatment armamentarium of anterior segment inflammation.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2013;
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2012;
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2012;
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2012;
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2011;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution in preventing bacterial endophthalmitis in rabbits. Eighty-four (84) albino phakic rabbits were injected unilaterally with 2 x 10(4) colony forming units of Enterococcus faecalis into the anterior chamber. The eyes received 0.3% ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment or 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution with different regimens in three separate experiments: (1) 1 or 3 drops of gatifloxacin every 2 h or a single application of ofloxacin for 1 day; (2) 3 drops/day of gatifloxacin application started at 0, 6, and 24 h postinoculation, or 1 drop at 0 h, and 3 times daily gatifloxacin for the following 3 days; and (3) 1 or 3 drops of gatifloxacin application started at 0 h and no further application for the following 3 days. The control eyes received no treatment in the three experiments. The effectiveness of these different regimens was assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and bacterial colony counts. The ocular penetration of the drugs was determined in a separate experiment, using 36 normal albino rabbits. The concentration-time curves for gatifloxacin and ofloxacin appeared parallel, with mean peak concentrations of 1161 and 219 ng/mL, respectively, at 1 h postinstillation. In Experiment 1, gatifloxacin significantly reduced the inflammation and the number of living bacteria in the aqueous humor, compared with controls, whereas ofloxacin ointment did not. A single application of ofloxacin ointment was not better than 1 drop of gatifloxacin. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effectiveness of gatifloxacin decreased as the interval between the inoculation and the onset of treatment increased. In Experiment 3, only 3 drops of gatifloxacin on day 1 kept the inflammation significantly lower than that in the control for 4 days. Immediate postoperative prophylaxis would likely be effective in reducing the risk of enterococcal endophthalmitis by topical gatifloxacin.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2008; 24(3):278-89.