Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (J OCUL PHARMACOL TH)

Publisher: Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mary Ann Liebert

Journal description

This peer-reviewed journal publishes research on all aspects of drug activity pertaining to preventing or controlling diseases of the eye. The official journal of the Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Current impact factor: 1.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.47
2013 Impact Factor 1.42
2012 Impact Factor 1.293
2011 Impact Factor 1.509
2010 Impact Factor 1.609
2009 Impact Factor 1.457
2008 Impact Factor 1.37
2007 Impact Factor 1.034
2006 Impact Factor 1.035
2005 Impact Factor 0.897
2004 Impact Factor 1.228
2003 Impact Factor 1.383
2002 Impact Factor 1.051
2001 Impact Factor 1.085
2000 Impact Factor 0.757
1999 Impact Factor 0.763
1998 Impact Factor 0.841
1997 Impact Factor 0.763
1996 Impact Factor 0.937
1995 Impact Factor 0.514

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.56
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.34
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.43
Website Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics website
Other titles Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics (Online), Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics
ISSN 1080-7683
OCLC 47295624
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website
    • On institutional repository, pre-print server or research network after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1089/jop.2015.0024
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2015; 31(7):413-418. DOI:10.1089/jop.2015.0017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to compare uptake and distribution of the commercially available formulation of 0.2% olopatadine and the newly developed 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution formulation with improved solubility following a single (30 μL), bilateral topical ocular dose in male New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal received a single 30-μL topical ocular dose (0.2% olopatadine or 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) to the right (OD) eye followed by the left (OS) eye for a total dose of 60 μL. Olopatadine concentrations were measured in ocular tissues (cornea, bulbar, conjunctiva, choroid, iris-ciliary body, whole lens, retina), aqueous humor, and plasma at prespecified time points over 24 h using a qualified liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method. Olopatadine was absorbed into the eye and reached maximal levels (Cmax) within 30 min (0.5 h) to 2 h (Tmax) in ocular tissues and plasma for both treatment groups, except for the lens in which the Tmax was 4 h in the 0.2% olopatadine group and 8 h in the 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride group, respectively. Tissues associated with the site of dosing, that is, the conjunctiva and cornea, had the highest concentrations of olopatadine in both the 0.2% olopatadine (609 and 720 ng/g) and 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride (3,000 and 2,230 ng/g) dose groups. The greatest differences between 0.2% olopatadine and 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride were associated with the overall duration and level of ocular exposures. The newly developed 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution formulation resulted in a higher and more prolonged olopatadine concentration in the target tissue, that is, conjunctiva compared to the commercial formulation of 0.2% olopatadine ophthalmic solution.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2015; 31(4). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0140
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the efficacy of combined intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and macular grid and scatter laser photocoagulation in the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) over a 12-month period. Methods: A prospective, interventional case series study was conducted in 20 patients. Patients were treated with 3 monthly IVB injections, followed by macular grid laser and scatter laser photocoagulation to nonperfused ischemic retina. Repeated IVB injections were performed on an as-needed basis when patients had recurrent macular edema. Results: The best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better was achieved in 17 eyes (85%) and a vision gain of 3 lines or more was noted in 12/20 eyes (60%). Mean visual acuity improved from 0.68 logMAR at baseline to 0.28 logMAR at 3 months, 0.26 logMAR at 6 months, and 0.26 logMAR at 12 months (P<0.01). The mean central macular thickness (CMT) was 442 μm at baseline and decreased to 266, 264, 300, and 294 μm at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months' follow-up, respectively (P<0.01). A mild rebound CMT increase was noted at 6 months, which was reduced after bevacizumab reinjection. Ten patients (50%) required repeated IVB injections. Fifteen eyes (75%) have complete edema resolution on optical coherence tomography scan at the 12-month return visit. Overall, patients received an average of 4 injections during the 12-month period. No adverse ocular or systemic events were observed following injections. Conclusions: Early IVB injections in combination with subsequent macular grid and scatter laser photocoagulation treatment significantly improved vision and reduced macular edema secondary to BRVO. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term outcomes and safety.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0069
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To characterize dose and response for intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and incidence of hyperemia using a model-based meta-analysis of IOP-lowering monotherapy studies to evaluate new ocular antihypertensive therapies for glaucoma. Methods: Published randomized controlled trials, regulatory documents, and sponsor reports of IOP-lowering monotherapies were used to develop dose-response models to characterize efficacy (IOP change from baseline) and safety (incidence of hyperemia) profiles. Results: The meta-analysis for efficacy included 31 trials with 6,516 patients receiving bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, timolol, or placebo. Estimated IOP reduction with placebo was -2.01 mmHg. Maximal IOP reduction was similar among the prostaglandin analogs (estimate, -6.27 mmHg; baseline, 25 mmHg). Estimated median effective IOP-lowering dose (ED50) was 0.002%, 0.00098%, and 0.00063% daily with bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost, respectively. The hyperemia (safety) analysis included 25 trials with 6,244 patients. Typical maximal estimated difference between drug and placebo was 43%, and estimated ED50 of 0.011%, 0.014%, and 0.0015% daily for bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost, respectively. Latanoprost treatment was predicted to incur the lowest rate of hyperemia of the prostaglandins, for equivalent IOP reduction. Conclusions: Model-based meta-analyses for IOP reduction and incidence of hyperemia among prostaglandin analogs are well described by maximal efficacy models and can provide a useful methodology for evaluating glaucoma therapies.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2015; 31(4). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0106
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We evaluated the effects of adjuvant intravitreal bevacizumab injection on the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) through a systematic literature review. Methods: An extensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was performed in November 2014 for selection of relevant studies. The weighted mean difference of the percentage of intraocular pressure reduction (IOPR%) from baseline to endpoint was used as the primary efficacy estimate, and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the success rate were used as the secondary efficacy estimates. The incidence of adverse events was also documented through a review of the studies. Results: Six studies involving 252 patients (256 eyes) were included in this systematic review. The differences in the means and 95% CIs of the IOPR% of 6 studies showed that adjuvant bevacizumab treatment tended to be more effective than AGV implantation alone. Comparison of the outcomes of AGV implantation only with those of AGV implantation+adjuvant bevacizumab showed a success rate in favor of AGV implantation+adjuvant bevacizumab. The incidence of bleeding-associated complications such as hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, and suprachoroidal hemorrhage was lower in association with combination treatment than with AGV implantation only. Combination treatment seemed to be associated with a lower incidence of other adverse effects such as hypotony, flat chamber, choroidal detachment/effusion, tube-associated complications, and corneal decompensation. Conclusion: AGV implantation with adjuvant bevacizumab was more effective and had a higher success rate than surgery alone for lowering IOP in patients with NVG. The combined procedure tended to show a lower incidence of bleeding-associated complications, such as hyphema.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2015; 31(4). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0108
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate some clinically important features of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) toxicity by comparing tafluprost with 0.001% BAK and travoprost preserved with SofZia applied to the ocular surface of the eyes with glaucoma. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, observer unmasked, multicenter crossover trial. A total of 195 patients were randomized and 174 patients completed the study at 19 clinics between November 2011 and August 2012. Topical BAK-preserved tafluprost or SofZia-preserved travoprost was newly administered or continued. Superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK), tear break-up time (BUT), the conjunctival hyperemia score, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared at the baseline visit, 4, and 12 weeks after the start of therapy. The eye drops were switched to another eye drop after 12 weeks of observation. Results: The total SPK and conjunctival hyperemia scores were significantly lower in the tafluprost compared with those in the travoprost phase (both P=0.038). There were no significant differences in the SPK scores of the superior area (P=0.679), central area (P=0.089), inferior area (P=0.090), and tear BUT (P=0.271). The IOP-lowering effects were similar (P=0.155). Conclusions: SPK, hyperemia score, and tear BUT while using tafluprost with 0.001% BAK were not inferior compared with those caused by travoprost with SofZia.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0104
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine if a pharmacological test could be developed to determine iris dilator dysfunction in patients taking tamsulosin. Methods: Patients taking tamsulosin and controls were recruited from the Urology and Ophthalmology clinics at the Montefiore Medical Center. The patient's right eye (OD) was dilated with phenylephrine hydrochloride 2.5% and tropicamide 1%. The patient's left eye (OS) was dilated with tropicamide 1% alone. Forty minutes after dilation, pupillary diameter was measured in both eyes. Results: Thirty-eight tamsulosin subjects and 43 controls met the inclusion criteria for the study. The tamsulosin-treated patients dilated less with phenylephrine than controls (0.61±0.4 vs. 1.10±0.45 mm, respectively P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves comparing maximal pupillary dilation versus differential pupillary dilation in tamsulosin patients relative to controls shows a greater area under the curve for differential dilation (0.8 vs. 0.6, respectively). A correlation between smooth muscle dysfunction and length of time on tamsulosin was observed. Patients using tamsulosin for <1 month had an average OD-OS difference of 0.85±0.5 mm. Patients who were on tamsulosin for >1 month had an average OD-OS difference of 0.52±0.32 mm (P<0.01, Mann-Whitney). Conclusion: Patients treated with tamsulosin demonstrated a significantly decreased iris dilatory response to the selective adrenergic effects of phenylephrine compared to controls. Additionally, it appears that longer duration of exposure to tamsulosin increases the likelihood of dilator dysfunction.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0058
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics (PK) of fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) following administration of Iluvien(®) intravitreal implants. The FAc intravitreal implant was administered to rabbits in 3 doses (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/day). The concentration of FAc was measured by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in plasma and ocular tissues at various time points through month 24. Following administration of the 0.2 μg/day implant, FAc levels peaked in most tissues at day 2 or 8, reached approximate steady state levels by month 3 and very gradually decreased over the duration of the study. The FAc level in the aqueous humor was not measurable at most time points in the rabbit. FAc was still present in most ocular tissues at 2 years. The 0.5 and 1.0 μg/day dose groups followed the same pattern through month 9. The elimination half lives in the tissues for which it was measurable were greater than 83 days. Exposure to FAc was highest in the choroid/retinal pigment epithelium for all doses, followed by lens and retina. The results of this study demonstrate sustained delivery of FAc from the Iluvien intravitreal implant in the ocular tissue of rabbits. Retina and lens FAc levels with the Iluvien implant were approximately 1/10 those reported with the Retisert(®) implant. FAc levels in the aqueous were not measureable with Iluvien where they were measured for 12 months with Retisert.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 02/2015; 31(1):11-6. DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0100
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effect of latanoprost on central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods: This retrospective study included 41 eyes of 41 NTG patients and 40 eyes of 40 individuals with glaucoma suspect (controls). Newly diagnosed NTG patients with no previous glaucoma treatment were administered latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy once a day. CCTs were measured by ultrasound pachymetry before treatment and followed up annually for 5 years. Results: A significant reduction in mean CCT was observed in the NTG group [542.3±36.2 μm vs. 533.7±32.9 μm (n=41), P<0.001], but not in the control group [547.4±24.7 μm vs. 546.8±25.0 μm (n=40), P=0.59] at 5-year follow-up. In the NTG group, the CCT reduction mainly occurred during the first year of treatment (542.3±36.2 μm vs. 536.9±32.8 μm, P=0.001), and no significant correlation was found between CCT and intraocular pressure reductions (r=0.16, P=0.32). Conclusions: Latanoprost significantly reduced CCT in NTG patients after 5 years of treatment. Serial observations of CCT might be helpful for the proper interpretation of glaucoma status in NTG patients.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0109
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of modern surgical procedures, new drug delivery techniques, health authority-approved single topical ocular drugs, and combination products thereof, there continues to be an unmet medical need for novel treatment modalities for preserving vision. This is especially true for the treatment of glaucoma and the high risk factor often associated with this ocular disease, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Undesirable local or systemic side effects, frequency of dosing, lack of sustained IOP lowering, and lack of prevention of diurnal IOP spikes are among the greatest challenges. The very recent discovery, characterization, and publication of 2 novel IOP-lowering agents that pertain to the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin axes potentially offer novel means to treat and control ocular hypertension (OHT). Here, some contextual introductory information is provided first, followed by more detailed discussion of the properties and actions of diminazene aceturate (DIZE; a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 activator) and FR-190997 (a nonpeptide bradykinin receptor-2 agonist) in relation to their anti-OHT activities in rodent and cynomolgus monkey eyes, respectively. It is anticipated that these compounds will pave the way for future discovery, development, and marketing of novel drugs to treat glaucoma and thus help save sight for millions of people afflicted with this slow progressive optic neuropathy.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0114
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is a group of diseases involving the optic nerve and associated structures, which is characterized by progressive visual field loss and typical changes of the optic nerve head (ONH). The only known treatment of the disease is reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), which has been shown to reduce glaucoma progression in a variety of large-scale clinical trials. Nowadays, a relatively wide array of topical antiglaucoma drugs is available, including prostaglandin analogues, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, beta-receptor antagonists, adrenergic agonists, and parasympathomimetics. In clinical routine, this allows for individualized treatment taking risk factors, efficacy, and safety into account. A major challenge is related to adherence to therapy. Sustained release devices may help minimize this problem but are not yet available for clinical routine use. Another hope arises from non-IOP-related treatment concepts. In recent years, much knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the disease process in glaucoma. This also strengthens the hope that glaucoma therapy beyond IOP lowering will become available. Implementing this concept with clinical trials remains, however, a challenge.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0067
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of intracameral injection of ranibizumab and bevacizumab on the corneal endothelium by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Twenty-eight female rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups. Rabbits in groups 1 and 2 underwent intracameral injection of 1 mg/0.1 mL and 0.5 mg/0.05 mL ranibizumab, respectively; group 3 was injected with 1.25 mg/0.05 mL bevacizumab. All three groups were injected with a balanced salt solution (BSS) into the anterior chamber of the left (fellow) eye. None of the rabbits in group 4 underwent an injection. Corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were measured before the injections, on the first day, and in the first month after injection. The rabbits were sacrificed and corneal tissues were excised in the first month after injection. Specular microscopy was used for the corneal endothelial cell count. Endothelial cell density was assessed and comparisons drawn between the groups and the control. Micrographs were recorded for SEM examination. The structure of the corneal endothelial cells, the junctional area of the cell membrane, the distribution of microvillus, and the cell morphology of the eyes that underwent intracameral injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), BSS, and the control group were compared. Results: Corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were not significantly different between the groups that underwent anti-VEGF or BSS injection and the control group on the first day and in the first month of injection. The corneal endothelial cell count was significantly diminished in all three groups; predominantly in group 1 and 2 (P<0.05). The SEM examination revealed normal corneal endothelial histology in group 3 and the control group. Eyes in group 1 exhibited indistinctness of corneal endothelial cell borders, microvillus loss in the luminal surface, excessive blebbing, and disintegration of intercellular junctions. In group 2, the cell structure of the corneal endothelium and intercellular junctions were normal. However, a relative reduction was observed in the microvillus density of endothelial cells. Although eyes in group 3 were morphologically similar to fellow eyes and the control group, disarrangement in endothelial cell borders was evident. Conclusion: The SEM examination pointed out deterioration in endothelial cell morphology after intracameral injection of 1 and 0.5 mg ranizumab. However, the effects of intracameral bevacizumab injection on corneal endothelial cells were similar to those found in fellow eyes and the control group. Further large-scale studies that examine the cellular changes by transmission electron microscopy are required to support the results of the present study that evaluates the structural changes in endothelial cells by SEM.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To analyze the kinematics of a dexamethasone intravitreal implant, Ozurdex, after its injection in a balanced salt solution (BSS) at different release angles to simulate its movement in BSS/aqueous-filled eyes. Methods: Eighteen Ozurdex implants were injected into a BSS-filled box at different release angles (15°, 30°, 45°), using 6 implants/group. The movement of injected implants was recorded by a high-speed video camera. Each implant's trajectory was graphically demonstrated by plotting over time. By using a distance-time function graph, the implant's velocity and normalized energy were calculated. Results: The high-speed video revealed that implants injected at 15° followed a more horizontal trajectory compared to those injected from 30° and 45°, respectively. The implant injected at 15° also achieved the highest mean initial velocity and mean initial normalized energy. The implant velocity from each injection angle decreased exponentially over time and reached nearly zero at 0.1 s. An injection of the implant at a flatter angle was also associated with higher mean retinal impact normalized energy. Conclusions: An implant injected at a flatter angle tends to travel farther in the horizontal plane and has more initial velocity, which theoretically generates higher initial normalized energy and retinal impact normalized energy. The accidental injection at a flatter angle, which results in shortening of the effective travel distance, may carry the potential risk of direct retinal injury from the injected implant. The amount of energy necessary to cause direct retinal injury, and whether this would be clinically significant, requires further study.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0134
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To compare loteprednol etabonate 0.5%/tobramycin 0.3% (Zylet(®)) with dexamethasone 0.1%/tobramycin 0.3% (Tobradex(®)) in terms of the epithelial healing time, postoperative visual acuity, corneal haziness score, and intraocular pressure (IOP) in postoperative treatment after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-masked (participants and assessors blinded) controlled study included 32 patients who underwent PRK. The patients were allocated equally into 2 groups by block randomization to receive either loteprednol etabonate (Lot) or dexamethasone (Dex) for 1 month after the surgery. The epithelial healing time, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), corneal haziness score, and IOP were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Results: The corneal epithelium was healed within 3 days in both groups; however, the epithelium was closed on the second day in 3 cases in the Lot group compared with 1 case in the Dex group. No significant differences were found for UCVA at 1 and 3 months (Fisher exact test, P>0.01). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference in corneal haziness scores between the 2 groups at 1 and 3 months (Mann-Whitney U test, P>0.05). The number of patients experiencing significantly increased IOP (≥5 mmHg) from baseline at any visit for the Lot group (1/16 patients) was fewer than for the Dex group (3/16 patients). Conclusions: Loteprednol etabonate was effective in postoperative PRK management and was significantly less likely to produce elevations in IOP than was dexamethasone.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0107
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Senescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer has been implicated in the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The present study examines whether the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to decrease the barrier function of RPE cells is enhanced in senescent RPE cells, which could contribute to the pathology of "wet" AMD. Methods: Low or high population doubling level (PDL) range ARPE-19 human RPE cells were cultured in 6-well plates on membrane-containing inserts. After 2 weeks, the cells were treated with either VEGF or its vehicle and their transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured. One week later, the cells were stained for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SABG) activity. Results: VEGF was significantly more effective in reducing the TEER of the high PDL ARPE-19 cell layers than the low PDL layers (25% decrease vs. 6% decrease; t-test, P=0.0013). The low PDL cell layers had a modest uniform level of SABG staining. In contrast, the high PDL layers displayed darker and more mottled SABG staining indicative of the presence of senescent cells. Conclusions: The present results show that the ability of VEGF to reduce the barrier function of RPE cell layers is greater in high PDL layers, which display signs of senescence, than in low PDL layers. Senescence-induced changes in the responsiveness of RPE cell layers to VEGF could contribute to the pathology of AMD. Agents that strengthen the barrier properties of RPE cells or reduce their responsiveness to VEGF could be effective in treating "wet" AMD.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 12/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0071
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant, Ozurdex(®); Allergan, Inc.) is used to treat noninfectious posterior uveitis and macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion and diabetic retinopathy. Two recently published reports of DEX implant fragmentation shortly after injection have raised concerns about the potential for faster implant dissolution and elevated ocular dexamethasone concentrations. This study compared the in vivo release profile and pharmacokinetic behavior of intact and fragmented DEX implants. Methods: DEX implant was surgically implanted as a single unit or fragmented into 3 pieces in the posterior segment of opposing eyes of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The release of dexamethasone over time from 1-piece and 3-piece fragmented implants dissolved in solution in vitro was compared with that from the 1-piece and 3-piece fragmented implants placed in the rabbit eyes. In addition, dexamethasone concentrations in the vitreous and aqueous humors of each eye were measured at 3 h and days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for assays. Results: Dexamethasone release from the 1-piece and 3-piece DEX implants in vivo was not different and was consistent with the in vitro release pattern. Moreover, the concentration profile of dexamethasone in the vitreous and aqueous humors was similar for the 1-piece and 3-piece DEX implants at each time point measured. Conclusions: DEX implant fragmentation neither accelerated its dissolution nor increased the dexamethasone concentration delivered at a given time. Accordingly, DEX implant fragmentation is unlikely to have clinically significant effects in patients.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 11/2014; 30(10). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0082