Physical Review Letters (Phys Rev Lett )

Publisher: American Physical Society, American Physical Society


Physical Review Letters is charged with providing rapid publication of short reports of important fundamental research in all fields of physics.

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    Physical Review Letters website
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    Physical review letters online, PRL online
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American Physical Society

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Publications in this journal

  • Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:186803.
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    ABSTRACT: Using a combination of the Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations on dense hydrogen-deuterium mixtures of various concentrations, we demonstrate that, at 300 K and above 200 GPa, they transform into phase IV, forming a disordered binary alloy with six highly localized intramolecular vibrational (vibrons) and four delocalized low-frequency (<1200 cm−1) modes. Hydrogen-deuterium mixtures are unique in showing a purely mass-induced localization effect in the quantum solid: chemical bonding is isotope-independent while the mass varies by a factor of 2.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:175501.
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the magnetic properties of individual Co atoms adsorbed on graphene (G) with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism. The magnetic ground state of Co adatoms strongly depends on the choice of the metal substrate on which graphene is grown. Cobalt atoms on G/Ru(0001) feature exceptionally large orbital and spin moments, as well as an out-of-plane easy axis with large magnetic anisotropy. Conversely, the magnetic moments are strongly reduced for Co/G/Ir(111), and the magnetization is of the easy-plane type. We demonstrate how the Co magnetic properties, which ultimately depend on the degree of hybridization between the Co 3d orbitals and graphene π bands, can be tailored through the strength of the graphene-substrate coupling.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:177201.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum Hall edge channels at integer filling factor provide a unique test-bench to understand decoherence and relaxation of single electronic excitations in a ballistic quantum conductor. In this Letter, we obtain a full visualization of the decoherence scenario of energy (Landau) and time (Levitov) resolved single electron excitations at filling factor $\nu=2$. We show that the Landau excitation exhibits a fast relaxation followed by spin-charge separation whereas the Levitov excitation only experiences spin-charge separation. We finally suggest to use Hong-Ou-Mandel type experiments to probe specific signatures of these different scenarios.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:166403.
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    ABSTRACT: Spatially entangled twin photons provide both promising resources for modern quantum information protocols, because of the high dimensionality of transverse entanglement, and a test of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in its original form of position versus impulsion. Usually, photons in temporal coincidence are selected and their positions recorded, resulting in a priori assumptions on their spatiotemporal behavior. In this Letter, we record, on two separate electron-multiplying charge coupled devices cameras, twin images of the entire flux of spontaneous down-conversion. This ensures a strict equivalence between the subsystems corresponding to the detection of either position (image or near-field plane) or momentum (Fourier or far-field plane). We report the highest degree of paradox ever reported and show that this degree corresponds to the number of independent degrees of freedom, or resolution cells, of the images.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:160401.
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental method for the verification of the individually different energy dependencies of L1−, L2−, and L3− subshell photoionization cross sections is described. The results obtained for Pd and Mo are well in line with theory regarding both energy dependency and absolute values, and confirm the theoretically calculated cross sections by Scofield from the early 1970 s and, partially, more recent data by Trzhaskovskaya, Nefedov, and Yarzhemsky. The data also demonstrate the questionability of quantitative x-ray spectroscopical results based on the widely used fixed jump ratio approximated cross sections with energy independent ratios. The experiments are carried out by employing the radiometrically calibrated instrumentation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin; the obtained fluorescent intensities are thereby calibrated at an absolute level in reference to the International System of Units. Experimentally determined fixed fluorescence line ratios for each subshell are used for a reliable deconvolution of overlapping fluorescence lines. The relevant fundamental parameters of Mo and Pd are also determined experimentally in order to calculate the subshell photoionization cross sections independently of any database.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(16):163001.
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the coherence properties of the nuclear spin states of rare-earth ions in solids can be manipulated by small applied electric fields. This was done by measuring the Stark effect on the nuclear quadrupole transitions of Eu151 in Y2SiO5 (YSO) using a combination of Raman heterodyne optical detection and Stark modulated quadrupole echoes to achieve high sensitivity. The measured Stark coefficients were 0.42 and 1.0 Hz cm/V for the two quadrupole transitions at 34.54 and 46.20 MHz, respectively. The long decoherence time of the nuclear spin states (25 ms) allowed us to make the measurements in very low electric fields of ∼10 V/cm, which produced 100% modulation of the nuclear spin echo, and to measure Stark shifts of ∼1 Hz or 20 ppm of the inhomogeneous linewidth.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:157603.
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    ABSTRACT: The interface between a doped semiconductor material and electrolyte solution is of considerable fundamental interest, and is relevant to systems of practical importance. Both adjacent domains contain mobile charges, which respond to potential variations. This is exploited to design electronic and optoelectronic sensors, and other enabling semiconductor colloidal materials. We show that the charge mobility in both phases leads to a new type of interaction between semiconductor colloids suspended in aqueous electrolyte solutions. This interaction is due to the electrostatic response of the semiconductor interior to disturbances in the external field upon the approach of two particles. The electrostatic repulsion between two charged colloids is reduced from the one governed by the charged groups present at the particles surfaces. This type of interaction is unique to semiconductor particles and may have a substantial effect on the suspension dynamics and stability.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(15):158302.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the RbSr molecule. The experimental approach is based on the formation of RbSr molecules on helium nanodroplets. Utilizing two-photon ionization spectroscopy, an excitation spectrum ranging from 11 600 up to 23 000 cm−1 was recorded. High level ab initio calculations of potential energy curves and transition dipole moments accompany the experiment and facilitate an assignment of transitions. We show that RbSr molecules desorb from the helium droplets upon excitation, which enables dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of free RbSr. These spectra elucidate XΣ+2 ground and excited state properties. Emission spectra originating from states corresponding to the Rb(5s S2)+Sr(5s5p P3) asymptote were recorded; spin-orbit coupling was included for the simulation. The results should provide a good basis for achieving the formation of this molecule in cold collisions, thus offering intriguing prospects for ultracold molecular physics.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(15):153001.
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of the conversion of intense continuous microwave radiation into a periodic train of short pulses by means of resonant interaction with a beam of unexcited cyclotron electron oscillators moving backward is shown. In such a system there is a certain range of parameters where the incident stationary signal splits into a train of short pulses and each of them can be interpreted as a soliton. It is proposed to use this effect for amplitude modulation of radiation of short wavelength gyrotrons.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(14):143901.
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    ABSTRACT: We consider ultracold bosonic atoms in a single trap in the Thomas-Fermi regime, forming many-body states corresponding to stable macroscopically fragmented two-mode condensates. It is demonstrated that upon free expansion of the gas, the spatial dependence of the density-density correlations at late times provides a unique signature of fragmentation. This hallmark of fragmented condensate many-body states in a single trap is due to the fact that the time of flight modifies the correlation signal such that two opposite points in the expanding cloud become uncorrelated, in distinction to a nonfragmented Bose-Einstein condensate, where they remain correlated.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(14):140404.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first ab initio construction of valence-space Hamiltonians for medium-mass nuclei based on chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions using the in-medium similarity renormalization group. When applied to the oxygen isotopes, we find good agreement with experimental ground state energies, including the flat trend beyond the drip line at 24O. Similarly, even-parity spectra in 21,22,23,24O are in excellent agreement with experiment, and we present predictions for excited states in 25,26O. The results exhibit a weak dependence on the harmonic-oscillator basis parameter and give a good description of spectroscopy within the standard sd valence space.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113:142501.
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    ABSTRACT: In this Letter we exploit the recently solved conjecture on the bosonic minimum output entropy to show the optimality of Gaussian discord, so that the computation of quantum discord for bipartite Gaussian states can be restricted to local Gaussian measurements. We prove such optimality for a large family of Gaussian states, including all two-mode squeezed thermal states, which are the most typical Gaussian states realized in experiments. Our family also includes other types of Gaussian states and spans their entire set in a suitable limit where they become Choi matrices of Gaussian channels. As a result, we completely characterize the quantum correlations possessed by some of the most important bosonic states in quantum optics and quantum information.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(14):140405.
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    ABSTRACT: Fe/NiO/Fe/CoO/Ag(001) single crystalline films were grown epitaxially and investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism. The bottom Fe layer magnetization is pinned through exchange coupling to the CoO layer and the top Fe layer magnetization can be rotated by an in-plane external magnetic field. We find that the NiO spins wind up to form a domain wall due to the perpendicular NiO/Fe interfacial coupling as the top layer Fe magnetization rotates from 0° to 90°, but switch wall chirality and unwind the wall as the Fe magnetization rotates from 90° to 180°. This observation shows that Mauri's 180° domain wall does not exist in perpendicularly coupled ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic systems in the strong coupling regime.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(14):147207.
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that the interplay between soft electronic particle-hole fluctuations and magnetic anisotropies can drive ferromagnetic moments to point along a magnetic hard axis. As a proof of concept, we show this behavior explicitly for a generic two-band model with local Coulomb and Hund's interactions and a spin-orbit-induced easy plane anisotropy. The phase diagram is calculated within the fermionic quantum order-by-disorder approach, which is based on a self-consistent free-energy expansion around a magnetically ordered state with unspecified orientation. Quantum fluctuations render the transition of the easy-plane ferromagnet first order below a tricritical point. At even lower temperatures, directionally dependent transverse fluctuations dominate the magnetic anisotropy, and the moments flip to lie along the magnetic hard axis. We discuss our findings in the context of recent experiments that show this unusual ordering along the magnetic hard direction.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(14):147001.