Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control

Description

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  • Other titles
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control, Environmental science and engineering and toxic and hazardous substance control
  • ISSN
    1077-1204
  • OCLC
    30699218
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (SO2) and hydrophobic (vinyl chloride) gaseous pollutants are experimentally determined, and the macroscopic removal mechanism of pollutants in a spray drying sorber(SDS) is analyzed using the extended model of three phase equilibrium distribution of pollutant at high temperatures which is basically based on the different morphological conditions of adsorbent and water at varying relative humidities.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(5):1557-1574.
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    ABSTRACT: Cement‐based stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes containing heavy metal and organic has been investigated using chrome tanning waste. This work investigated the use of bentonite and briquette ash as adsorbents for the organic components and heavy metals of industrial wastes, and silica‐fume as an admixture to improve the solidified wastes with cement. Chrome tanning wastes containing up to 1.5% organic carbon and 1.2% chromium were treated with sodium montmorilonite (bentonite) and briquette ash. Organic components and heavy metal of wastes were well adsorbed by the adsorbents. Solidification of the waste/clay/silica‐fume mixes produced a monolithic mass with high strength and very low leaching of the organic compounds and the metals. This study has shown that bentonite and briquette ash could be successful adsorbents for the organic contaminant and heavy metals in industrial wastes and enabled them to be treated by cement‐based solidification. Also the use of silica‐fume to get high compressive strength and low penetration was highly effective. Cement‐based solidification with the bentonite, briquette ash, and silica‐fume gave solid products which set rapidly and were far stronger and more homogeneous than the sole cement‐based solidification. Leaching organic and metal from the stabilized products were very low. The TOC was reduced by 60% to 78% for the wastes tested compared with the conventional cement‐based solidified waste, and the release of heavy metal was reduced by 52% to 70%.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 30(3):651-668.
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric particle and PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) mass size distributions in both a traffic intersection and a rural site were measured with two MOUDIs (Micro‐orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors) and a NRI (Noll Rotary Impactor) from June 1994 to June 1995 in southern Taiwan. In the ambient air of the traffic intersection, both the total PAHs and total particle mass were found to be with unimodal size distributions, while at the rural site, they were found to be with bimodal size distributions. Twelve PAHs were found to have a significant bimodal‐distribution: Nap, AcPy, Flu, PA, Ant, FL, CYC, BaA, BkF, DBA, BbC and BghiP. The remaining PAHs (Acp, Pyr, CHR, BbF, BeP, BaP, PER, IND, and COR) had a unimodal or unimodal‐like distribution. In the ambient air of the traffic intersection, the cumulative fraction of total PAHs in the particle size range below 1,2.5, 10 and 25 μm, in sequence, were 50.9%, 74.2%, 90.8% and 95.9%, respectively, while those values at the rural site, in sequence, were 38.3%, 56.4%, 85.7% and 94.0%, respectively. The Traffic/Rural ratio of BaP varied between 7.07 and 17.6 and averaged 11.2 in the fine particle mode; it varied between 5.32 and 16.9 and averaged 10.6 in the coarse particle mode. The high concentration of carcinogenic PAHs in the ambient air of the traffic intersection is a strong potential factor for inducing a high rate of lung cancer. The MMDo of total PAHs and total particle mass in the ambient air of the traffic intersection were 0.943 and 3.59 μm, respectively. However, these two values at the rural site were 1.67 and 2.03 μm, respectively. These results revealed that there was a larger amount of smaller particulates in the ambient air of the traffic intersection. Smaller particulates have more specific area and therefore allow more PAH mass to be adsorbed on them.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 31(6):1293-1316.
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating the effluent from a conventional coke‐plant wastewater biological treatment system was evaluated in this study. The addition of powered activated carbon (PAC) to an SBR had a significant effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the coke‐plant wastewater, but the addition of ferric hydroxide appeared to have little influence on COD reduction. The conventional SBR, PAC‐SBR and bioferric‐SBR performed similarly in terms of nitrification and sludge settling property. The PAC did not seem to enhance the biodegradation capacity of the activated sludge in the SBR and probably mainly acted as an adsorbent in the PAC‐SBR.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(5):1605-1619.
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    ABSTRACT: Whole soil samples were obtained from a site immediately adjacent to an impoundment used for disposal of still bottoms residue from a benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) production process. Research examined the effects of other operating conditions on the biotreatment process such as inoculum source, temperature and suspended solids concentration. The effects of humic substances and humic acid metabolites on the biodegradation of polyaryl species and measurements of biological activity also were assessed. Uncontaminated whole soil, was fed to the active bioreactor to determine the contribution of humic material to measurements of the biodegradation process including UV absorbance of slurry extracts, aqueous total organic carbon (TOC), carbon dioxide evolution and acid production. Significant reductions of marker species concentrations, often to levels below detection limits, are observed with low, medium and some high molecular weight aromatic and polyaryl species.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 29(4):833-843.
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    ABSTRACT: The saccharification of agricultural wastes and wood residues are studied using a commercial enzyme preparation, “Aspergillus Niger”;, immobilized onto a support matrix ‐ glass beads. The performance of the immobilized enzyme on the rate of saccharification of the cellulose is studied. A comparison is made of the rate of saccharif ication using free enzyme with the immobilized enzyme system. The organism, media and environments are identical in both systems, so that the performance can be compared directly. The study also deals with the fermentable sugars and their subsequent conversion to ethyl alcohol. The yeast “Saccharomyces Cerevisia”; is used in the ethyl alcohol fermentation. Simultaneous saccharification‐fermentation studies are also conducted. The present work aims at developing a reasonably stable model reaction system to saccharify untreated cellulose and cellulose pretreated physically or chemically. This work provides information on the nature of treatments given to the substrate, the enzyme stability and optimum operating conditions.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 26(6):883-898.
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    ABSTRACT: The SER spectra of humic substances in neutral pH and low concentrations typically found in natural environment could be conveniently observed while a laser‐reduced silver colloid made from AgNO3 was used. However, their SER signals were weaken and then scavenged as a small amount of KCl was progressively added. Therefore, it was suggested that a desalted procedure was helpful for trace detection of humic substances in real environment by SER spectroscopy while silver sols were used for the substrates.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 31(6):1395-1405.
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    ABSTRACT: The contact aeration treatment process is an improved activated sludge system in which sludge is not returned to the activated sludge basin. It was used to compensate the disadvantage of the activated sludge system in the three‐step piggery wastewater treatment (TPWT) process. A wave‐shaped vinyl plastic was used as biofilm support substratum for this study. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) for anaerobic fermentation step of TPWT was varied to verify the effects of contact aeration treatment process. The results showed that removal rates of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solid (SS) by contact aeration treatment process in coordination with the anaerobic fermentation of TPWT process were all over 90%. Especially, both BOD and SS of effluents met the Effluent Standard for Livestock of 1998 of the R O. C. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For COD removal, only two experimental sets, anaerobic HRT= 4 and 7.5 days, of COD met the effluent requirement of 1993. Therefore, the application of contact aeration treatment process on the TPWT facilities was proven to remove BOD, COD, and SS from piggery wastewater efficiently.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(1):55-71.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of ionic chromium, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and nickel on methane production and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor using serum bottle assays. The granular seed sludges were acclimated with glucose by continuous feeding. According to experimental results, effects of the metals relied on the sludge zones, VFA types and metal types. The metal concentrations that caused 50% inhibition of methane production and total VFA production ranged from 210–2640 mg/L and 350>>5000 mg/L, respectively. The metals’ relative toxicity to total VFA degradation was in the order of Cu>>Cr>CdZn>Ni>Pb and Cu>>Cdr=Cr>>Ni>Zn>Pb for bed and blanket sludges, respectively. Our results also confirmed copper and lead to be the most toxic and least toxic metals tested, respectively. In UASB biogranules, the organisms responsible for methane production were less resistant to metal toxicity than those responsible for VFA production.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(7):1933-1944.
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from industries are often removed by carbon or zeolite adsorption. This study presents the adsorption capacity of methyl‐ethyl ketone (MEK) vapor (inlet concentration = 100 1500 ppm) onto six different types of zeolites as a function of their properties including surface area, pore volume and Si/Al ratio. The results indicate that the MEK adsorption capacities depend on the type of zeolite, specifically on Si/Al ratio. The measured adsorption data fit reasonably well with Langmuir and Freundlich equations.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(8):2087-2100.
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    ABSTRACT: Male Sprague‐Oawley rats were separated into nine groups and injected with cadmium (Cd) intraperitoneally every three days for 29 days for a total of nine injections. Injection doses ranged from 0 to 2.5 mg Cd/kg‐1 of body weight. Twenty‐four hours following Cd injections, rats received an acute whole body 60Co gamma radiation dose of 0, 3.62, or 5.43 Gray (Gy) at a dose rate of 3.04 Gy/min. Rats were sacrificed on day January 1994 7, or 21 post‐irradiation. Co‐insult groups which had been irradiated following Cd injections showed lower Cd concentrations in heart tissue than those groups which had been injected with Cd and sham‐irradiated. Our data indicate that radiation contributed to clearance of Cd from the heart. The present study points to a need for researchers to continue to study links between the environment and disease.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 29(1):51-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Results of a lysimeter study on bentazon leaching in a sandy loam soil from Mellby (Sweden) were used to test the PESTLA model. To obtain a good description of the measured amounts of drainage water, the potential evapotranspiration rate (based on the Penman equation) had to be multiplied by 1.5 to 2. This comparatively large increase in potential evapotranspiration is probably the result of the surroundings of the lysimeter being dry for most of the experimental period.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 29(6):1231-1253.
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of phenol from a simulated wastewater effluent by adsorption on a homogeneous mixture of Maghara Coal and Activated Carbon in different proportions has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor. It was noted that the adsorption capacity of activated carbon is 12.05 fold that of Maghara Coal. Variables studied were initial phenol concentration, bed height, and type of adsorbent, namely GMC, GAC, (50%GMC+50%GAC), and (25%GMC+75%GAC). The volumetric flow rate of phenol solution and the temperature were kept at 27.5 ml/min and 27°C respectively. Also the adsorption isotherm for both PMC and PAC were studied. The equilibrium data fit well in the Freundlich model of adsorption.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(4):1159-1169.
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    ABSTRACT: Six heavy metals namely Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn , Mn and Cu at the upper region of the Euphrates river in Iraq, were determined seasonally during 1993 in selected five stations in water, suspended particles, bottom sediments and aquatic plants. There was clear seasonal variation in their concentrations in filtered water. These concentrations were much higher in the suspended particles with a manifest local variations. While their values in the bottom sediments were much lower than that found in the suspended particles, with clear local variations among the studied stations. Mn was the highest concentration in the sediments among the studied metals at all seasons, whereas Cd was the lowest. Four aquatic plants were also considered and found that they accumulated higher concentrations of Mn and Zn. The status of the heavy metals and their evaluation as a pollutant source in the studied area were discussed.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(9):2497-2506.
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    ABSTRACT: Lead‐doped alumina powders were thermally stabilized in the fixed‐bed mode of an electrically heated, laboratory‐scale fluidized‐bed incinerator in the 200–900 °C range for various treatment duration. The Pb contents in the doped alumina were 5000 and 10000 ppm.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2613-2634.
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of continous direct ozonation of trichloroethylene, a water priority pollutant, is investigated. The influence of water flow type on the kinetics is studied by the use of the residence time distribution function. In accordance with this, the actual reactor used behaves as two perfectly mixed continous stirred reactors. A kinetic model accounting for rates of volatilization, direct ozonation and mass transfer together with non‐idealk water flow is presented. The results obtained indicate that water flow type should be considered to, predict more accurately removal rates of trichloroethylene during direct ozonation.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2471-2482.
  • Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2537-2551.