Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control

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Other titles Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control, Environmental science and engineering and toxic and hazardous substance control
ISSN 1077-1204
OCLC 30699218
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviewed and analyzed results of recent research activities pertaining to characterization, treatment, and disposal methods of solid wastes. Although landfill gas emissions, liner materials minimizing pollutants emissions, leachate characterization, and treatment are actively studied, only few have studied the quantity, compositions, physicochemical and biological characteristics of landfilled solid wastes. Science and engineering of composting for solid wastes are under intense investigation by many researchers with generally two objectives: a) to convert biodegradable solid wastes into valuable, nutrient‐rich composts for various end‐use applications or b) to remediate soils or wastes contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants by composting (remediation composting). While the first has been already used in many areas at field scales to minimize solid waste problems, the latter is still in research stage. Once the remediation composting is proven for its efficacy, it will provide an efficient, environment‐friendly means of treating contaminated wastes.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(2):367-390. DOI:10.1080/10934529709376549
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    ABSTRACT: Cement‐based stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes containing heavy metal and organic has been investigated using chrome tanning waste. This work investigated the use of bentonite and briquette ash as adsorbents for the organic components and heavy metals of industrial wastes, and silica‐fume as an admixture to improve the solidified wastes with cement. Chrome tanning wastes containing up to 1.5% organic carbon and 1.2% chromium were treated with sodium montmorilonite (bentonite) and briquette ash. Organic components and heavy metal of wastes were well adsorbed by the adsorbents. Solidification of the waste/clay/silica‐fume mixes produced a monolithic mass with high strength and very low leaching of the organic compounds and the metals. This study has shown that bentonite and briquette ash could be successful adsorbents for the organic contaminant and heavy metals in industrial wastes and enabled them to be treated by cement‐based solidification. Also the use of silica‐fume to get high compressive strength and low penetration was highly effective. Cement‐based solidification with the bentonite, briquette ash, and silica‐fume gave solid products which set rapidly and were far stronger and more homogeneous than the sole cement‐based solidification. Leaching organic and metal from the stabilized products were very low. The TOC was reduced by 60% to 78% for the wastes tested compared with the conventional cement‐based solidified waste, and the release of heavy metal was reduced by 52% to 70%.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 30(3):651-668. DOI:10.1080/10934529509376223
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    ABSTRACT: With the final aim to investigate about the possible ability of municipal sludge to adsorb heavy metals from industrial wastes, a characterization study has been performed for anaerobic sludges. The results are compared with those previously obtained for aerobic sludges. In order to evaluate the possibility to mobilize heavy metals (Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II)) from the biomatrix a sequential extraction method was employed.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(5):1467-1489. DOI:10.1080/10934529709376622
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    ABSTRACT: Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low‐temperature stabilization and solidification of mixed‐waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high‐temperature stabilization processes because volatiles, such as heavy‐metal chlorides and fluorides, and/or pyrophorics are present in the wastes. Phosphates of Mg, Mg‐Na, and Zr are being developed as candidate matrix materials. In this paper, we present the fabrication procedures for phosphate waste forms with surrogate compositions of three typical mixed‐waste streams, namely ash, cement sludges, and salts. This study was focused, but not limited to, magnesium phosphate‐ash wastestream final waste form. The performance of the final waste forms, such as compression strength, leachability of the contaminants, and durability in aqueous environments were conducted. In addition, parametric studies have been conducted to establish the optimal ash waste loading in the magnesium phosphate binder system. Based on the results, we present potential applications of phosphate‐bonded ceramics in the treatment of various mixed‐waste streams.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(2):527-541. DOI:10.1080/10934529709376559
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    ABSTRACT: This study concentrates on the removal of the heavy metals from dredged sediments from a polluted marine area. The metals examined were Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. It was found that the sediments were substantially contaminated by several metals including Cr, Fe, Zn and Cu whereas others such as Ni and Pb seem to be present at normal levels. The metal form distribution in the dredged dried sediments found by the application of a sequential extraction partitioning procedure indicated that an important part of the metal content was carried by the reducible and the organic phase. Batch extraction experiments with acid solutions of various concentrations were carried out in order to investigate the heavy metal removal from the contaminated sediments. Extraction results showed that for most metals studied the percentage extracted was satisfactory. Following, the forms of the remaining in the sediments metals were determined using selective sequential extraction analysis and the results indicated that the residual fraction is hardly removed as opposed to the other fractions which are easily removed by the hydrochloric acid extraction and compose 50 percent of the initial amount of metals present.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(2):347-360. DOI:10.1080/10934529709376547
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies regarding solid waste management system planning frequently emphasize that both socioeconomic and environmental impacts have to be considered simultaneously. While the total elimination of environmental risks is impossible, the analytical concern actually rests upon the concept of the minimization of both environmental risks and costs in an efficient management system. But uncertainty plays an important role in decision making. The related impreciseness/fuzziness of environmental risks were rarely taken into account in previous models. This paper illustrates a new approach, using fuzzy global criterion technique, to show how the concept of fuzzy environmental resources can be incorporated into an optimization process and create a set of more flexible optimal planning alternatives. A fuzzy multiobjective mixed integer programming model for long term planning of metropolitan solid waste management systems is applied as a method for generating such alternatives. The practical implementation of this approach is assessed by a case study in the City of Kaohsiung in Taiwan.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(4):1025-1047. DOI:10.1080/10934529709376594
  • Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(1). DOI:10.1080/10934529709376542
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments are conducted to study the fish response in a water channel when subjected to vortex ring motion. The fish activity is measured in terms of counts of occurrence at three different locations along the channel using a series of infra‐red sensors. Vortex rings are produced intermittently from a vortex ring chamber located at one end of the channel under various water tank pressure settings and vortex ring generation frequencies. Experimental results show that the fish activity follows a normal distribution. Analysis of data indicates that fish response is statistically significant at different locations in the channel. Fish activity is the lowest (23%) at a region adjacent to the vortex ring chamber. Fish activity is negatively related at each pair of locations. Fish response is sensitive to the combined effects of water tank pressure and vortex ring generation frequencies. The study suggests the potential application of vortex rings as an alternative means of distracting fishes from getting near to the generation source.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 26(5):755-775. DOI:10.1080/10934529109375666
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence for a signal in rainfall with period near 19 years is found in 54 out of 74 rain‐gauge records in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, while a term of period 10–11 years is evident in 58 instances. These are identified as induced by the 18.6‐year luni‐solar constituent Mn tide (M for moon and n for nodal), and a 10–11 year solar cycle Sc variation in the sun's luminosity of order 0.1%. Mn wavetrains display complex patterns with many experiencing 180° phase changes at epochs 1917.5, 1936.1, and 19733 (epochs are dates of maximum in tidal forcing). Polarity maps of wave maxima and minima at epochs show that at epoch 1898.9 only parts of South Carolina were dry, while at 1917.5 dryness had expanded over South Carolina and into Georgia and western Florida. By epoch 1936.1 a unipolar drought cell prevailed over the entire tri‐state region, and continued to prevail at epoch 1954.7. By epoch 1973.3, however, the monolithic dry cell had broken up into two smaller dry cells.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 27(3):827-841. DOI:10.1080/10934529209375763
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    ABSTRACT: Many air pollutants may be present in the indoor environment. Commonly reported pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, radon and its progeny, asbestos fibers and airborne particles. Among these indoor pollutants, radon and its progeny have been known to increase the risk of lung cancer in the U.S. Various studies also found in general higher concentrations of air pollutants in the indoor environment. It is a serious concern to us because of the long periods of time we spend indoors. In this study, the alpha‐track radon monitor was used in the screening of higher risk buildings in Taipei and Hsinchu city. None of the homes in the 32 buildings surveyed in these cities had air concentrations of radon exceeding the action level of 4 pCi/l recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Different sources to indoor radon concentrations are the underlying soil, building materials, outdoor air, water and gaseous fuels. Ventilation of the homes and seasonal variations are major factors of higher radon concentrations.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 29(9):1859-1870. DOI:10.1080/10934529409376152
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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with interaction between ground water and an adjacent river. The interaction is described quantitatively by chemical mass balances (CMBs) which is the most widely used receptor model. Ground water and river upstream and downstream samples are tested for seventeen parameters to determine the ground water underflow rates to the river by using the CMBs. Also electrochemical compositions of major ions for each samples are analyzed to provide the characteristics of each water. Through the analyses for overall compositions between ground and river waters, the impact of ground water underflow to the river quality is evaluated.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 30(3):567-582. DOI:10.1080/10934529509376218
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (SO2) and hydrophobic (vinyl chloride) gaseous pollutants are experimentally determined, and the macroscopic removal mechanism of pollutants in a spray drying sorber(SDS) is analyzed using the extended model of three phase equilibrium distribution of pollutant at high temperatures which is basically based on the different morphological conditions of adsorbent and water at varying relative humidities.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 32(5):1557-1574. DOI:10.1080/10934529709376626
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    ABSTRACT: Travel times of the groundwater in the gneiss near Samkwang mine in Korea were estimated through the field hydraulic tests, the development and the application of a mathematical model, and the analysis of tritium concentration of the groundwater sampled in the study positions. Results of this study are follows:(1) Through the field hydraulic test, the hydraulic conductivity in the gneiss of the syudied area is 1.7 x 10‐5 x Z‐1,3 m/sec (Z:depth from the surface, (m)) and the longitudinal dispersivity is 9.8 m. (2) The mathematical model to calculate the age of groundwater was developed considering the tritium concentrations of rainfall precipitated in the studied area for period 1961 ‐ 1993. (3) The ages of the groundwater in the tunnel 44, 92, 102, and 205 m below the earth surface were estimated at 2.0, 4.0, 4.5, and 9.0 years, respectively. These results were verified by the data on the tritium concentrations of the groundwater in the tunnel for period 1990 to 1993.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 30(10):2093-2109. DOI:10.1080/10934529509376326
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric particle and PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) mass size distributions in both a traffic intersection and a rural site were measured with two MOUDIs (Micro‐orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors) and a NRI (Noll Rotary Impactor) from June 1994 to June 1995 in southern Taiwan. In the ambient air of the traffic intersection, both the total PAHs and total particle mass were found to be with unimodal size distributions, while at the rural site, they were found to be with bimodal size distributions. Twelve PAHs were found to have a significant bimodal‐distribution: Nap, AcPy, Flu, PA, Ant, FL, CYC, BaA, BkF, DBA, BbC and BghiP. The remaining PAHs (Acp, Pyr, CHR, BbF, BeP, BaP, PER, IND, and COR) had a unimodal or unimodal‐like distribution. In the ambient air of the traffic intersection, the cumulative fraction of total PAHs in the particle size range below 1,2.5, 10 and 25 μm, in sequence, were 50.9%, 74.2%, 90.8% and 95.9%, respectively, while those values at the rural site, in sequence, were 38.3%, 56.4%, 85.7% and 94.0%, respectively. The Traffic/Rural ratio of BaP varied between 7.07 and 17.6 and averaged 11.2 in the fine particle mode; it varied between 5.32 and 16.9 and averaged 10.6 in the coarse particle mode. The high concentration of carcinogenic PAHs in the ambient air of the traffic intersection is a strong potential factor for inducing a high rate of lung cancer. The MMDo of total PAHs and total particle mass in the ambient air of the traffic intersection were 0.943 and 3.59 μm, respectively. However, these two values at the rural site were 1.67 and 2.03 μm, respectively. These results revealed that there was a larger amount of smaller particulates in the ambient air of the traffic intersection. Smaller particulates have more specific area and therefore allow more PAH mass to be adsorbed on them.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 31(6):1293-1316. DOI:10.1080/10934529609376425
  • Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 31(5):1239-1242. DOI:10.1080/10934529609376419
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the characterization of an anaerobic digester in relation to minimun levels of copper, nickel and zinc, separately and mixed, which it can receive and the effects these give rise to on stability, depuration efficiency and methane production. The experiments were carried out on complete mixture laboratory scale digesters.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; 26(6):799-811. DOI:10.1080/10934529109375670
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper the partitioning of seven selected heavy metal ions Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Cr, between the dissolved aqueous phase and paniculate matter, was studied in two rivers of Northern Greece: Axios and Aliakmon, during a two years period.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 12/2008; DOI:10.1080/10934529209375750