Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control

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  • Other titles
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control, Environmental science and engineering and toxic and hazardous substance control
  • ISSN
    1077-1204
  • OCLC
    30699218
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 01/2010; 1:73-81.
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    ABSTRACT: The acid leaching of a pyrite‐rich black shale concentrate (7% S) was tested in this study. The experiments were performed at 5–30% pulp densities and with inoculations of Fe‐ and S‐oxidizing thiobacilli (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and Thiobacillus thiooxidans,),. Cultures supplemented with S showed strong acid production, with final pH values of 0.9 in T. ferrooxidans, cultures and 0.4–0.5 in the presence of T. thiooxidans,. Fe dissolution was pronounced in the T. ferrooxidans, culture whereas T. thiooxidans, did not dissolve Fe from the black shale. Total dissolved Fe concentrations were 3 to 50 times higher in the cultures inoculated with T. ferrooxidans, when compared to T. thiooxidans, and sterile controls. The dissolution of Mo was enhanced in the inoculated cultures as compared with the chemical controls. With V, Si, and Al this effect was not as pronounced but was still discernible in solutions acidified by bacterial oxidation of S. The leaching experiments suggested that the black shale was inhibitory to the inocula. The inhibition was related to the pulp density and was associated with the leach solution. The inhibition could be completely alleviated by replacing the leach solution.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2683-2695.
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of continous direct ozonation of trichloroethylene, a water priority pollutant, is investigated. The influence of water flow type on the kinetics is studied by the use of the residence time distribution function. In accordance with this, the actual reactor used behaves as two perfectly mixed continous stirred reactors. A kinetic model accounting for rates of volatilization, direct ozonation and mass transfer together with non‐idealk water flow is presented. The results obtained indicate that water flow type should be considered to, predict more accurately removal rates of trichloroethylene during direct ozonation.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2471-2482.
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have focused on heavy metal characteristics in sewage sludges and sludge‐amended soils other than lime‐stabilized sewage sludge (LS). Thus, the aerobically digested sewage sludge cake (13.61% solids) sampled from the Min‐Sheng Wastewater Treatment Plant in Taipei City, Taiwan was lime‐stabilized for studying the effects of the lime treatment on fractionation and extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in sewage sludge, using various extraction tests. For comparative objective, oven‐dry sewage sludge without liming (unlimed sludge (S)) was also studied. The results of this study revealed that the percentages of the metals extracted from lime‐stabilized sludge (pH = 12.05) and the amounts of the metals fractionated to the organically‐bound fraction (30% H2O2 + 0.02 M HNO3 (pH2), 85°C) in unlimed sludge were both in the order of Cu > Pb > Cr > Zn, meaning that the more the heavy metals (e.g., Cu) were fractionated to the organically‐bound forms in unlimed sludge, the more unstable they were in the sludge after lime‐stabilized. On the other hand, the metals (e.g., Zn) in lime‐stabilized sludge was more stable when they have less affinity for organics. Single extraction conducted at various pHs revealed that this effect was due to the irreversible dissolution of organics and some metals having a higher affinity for organics (e.g., Cu) at very high pH during processing and air drying of lime‐stabilized sludge. Therefore, examining the fractionation of heavy metals in sewage sludge is useful for expecting heavy metal stability in the sewage sludges after lime‐stabilized.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2521-2536.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the performance evaluation studies of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) and alum in the removal of fluorides and some heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr and Pb) from drinking water. It was observed that fluoride removal was better with alum than with PAC. Heavy metal removal efficiency of these two coagulants show a similar trend over different range of alkalinity of the test water. The removal of heavy metals is enhanced with the increase in alkalinity.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 10/1997; A32(9-10):2563-2574.
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrite and ammonia destruction from sea water by an electrochemical oxidation was investigated to determine nitrite and ammonia oxidation efficiencies. Operating conditions considered in the experimental studies included the electric current, pH, initial nitrite and ammonium concentrations and salinity. Both nitrite and ammonia oxidation processes were found to obey a zero‐order kinetics and reaction rate coefficients were a linear function of electric current and a nonlinear function of salinity. Nitrite removal was found to be significantly faster than the ammonia removal. In the presence of an electrolyte (chloride), the indirect oxidations of both nitrite and ammonia by a strong oxidant (hypochlorite) were faster than direct anodic oxidation of the pure component.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 09/1997; A32(8):2125-2138.
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    ABSTRACT: The need to monitor and control pollution in closed seas receiving a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, has prompted us to carry out this work. Analyses of sea water are routinely performed in order to monitor the level of contamination of the marine environment by various pollution factors. This work is a part of a long term, large scale environmental study concerning areas of the Saronic Gulf, in Greece, with marinas, recreational beaches and provides information on the pollution level and its course over time. Several physical and chemical parameters were determined and were compared with those estimated for locations in investigations carried out in previous years. It can be seen from the experimental results that most locations are substantially polluted. The organic pollutant and heavy metal content were very high. The level of metals measured was found at approximately the same level with previous measurements with the exception of Fe which was found to accumulate over the years.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 09/1997; A32(8):2403-2414.
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    ABSTRACT: In response to general concern about atmospheric pollution and forest decline, a comprehensive program was created in 1985 to assess the deposition levels of atmospheric pollutants and their effects in Pinus radiata plantations in the Basque Country (Spain). There is a serious concern about the environmental impact of ozone (O3) on vegetation and on human health both in urban and rural areas. We present data from 1993–1995 measures of O3 levels near Pinus radiata forested areas, and in urban sites of the Bilbao metropolitan area. To quantify the O3 exposures, hourly average O3 concentration data were characterized in the Barambio and the Berganza sites (rural‐forested areas), and in the Basauri and the Getxo sites (Bilbao metropolitan area). The Berganza and the Barambio sites experienced more occurrences of hourly average concentrations >75 and >100 ppb than the Basauri and the Getxo sites. The AOT40 exposure values in the two forested sites were 2–4 times higher that the critical levels, while in the two urban sites AOT40 were lower or equal to the critical values. The lower‐elevation site of Berganza and the urban sites experienced a greater percentage of its O3 exposure during daylight hours (08: 00–20: 00 h) than the Barambio site. The results indicate an overall increase on the average values of the O3 concentrations since 1993 in the forested sites, while in the urban sites, the values are variable.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 09/1997; A32(8):2259-2274.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px) and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) an end product of lipoperoxidation in human whole blood. Method for measuring was the based on spectrophotometer. Blood MDA level was higher in elderly than in children, adults. Smoking, alcohol takiing, acute exercise and air pollution group's MDA levels were increased than their control groups. GSH‐Px activity was significantly lower in acute exercise group, and higher in trained group than those of controls. SOD was decreased in elderly, smoking and acute exercise groups and increase in trained individuals. As a result the mean values we obtained were slightly significant in age groups. The life style, environment has polluted air and habits arethought to be responsible for these significance also.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 09/1997; A32(8):2101-2109.
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    ABSTRACT: This research was designed to determine the feasibility of the biodegradation of aniline in a soil slurry system. Microorganisms isolated from an aniline‐contaminated site were classified to be Achromobacter xylosoxidans and a Pseudomonas species. A mixed culture of bacteria was observed to grow on aniline as the only source of carbon. Studies conducted in liquid media demonstrated simultaneous oxygen uptake and aniline removal at a concentration of 700 mg/L. The optimum pH for the biodegradation of aniline by the classified microorganisms in liquid media at a concentration of 700 ppm was determined to be between pH 7 and pH 8. Biodegradation studies were conducted in soil slurry system using soil similar to that at the aniline‐contaminated site. These studies investigated the role of abiotic processes in the removal of aniline, the ability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade aniline, and the effect of amendment with an acclimated bacterial population and the addition of nutrients. The ability of aniline to serve as a sole source of nitrogen and carbon was also investigated.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 09/1997; A32(8):2367-2377.
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    ABSTRACT: Bioremediation through venting, biodegradation and biofiltration was considered to be a feasible approach to remediate a hydrocarbon‐contaminated soil from a site underneath a paint factory. Before the field‐scale treatment process was designed, a microbial enumeration study was performed to estabilish the existence of an indigenous population of microorganisms capable of degrading naphtha in the impacted soil. A significant remediation of a limited area contaminated with approximately 100 Kg of naphtha, toluene and xylenes was achieved in a 2 month treatment in which the soil was remediated to conform with local soil quality regulations. The bulk of soil removal of contaminants was achieved by vapour extraction (about 70 kg). Biodegradation also provided a significant contaminant removal (about 18 Kg). The hydrocarbons removed from the vent system were successfully biofiltered and outlet gas stream concentrations were acceptable under Italian national law. The biodegradative capacity of a mixed culture of microorganisms selectively isolated from the soil was tested in vial culture experiments. After 1 day of incubation, four of the seven most important naphtha components were completely degraded; the remaining constituents were slowly degraded.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 09/1997; A32(8):2289-2310.
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    ABSTRACT: The results of analysis for selected toxic heavy metals of samples of dead bream, Oreochromis macruchir, collected during the mass fish deaths in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe, in March‐April 1996 are presented. When compared to results for bream samples collected in April‐August 1994, the 1996 results show that levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the muscle of the dead bream had risen by factors of 5, 77, 15, 384, and 17 respectively. Analysis of the lake water confirmed the pollution of the lake by heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni and Pb, at the time of the fishkill. Possible sources of the heavy metal pollution are discussed.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 08/1997; A32(7):1895-1906.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the methodology for obtaining equations which describe the secondary treatment of urban wastewater treatment plants.The kinetics of the biodegradation reaction are shown, and a proposal is made to include the sludge age in the specific growth rate, in order to generalize from the classic process of activated sludge to that of extended aeration.The application of a mass balance to the aerobic reactor is shown, in order to obtain equations which describe its behavior.We will introduce a working hypothesis of the sludge settling mechanism to determine volumes of the clarification and sedimentation zones of the final clarifier, in order to obtain equations describing it.A graphic demonstration is provided with the results of activated sludge process simulation using the mathematical model presented here.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 08/1997; A32(7):2057-2068.
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    ABSTRACT: The resource recovery of autofluff (auto shredder residue) is of increasing importance as incineration and land filling become much more expensive and the acceptance of these methods is decreasing. Thus, the main purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of the autofluff liquefaction. The liquefaction process involves contacting the autofluff wastes with hot motor oil to recover valuable oil products Experimentally, liquefaction of autofluff in hot used motor oil generated approximately 70.9% of oils, and 2.0% of noncondensible gases and 27.1% of nonliquefible solid residues. Proton NMR and FTIR spectroscopic data reveal the structural changes of oils that occur during autofluff liquefaction. The cuts of the condensate produced from the autofluff liquefaction into weighted boiling fraction are primarily light naphtha and heavy gas oil Light naphtha is the main constituents of gasoline. Heavy gas oil may be re‐refined into lighter products or sold as a low grade fuel oil.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 06/1997; A32(6):1655-1663.
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    ABSTRACT: Uranium dissolution from rock samples containing uranophane or carnotite was tested in acid mineral salts solutions in the presence and absence of Fe‐ and S‐oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) and with FeSO4 or S as the substrate. The addition of FeSO4 enhanced the solubilization of uranium from uranophane. S‐amendment was also effective, because uranium solubilization was enhanced at low pH resulting from the bacterial oxidation of S. Uranium was readily dissolved from carnotite. However, the carnotite‐containing rock sample was predominantly composed of calcite that excessively consumed acid, increasing the pH and thereby reducing the concentration of uranium dissolved in leach solution.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 06/1997; A32(6):1827-1835.
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    ABSTRACT: Preferential flow is primary mechanism for faster movement of agricultural chemicals to groundwater. Subsurface tile flow data were used to quantify the contributions of preferential flow and matrix flow at the field scale over time. Tile flow hydrographs were constructed using hourly tile flow data related to rainfall events that were equal to or greater than 25.4 mm. A hydrograph separation technique was applied to separate preferential and matrix flow components of the subsurface tile flows. On the average, preferential flow was found to contribute about 13% of the total subsurface tile outflow for all the rain events, and an annual contribution of 10–20% is reasonable approximation. However, considerable spatial and temporal variability was observed, even among contiguous plots. Preferential flow for some rain storms was found to be as high as 60% of the total subsurface tile flow. This study also indicated that for storms greater than or equal to 25.4 mm, the subsurface tile outflow, on the average, was about 16% of the total rain water. However, it was observed that some of the subsurface tiles could drain as much as 80% of the rainfall depending upon the initial water table and soil moisture conditions.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 06/1997; A32(6):1711-1729.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Benlate [1 ‐ (N ‐ butyl carbomyl), 2 ‐ (metoxy carboxyamido) ‐ benzimidazol], Penncozep [mangan ‐ zinc ethylenediamine ‐ bisdithicarbamate], Bayleton [1 ‐ (4 ‐ chlorophenoxy) ‐ 3,3 ‐ dimethyl‐1‐(1H‐1,2,4 ‐ thiazol ‐1‐ yl) ‐ 2.2 ‐ butanon], Cupravit [Cuper oxichloride] and Dithane [Manganese etylenebisdithiocarbamate] on human serum enzymes, myocardial creatine kinase (CK‐MB), amylase, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino transferase (AST), serum glutamyl pruvic transferase( SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK‐P), 8 glutamyl transferase (GGT‐P) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in vitro. Bayleton inhibited only SGPT and it was ineffective on the other seven enzymes. Benlate, Penncozep, Cupravit and Dithane inhibited some enzymes, but activated the others.Benlate as the strongest inhibitor for CK‐MB, Cupravit for Amylase, Dithane for ALK‐P, Penncozep for CK, AST, SGPT and GGT‐P. No inhibition was occurred in LDH. Of the fungicides studied the maximum effective one was Penncozep, the minimum effective one was Bayleton. The most inhibition was shown in SGPT and CK. Cupravit was found as an activator rather than an inhibitor.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 05/1997; A32(5):1377-1382.
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    ABSTRACT: Low‐grade heavy oils are generally used as fuel oils for combustion systems of industrial or marine power‐plants such as boilers, furnaces, diesel engines, etc. for the pursuit of fuel economy. However, the burning of those fuel oils containing various organic or inorganic compounds of impurities in fuel ash leads to the formation of various very complex oxidation products in the burnt gas, resulting in the deterioration of atmospheric air quality and serious corrosion failures of construction materials. To combat the corrosion problems, some chemical agents such as MgO or CaO are considered as possible corrosion inhibitors. The MgO or CaO additive would react with other metallic compounds in fuel ash to form flying burnt salt with high melting point and adhere to the metal surface, consequently resulting in a decrease of the corrosion rate. In contrast to the understanding of MgO on the corrosion mechanism, the investigation of MgO on the emission characteristics of combustion systems is still rather limited. In this study a small oil‐fired furnace is employed to systematically investigate the effects of MgO addition on the emissions, burning efficiency and gas temperature. The results show that the addition of MgO causes higher burning gas temperature, CO2 concentration and lower O2 and SO2 concentrations. In addition, the combustion efficiency is promoted with the addition of MgO.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 05/1997; A32(5):1383-1392.
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroform as a carcinogen removal by surface‐modified activated carbon from an aqueous solution was investigated for the assurance of safe water.Surface hydrophobilized activated carbon by hydrogen gas adsorbed the largest amount of chloroform. To elucidate the dominant factor of adsorption removal of chloroform, correlations between the amount adsorbed and physicochemical properties of adsorbents. A significant inverse correlation was recognized between the amount of chloroform adsorbed and the base consumption.It was found that the existence of acidic groups on the surface of activated carbon inhibits the adsorption of chloroform. It was concluded that the suitable adsorbent for chloroform removal was an activated carbon with more hydrophobic surface.
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Environmental science and engineering & toxic and hazardous substance control 05/1997; A32(5):1451-1458.

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