Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society (Liver Transplant Surg )

Publisher: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; International Liver Transplantation Society

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  • Other titles
    Liver transplantation and surgery (Online), Liver transplantation
  • ISSN
    1074-3022
  • OCLC
    44198906
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunoprophylaxis using intravenous (IV) hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) decreases the recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, IV HBIG is expensive, has significant side effects, and is inconvenient to administer. An alternative approach for prophylaxis using intramuscular (IM) HBIG and oral lamivudine was prospectively evaluated in this study. Ten consecutive patients with cirrhosis with HBV infection who underwent OLT were included in this study. Nine of 10 patients received lamivudine, 150 mg/d, for an average duration of 8.6 months before OLT. Two of 10 patients with detectable HBV DNA at the time of OLT received 10,000 U (45 mL) of IV HBIG daily for 7 consecutive days, followed by 5 mL of IM HBIG weekly for the next 3 weeks, then every 3 weeks. The other 8 patients were HBV DNA negative at OLT and received one dose of IV HBIG (45 mL) during surgery, followed by 5 mL of IM HBIG weekly for 4 weeks, then every 3 weeks. All patients received lamivudine, 150 mg/d, after OLT. During a mean follow-up of 15.6 months, 9 of 10 patients achieved a protective hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titer greater than 200 IU/L and had no evidence of HBV recurrence. One patient failed to develop an adequate HBsAb titer and developed histological and virological evidence of recurrence. One patient died unrelated to HBV recurrence. Our preliminary data suggest that this combination prophylaxis with IM HBIG and lamivudine is effective and potentially cost saving.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):491-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare tumor with an unpredictable course and prognosis. The aim of this study is to describe our experience with liver resection, as well as transplantation, in the treatment of this tumor. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, pathological findings, and postoperative results in a series of 11 patients presenting between 1990 and 1998. Five patients (45%) presented with abdominal pain, 3 patients (27%) with jaundice and ascites, and the rest were asymptomatic. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging showed localized lesions in 2 patients (18%) and multifocal disease in the others. Seven patients (64%) had extrahepatic lesions, detected either by preoperative imaging or discovered at exploration. Two resections of apparently localized lesions were followed by rapid and aggressive recurrence. Five patients were treated with transplantation, including 1 patient who had previously undergone resection. Of these 5 patients, 2 patients are currently free of detectable disease, 1 patient who had severe ascites and jaundice is now asymptomatic with stable extrahepatic lesions, and 2 patients (including 1 who had previously undergone a resection) died of tumor recurrence. One patient with advanced tumor died while waiting for transplantation. The remaining 4 patients are free of symptoms and have stable hepatic and extrahepatic disease. HEHE is nearly always multifocal, and our results with resection were dismal. Because of the unpredictable nature of the tumor, the indications for transplantation in patients without liver-related symptoms should be carefully evaluated. Nevertheless, extrahepatic disease should not be an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation in patients with severe liver dysfunction.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):526-31.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tacrolimus is an effective immunosuppressant in the rescue of liver allograft patients in whom conventional immunosuppression failed. Efficacy and safety were examined in a multicenter trial of liver transplant recipients converted to tacrolimus because of rejection despite cyclosporine (CyA) therapy or intolerance to CyA. Six hundred seventy-seven patients were enrolled onto the study; 475 patients for rejection, 197 patients for intolerance, and 5 patients treated compassionately. The mean daily dose of tacrolimus was less in the intolerance (Int) patients throughout the study: 0.22 versus 0.17 mg/kg at 1 week and 0.14 versus 0.11 mg/kg at 24 months in rejection (Rej) and Int patients, respectively. Mean blood levels paralleled dosing in both groups, but were greater in the Rej patients (10.7 v 8.3 ng/mL at 18 months). Kaplan-Meier estimates of patient and graft survival were similar in the two groups. Patient survival rates were 80.1% and 81.5%, and graft survival rates were 72.7% and 73.9% at 24 months in the Rej and Int patients, respectively. Most adverse events occurred with a similar incidence in the two groups. Those with a 4% or greater incidence were fever, viral hepatitis, and pneumonia. The incidence of sepsis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, kidney failure, and convulsion was greater in the Int group. The incidence of abnormal liver function test results, hyperglycemia, headache, and abnormal kidney function was greater in the Rej group. Mean liver function test results decreased with time postrescue in both groups. Mean serum creatinine level increased from baseline to 18 months postrescue in both groups (1.44 to 1.51 mg/dL for Int patients, 1.14 to 1.48 mg/dL for Rej patients). We conclude tacrolimus is safe and effective rescue in liver transplant recipients with rejection or CyA intolerance.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):502-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe our use of a liver allograft from a donor who died of intracranial hemorrhage after brodifacoum ingestion. Because brodifacoum can remain in the human body for months, the recipient's posttransplantation coagulation profiles and serum brodifacoum levels were monitored closely. Her posttransplantation course was excellent, with no coagulation problem. At 15 months posttransplantation, she is well, with normal liver function and coagulation profile. We conclude that brodifacoum toxicity is not a strict contraindication to liver donation.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):509-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Bromfenac, a nonnarcotic analgesic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was associated with reversible, minor elevations in serum aminotransferase levels during clinical trials. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, laboratory, and histological features of 4 patients with severe bromfenac hepatotoxicity identified at 3 tertiary care centers participating in the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Bromfenac was administered for chronic musculoskeletal disorders to 4 women in therapeutic doses of 25 to 100 mg/d for a minimum of 90 days. All patients reported a prodrome of malaise and fatigue and presented with severe, symptomatic hepatocellular injury with associated hypoprothrombinemia. None of the subjects had underlying liver or kidney disease, and there was no evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction. Other identifiable causes of acute liver failure were uniformly excluded. Despite supportive measures, all the subjects developed progressive liver failure over 5 to 37 days, leading to emergency liver transplantation in 3 patients and death in 1 patient while awaiting transplantation. Extensive confluent parenchymal necrosis that appeared to begin in the central zones and was accompanied by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate was noted in all the livers examined. Nodular regeneration was seen in the 2 patients with a more protracted clinical course. Administration of therapeutic doses of bromfenac for greater than 90 days was associated with the development of acute liver failure leading to liver transplantation or death in 4 adult women. The poor outcomes observed in this series, coupled with the inability to identify individuals at risk for severe, idiosyncratic bromfenac hepatotoxicity, preclude further use of bromfenac in the medical community.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):480-4.
  • Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):536-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of acute cellular rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation is common. At present, no allowance is made in immunosuppressive regimens for parameters other than weight. We investigated parameters in 121 consecutive patients receiving their primary allograft to determine if there are pretransplantation factors predicting the occurrence of acute cellular rejection after transplantation. The case notes and dietetic notes of these patients were reviewed for age at transplantation, cause of liver disease, preoperative albumin and creatinine levels, lymphocyte count, anthropometric measurements, donor age, HLA DR mismatch, and cold ischemia time. Acute cellular rejection was more likely to occur in younger patients, patients with Child's class A disease, and those with normal midarm muscle circumference. Acute rejection was increased in transplant recipients from donors aged younger than 30 and older than 50 years. Acute cellular rejection was less likely to occur in patients who underwent transplantation for alcoholic liver disease. Chronic rejection was significantly increased in women and those patients who experienced recurrent acute rejection. On multivariate analysis, the only significant predictor was the decreased likelihood of acute rejection in patients with depleted midarm muscle circumference. In conclusion, it may be possible to individualize immunosuppressive regimens on the basis of pretransplantation characteristics.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):475-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Wilson's disease is a hereditary defect in copper excretion leading to the accumulation of copper in the tissues, with subsequent tissue damage. The most serious sequela is that of progressive central nervous system involvement. The use of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been controversial for those patients with neurological symptoms attributed to Wilson's disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of OLT for patients with Wilson's disease, including those with neurological involvement attributed to copper accumulation in the central nervous system. OLT was performed in 45 patients (19 men [42.2%], 26 women [57.8%]) with Wilson's disease between 1971 and 1993 who were followed up for at least 4 years. The age at diagnosis of Wilson's disease ranged from 3 to 41 years (mean, 17.7 +/- 7.4 years). The age at OLT ranged from 8 to 52 years (mean, 22.3 +/- 9.4 years). Nineteen patients (42.2%) were aged younger than 18 years at OLT. The indications for OLT included chronic hepatic failure in 15 patients (33.3%) and fulminant (FHF) or subfulminant hepatic failure in 30 patients (66. 6%). All but 1 of the 19 pediatric patients (94.7%) were in the latter group. Twenty-five patients (55.5%) were receiving D-penicillamine, 9 patients for more than 1 year; none of the patients treated long term presented as FHF. Thirty-three patients (73.3%) survived more than 5 years after OLT. Fourteen patients (31%) died during the posttransplantation period; 7 of the 14 patients (50%) were aged younger than 18 years. Twelve patients died during the first 3 months after OLT of complications of disease and surgery, 10 of whom underwent transplantation for FHF. The other 2 patients died 6 and 9 years after transplantation of infectious problems. Eleven patients (24.4%) required retransplantation because of a primary nonfunctioning graft (n = 6), chronic rejection (n = 4), and hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 1). Seventeen patients (37.7%) presented with neurological abnormalities; 14 patients with Wilsonian neurological manifestations and 3 patients with components of increased intracranial pressure. Ten of the 13 surviving patients with hepatic insufficiency and neurological abnormalities at OLT showed significant neurological improvement. Our experience shows OLT is a life-saving procedure in patients with end-stage Wilson's disease and is associated with excellent long-term survival. The neurological manifestation of the disease can improve significantly after OLT. Earlier transplantation in patients with an unsatisfactory response to medical treatment may prevent irreversible neurological deterioration and less satisfactory improvement after OLT.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):467-74.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recurrent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. Recently, antiviral therapy, such as lamivudine, has become available for prophylaxis against HBV reactivation posttransplantation and for the treatment of HBV recurrent disease. We report our initial experience with lamivudine therapy in patients with precore mutant-associated HBV infection undergoing liver transplantation (n = 29). Outcomes were compared in three patient groups: group 1, precore mutant HBV infection not receiving lamivudine (n = 10); group 2, recurrent precore mutant HBV infection posttransplantation subsequently treated with lamivudine (n = 10); and group 3, HBV precore mutant patients undergoing liver transplantation and receiving lamivudine and low-dose hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) from the time of transplantation (n = 9). In group 1, HBV recurred in 9 of 10 patients, with subsequent graft loss in all 9 patients. In group 2, all patients developed HBV recurrence at a mean of 7.3 months posttransplantation and started lamivudine therapy at a median of 16 months posttransplantation. Follow-up on lamivudine therapy was for a median of 11 months. Six of these 10 patients developed mutations in the HBV polymerase gene associated with lamivudine resistance. There were two liver failure-related deaths in this group. In group 3 patients, there was one death from graft-versus-host disease. The remaining 8 patients have been followed up for a mean of 15.6 months posttransplantation, and all remain hepatitis B surface antigen negative and HBV DNA negative. In conclusion, lamivudine therapy in association with low-dose HBIG is effective in preventing HBV reactivation posttransplantation. Rescue therapy with lamivudine in patients with HBV recurrence is only moderately effective, with a 60% lamivudine resistance rate in patients treated for longer than 6 months.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):512-9.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a successful living related liver transplantation from a donor with von Willebrand's disease. With proper preparation, a substantial liver resection can be performed safely in such patients, and the transplanted liver will function normally.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):532-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasodilating peptide that increases rat platelet cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels and acts on endothelial cells to stimulate nitric oxide release. Both mechanisms inhibit platelet function. Considering these effects, AM may have a role in cardiovascular regulation after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and could have an antithrombotic effect. The aim of the present study is to investigate plasma AM levels in the early postoperative period after OLT and their relationship with vascular complications in OLT. We measured plasma AM levels in 35 patients with cirrhosis who underwent OLT at baseline and 1, 7, and 15 days postoperatively. We found that AM levels were significantly greater in patients with cirrhosis compared with healthy subjects. Of the 35 patients, 10 had vascular complications. In these 10 patients, AM concentrations were significantly greater than those observed in the nonthrombotic group in the early postoperative period. In addition, we also noticed in the nonthrombotic group a significant increase in AM levels from baseline to day 1, then a decrease to baseline levels in the early postoperative period. Our study shows that AM might act as a new humoral factor involved in the response to surgery in OLT and is significantly associated with vascular thrombosis in OLT.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 12/1999; 5(6):485-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with hepatic iron overload who undergo orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have a worse 1-year survival than those who undergo transplantation for other indications; the long-term outcome in this population is unknown. The purpose of this study is to report long-term follow-up after OLT in a cohort of patients with hepatic iron overload. Five liver transplant centers in the United States reported follow-up data on 37 patients receiving a first liver transplant who had severe hepatic iron overload in their native livers. Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival among these patients was compared with survival data from all age-matched liver transplantations reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) over the same time period (1987 to 1993). The 5-year survival rate after OLT was 40% in the hepatic iron overload group compared with an overall survival rate of 62% for all patient groups from the UNOS registry (P =.0009). Although sepsis was the cause of 53% of all deaths occurring within the first year after OLT, cardiac complications accounted for 50% of the late mortality in patients with hepatic iron overload. In conclusion, long-term survival after OLT is significantly decreased in patients with hepatic iron overload. Infectious and cardiac complications are the most common causes of death in these patients. Further studies are needed to define the relationship between hepatic iron overload and mortality and to examine the effect of iron depletion on outcome after OLT in this patient population.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):369-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Infective endocarditis is a rare complication affecting solid-organ transplant recipients. Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis is also rare. A case of persistent bacteremia secondary to an isolated pulmonic valve vegetation occurred in a woman 10 days after liver transplantation. A pulmonary vegetectomy was performed as an alternative to valve replacement in addition to long-term antibiotic therapy.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):456-7.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Corticosteroid withdrawal after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) represents an attractive therapeutic option for ameliorating post-OLT metabolic complications, although several reports suggest patients who undergo transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) may have a greater incidence of acute and chronic rejection when withdrawn from corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the success of corticosteroid withdrawal in patients with AIH after OLT. Twenty-six patients underwent successful OLT for AIH. In 21 of these patients, stable maintenance immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine (CSA) and prednisone (n = 20) or tacrolimus (TAC) and prednisone (n = 1). In this group, a trial of prednisone withdrawal was initiated when patients were 6 months or more post-OLT, with normal liver function, and receiving an average prednisone dosage of 10 mg/d. Five additional patients treated with either TAC (n = 4) or CSA (n = 1) plus mycophenolate mofetil underwent a 14-day taper of prednisone. Overall, 17 of 25 patients (68%) were successfully withdrawn from corticosteroids, with a mean follow-up of 22 months (range, 1 to 34 months). Of the remaining 8 patients, 5 patients received a lower dosage of prednisone or required prednisone to control inflammatory bowel disease. Only 3 patients remained dependent on prednisone to maintain stable liver allograft function. Withdrawal from 10 to 5 mg of prednisone (n = 21) resulted in four episodes of steroid-responsive and two episodes of steroid-resistant rejection in 3 patients, and 18 of 21 patients (86%) were rejection free. Withdrawal from 5 to 0 mg prednisone (n = 17) resulted in eight episodes of steroid-responsive and no episodes of steroid-resistant rejection in 4 patients; 13 of 17 patients (76%) were rejection free. Of the 5 patients in the 14-day prednisone-taper group, 3 patients had steroid-responsive rejection and 1 patient required OKT3. Seventeen of 21 patients (81%) with AIH were successfully withdrawn from corticosteroids. It is notable that corticosteroid withdrawal was associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol levels, decreased use of antihypertensive agents, and reduced need for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. We propose corticosteroid withdrawal should be attempted in patients with underlying AIH who undergo OLT because most will benefit without significantly jeopardizing the liver allograft.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):375-80.
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines the scientific, technical, and administrative barriers to splitting donor livers for use in two adults. The main scientific barrier is that cadaveric donor livers at their current level of postoperative function are not sufficiently large to support life in two adult recipients. However, glycogenation of livers from young donors may be a method to overcome this problem in the short term. The three technical obstacles to splitting the liver in the midplane are anatomic anomalies that complicate or prevent splitting, the means to detect these anomalies, and the surgical methods to accomplish the split. Anatomic anomalies affecting the biliary drainage and arterial supply of the liver are the most important limiting technical factors. Administrative accommodations in the current methods of organ allocation will be needed if split-liver transplantation in adults is to succeed. A nationwide view of organ allocation requires that the total number of lives saved by the procedure be the priority outcome nationally. If liver transplantation is viewed from this perspective, split-liver transplantation for adults would be a high priority, and incentives should be set to encourage it.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):437-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Living donor and split-liver transplantation techniques require the calculation of a standard liver volume (SLV) as a reference point for the minimal volume necessary for the recipient. We therefore examined whether a widely used formula developed on the basis of a Japanese population sample was also adequate for the Caucasian population. The documentation of volumes of 1332 autopsy livers from a German Forensic Medicine Department was used to create a formula for an SLV for the Caucasian population. The Japanese formula estimated the Caucasian liver volume to be on average 322.6 +/- 335. 8 g (SD) less than they actually were. The following new formula for the calculation of SLV for Caucasians was established by linear regression analysis: Liver volume (mL) = 1072.8 * body surface area(m2)-345.7.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):366-8.
  • Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):458-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatic allograft rejection is characterized by the histological findings of ductopenia and a decreased number of hepatic arteries in portal tracts in the presence of foam cell (obliterative) arteriopathy. Recent studies have extended the histological spectrum of chronic rejection to include the presence of biliary epithelial atrophy or pyknosis involving the majority of small ducts present in the liver biopsy specimen. Overall, the incidence of chronic rejection in adults appears to be decreasing and is currently approximately 4%. However, the incidence of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplant recipients has been more stable and ranges from 8% to 12% in most studies. Clinical risk factors associated with chronic rejection include: underlying liver disease, HLA donor-recipient matching, positive lymphocytotoxic cross-match, cytomegalovirus infection, recipient age, donor-recipient ethnic origin, male donor into female recipient, number of acute rejection episodes, histological severity of acute rejection episodes, low cyclosporine trough levels, and retransplantation for chronic rejection. Chronic rejection, once diagnosed, frequently leads to graft failure; however, a number of reports indicated 20% to 30% of the patients with this diagnosis may respond to additional immunosuppressive therapy or even resolve spontaneously receiving baseline immunosuppression. Newer immunosuppressive agents, such as tacrolimus and mycophenolate, may successfully reverse chronic rejection, particularly when it is diagnosed in its early histological stages.
    Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):388-400.

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