Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (Air Waste )

Publisher: Air & Waste Management Association


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    Air & waste, Air and waste, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Government agencies directory
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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, air pollution is primarily measured by Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMN). These AQMNs have multiple objectives, including characterizing pollution patterns, protecting the public health, and determining compliance with air quality standards. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency issued a directive that air pollution agencies assess the performance of their AQMNs. Although various methods to design and assess AQMNs exist, here we demonstrate a GIS-based approach that combines environmental, economic, and social indicators through the assessment of the ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) networks in Maricopa County, Arizona. The assessment was conducted in three phases: (1) to evaluate the performance of the existing networks, (2) to identify areas that would benefit from the addition of new monitoring stations, and (3) to recommend changes to the AQMN. A comprehensive set of indicators were created for evaluating differing aspects of the AQMN’s objectives, and weights were applied to emphasize important indicators. Indicators were also classified according to their sustainable development goal. Our results showed that O3 was well represented in the county with some redundancy in terms of the urban monitors. The addition of weights to the indicators only had a minimal effect on the results. For O3, urban monitors had greater social scores, while rural monitors had greater environmental scores. The results did not suggest a need for adding more O3 monitoring sites. For PM10, clustered urban monitors were redundant, and weights also had a minimal effect on the results. The clustered urban monitors had overall low scores; sites near point sources had high environmental scores. Several areas were identified as needing additional PM10 monitors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a multi-indicator approach to assess AQMNs. Network managers and planners may use this method to assess the performance of air quality monitoring networks in urban regions.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States–Mexico border. During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14–30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 μg m−3 and biomass stoves 163 to 504 μg m−3. Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 μg m−3). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 μg m−3, maximum: 9411 μg m−3), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 μg m−3, maximum: 10,846 μg m−3). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 μg m−3).Implications:Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor ambient air measurements. However, a large fraction of time is typically spent indoors where a variety of activities including cooking, heating, tobacco smoking, and cleaning can lead to elevated PM concentrations. This study investigates the influence of meteorology, outdoor PM, and indoor activities on indoor air pollution (IAP) levels in the United States–Mexico border region. Results indicate that cooking fuel type and meteorology greatly influence the IAP in homes, with biomass fuel use causing the largest increase in PM concentration.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 02/2014;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2013;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2013; 63:‎327-335‎.
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 08/2008; 58:865-878.
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated samples of particulate matter have been taken iso-kinetically from the flue gas of Bai Bang thermal coal-fired power plant using glass fibre filters. The samples have been Soxhlet extracted with CH2CI2 and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FLD) and/or gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detection (GC/MS). Anthracene, benzo [a] anthacene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo [a] pyrene, have been all present on the ...
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2008;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2005;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2002; 52:765-768.
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    ABSTRACT: Air biofiltration is now under active consideration for the removal of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted airstreams. To optimize this emerging environmental technology and to understand compound removal mechanisms, a biofilter packed with peat was developed to treat a complex mixture of VOCs: oxygenated, aromatic, and chlorinated compounds. The removal efficiency of this process was high. The maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) obtained was approximately 120 g VOCs/m3 peat/hr. Referring to each of the mixture's components, the ECmax showed the limits in terms of biodegradability of VOCs, especially for the halogenated compounds and xylene. A stratification of biodegradation was observed in the reactor. The oxygenated compounds were metabolized before the aromatic and halogenated ones. Two assumptions are suggested. There was a competition between bacterial communities. Different communities colonized the peat-based biofilter, one specialized for the elimination of oxygenated compounds, the others more specialized for elimination of aromatic and halogenated compounds. There was also substrate competition. Bacterial communities were the same over the height of the column, but the more easily biodegradable compounds were used first for the microorganism metabolism when they were present in the gaseous effluent.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 12/2001; 51(12):1662-1670.
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/1995;
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    ABSTRACT: Many state and federal agencies have prepared risk assessment guidelines, which describe methods for quantifying health risks associated with exposure to vapors and particulates emitted from point and area sources (e.g., California Air Pollution Control Officers Association [CAPCOA] under the Air Toxics "Hot Spots" Act [Assembly Bill 2588] and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] under the Clean Air Act). In general, these guidelines recommend or require the use of upperbound "point" estimates for numerous exposure parameters. This methodology yields a single risk estimate, which is intended not to underestimate the true risk and may significantly overstate it. This paper describes a risk assessment of a facility's airborne emissions using a probabilistic approach, which presents a range and distribution of risk estimates rather than a single point estimate. The health risks to residents living near a food processing facility, as estimated using techniques recommended by California AB2588, are compared to the results of a probabilistic analysis. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were identified as the emitted chemicals of concern. The point estimate method recommended by CAPCOA resulted in estimates that were greater than the 99.99th percentile risk predicted by the probabilistic analysis. As shown in other assessments of persistent airborne chemicals, secondary or indirect exposure pathways (i.e., ingestion of beef, ingestion of cow's milk, and ingestion of mother's milk) rather than inhalation, were the greatest contributors to risk. In this analysis, the probability distributions for the cancer potency factor and ingestion of cow's milk had the largest impact on the results of the 33 exposure factors considered.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/1995; 44(12):1399-413.
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    ABSTRACT: To put waste-to-energy (WTE) in perspective, it is important to see how it measures up environmentally to other power generation utility sources. This paper compares actual WTE facility emissions with those from fossil fuel combustion utility sources. This comparison is made on an electricity production basis, such as a pound of pollutant per megawatt-hour of net electricity generated, for each ower generation source.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 12/1994; 44(11):1309-12.
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    ABSTRACT: A recycling exposure system, which has characteristics of dynamic and static systems, has been designed and constructed for calibrating passive sampling tubes. This system is very easy to set up and maintain. Organic vapors inside the system are generated by syringe injection, and homogeneous vapors are circulated by a metal-bellows pump. The concentrations of light hydrocarbons (e.g., isoprene) may decrease slightly after circulating for longer than 10 hours; however, this system is very stable for C5-C8 hydrocarbons for at least eight hours. The system has been used successfully to calibrate Perkin-Elmer diffusion tubes packed with Chromosorb 106 for collecting benzene vapor at low exposure doses (< 70 ppmv x min). The entire system can be easily and effectively cleaned by circulating through a U-tube packed with activated carbon.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 12/1994; 44(11):1299-302.
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    ABSTRACT: In June 1991, General Motors Research and Development Center (GMR&D) participated in a remote sensing study conducted by the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During this study, the GMR&D remote sensor was used to measure the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from approximately 15,000 vehicles. The vehicle type (passenger car, light-duty truck, or medium/heavy-duty truck), manufacturer, and model year were identified for each vehicle by acquiring registration data from the state of California. Analyses were performed separately for each vehicle type and for passenger cars by separate model years. The data indicate that the passenger cars with the highest 10% of CO emissions generated approximately 58% of the total CO from all cars. Similarly, the 10% highest HC-emitting cars generated 65% of the total HC from cars. It was found that for each model year of vehicle, the distribution of emission concentrations followed a logarithmic relationship. The logarithmic functions that describe these relationships can be used to estimate the fraction of vehicles that emitted at or above any given concentration of CO or HC. However, these logarithmic functions only describe measured distributions for vehicles emitting more than 1% CO and 0.015% HC.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 12/1994; 44(11):1284-92.
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 12/1994; 44(11):1264.

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