Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (Air Waste)

Publisher: Air & Waste Management Association

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Other titles Air & waste, Air and waste, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Government agencies directory
ISSN 1073-161X
OCLC 27335008
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite observed geographic and temporal variation in particulate matter (PM)-related health morbidities, only a small number of epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relation between PM2.5 chemical constituents and respiratory disease. Most assessments are limited by inadequate spatial and temporal resolution of ambient PM measurements and/or by their approaches to examine the role of specific PM components on health outcomes. In a case-crossover analysis using daily average ambient PM2.5 total mass and species estimates derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and available observations, we examined the association between the chemical components of PM (including elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and other remaining) and respiratory hospitalizations in New York State. We evaluated relationships between levels (low, medium, high) of PM constituent mass fractions, and assessed modification of the PM2.5-hospitalization association via models stratified by mass fractions of both primary and secondary PM components. In our results, average daily PM2.5 concentrations in New York State were generally lower than the 24-hr average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Year-round analyses showed statistically significant positive associations between respiratory hospitalizations and PM2.5 total mass, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations at multiple exposure lags (0.5-2.0% per interquartile range [IQR] increase). Primarily in the summer months, the greatest associations with respiratory hospitalizations were observed per IQR increase in the secondary species sulfate and ammonium concentrations at lags of 1-4 days (1.0-2.0%). Although there were subtle differences in associations observed between mass fraction tertiles, there was no strong evidence to support modification of the PM2.5-respiratory disease association by a particular constituent. We conclude that ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and secondary aerosols including sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate were positively associated with respiratory hospitalizations, although patterns varied by season. Exposure to specific fine PM constituents is a plausible risk factor for respiratory hospitalization in New York State. The association between ambient concentrations of PM2.5 components has been evaluated in only a small number of epidemiologic studies with refined spatial and temporal scale data. In New York State, fine PM and several of its constituents, including sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, were positively associated with respiratory hospitalizations. Results suggest that PM species relationships and their influence on respiratory endpoints are complex and season dependent. Additional work is needed to better understand the relative toxicity of PM species, and to further explore the role of co-pollutant relationships and exposure prediction error on observed PM-respiratory disease associations.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 05/2015; 65(5). DOI:10.1080/10962247.2014.1001500
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 03/2015; 43(1):120-128. DOI:10.1080/1073161X.1993.10467114
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border. During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e. g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 mu g m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 mu g m(-3). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 mu g m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 mu g m(-3), maximum: 9411 mu g m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 mu g m(-3), maximum: 10,846 mu g m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 mu g m(-3)).
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 02/2014; 64(7). DOI:10.1080/10962247.2014.889615
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2013;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 10/2012; 43(5):723-728. DOI:10.1080/1073161X.1993.10467153
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 10/2012; 43(5):753-759. DOI:10.1080/1073161X.1993.10467157
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 08/2008; 58:865-878.
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated samples of particulate matter have been taken iso-kinetically from the flue gas of Bai Bang thermal coal-fired power plant using glass fibre filters. The samples have been Soxhlet extracted with CH2CI2 and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FLD) and/or gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detection (GC/MS). Anthracene, benzo [a] anthacene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo [a] pyrene, have been all present on the ...
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2008;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2005;
  • Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 01/2002; 52:765-768.
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    ABSTRACT: Air biofiltration is now under active consideration for the removal of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted airstreams. To optimize this emerging environmental technology and to understand compound removal mechanisms, a biofilter packed with peat was developed to treat a complex mixture of VOCs: oxygenated, aromatic, and chlorinated compounds. The removal efficiency of this process was high. The maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) obtained was approximately 120 g VOCs/m3 peat/hr. Referring to each of the mixture's components, the ECmax showed the limits in terms of biodegradability of VOCs, especially for the halogenated compounds and xylene. A stratification of biodegradation was observed in the reactor. The oxygenated compounds were metabolized before the aromatic and halogenated ones. Two assumptions are suggested. There was a competition between bacterial communities. Different communities colonized the peat-based biofilter, one specialized for the elimination of oxygenated compounds, the others more specialized for elimination of aromatic and halogenated compounds. There was also substrate competition. Bacterial communities were the same over the height of the column, but the more easily biodegradable compounds were used first for the microorganism metabolism when they were present in the gaseous effluent.
    Air & waste: journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 12/2001; 51(12):1662-1670. DOI:10.1080/10473289.2001.10464388