Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society (J VAC SCI TECHNOL B )

Publisher: American Vacuum Society, American Vacuum Society

Description

The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B is devoted to reports of original research, review articles, and Critical Review articles. The JVST B has been established to provide a vehicle for the publication of research dealing with microelectronics and nanometer structures. The emphasis will be on processing, measurement and phenomena, and will include vacuum processing, plasma processing, materials and structural characterization, microlithography, and the physics and chemistry of submicron and nanometer structures and devices. The journal also publishes papers from conferences and symposia that are sponsored by the AVS and its Divisions. JVST B is published six times annually (Jan/Feb, Mar/Apr, May/Jun, Jul/Aug, Sep/Oct, Nov/Dec).

  • Impact factor
    1.36
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.29
  • Cited half-life
    8.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.27
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.44
  • Website
    Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures website
  • Other titles
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures processing, measurement and phenomena, Microelectronics and nanometer structures, Journal of vacuum science and technology., JVST B
  • ISSN
    1071-1023
  • OCLC
    23276603
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Vacuum Society

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On a public eprint server
    • On authors and employers website
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used, on authors and employers website only
    • Must link to publisher abstract version
    • Published source must be acknowledged (see policy for wording)
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post articles in PubMed Central 12 months after publication
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An experimental method to determine the beam spot size and the acid diffusion length of a positive chemically amplified electron-beam resist (p-CAR) is proposed. This method is applied to a reference p-CAR with a Vistec VB6 electron beam at 100 kV and with a MAPPER tool at 5 kV. Beam spot size characterization is based on the width measurement of a single line exposure. This procedure is applied to two specific dose ranges. In the first one, the chemical mechanism occurring in the exposed resist is dominated by acid catalytic deprotection of a partially protected polymer (standard process). In the second dose range, the chemistry is governed by the cross-linking mechanism due to the intentional overdose of the p-CAR, leading to a polarity inversion. The authors assume that comparing the results obtained with the standard and the cross-linked p-CAR enables the determination of the acid diffusion length of the p-CAR process. This hypothesis was verified with measurements performed with a nonchemically amplified process. A relationship between the best exposure latitudes achieved at 5 and 100 kV and the minimum spot sizes determined with the present method is observed with very high resolution grating exposures. In this work, a suitable method is proposed for fine resist process characterization.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 11/2014; 32(06FJ02).
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    ABSTRACT: Ge 1−xSnx thin films with Sn composition up to 7% were epitaxially grown by chemical vapor deposition on silicon. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence was investigated and the peaks corresponding to the direct and indirect transitions were observed in a wavelength range from 1.6 to 2.2 μm. The exact peak positions obtained from Gaussian fitting were fitted with an empirical temperature dependent band-gap equation (Varshni relationship). The separation between direct and indirect peaks was equal to 0.012 eV for GeSn thin film with 7% Sn content at room temperature. This observation indicates that the indirect-to-direct crossover would take place at slightly higher Sn compositions.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 10/2014; 32:060601.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied the influence of isotopes on the Ar/H2 and Ar/D2 plasmas using Langmuir probe and ion mass analyzer measurements at several pressures relevant to low temperature plasma surface processing. As up to 50% H2 is added to Ar plasma, electron energy distribution functions show an increase in electron temperature (from 2.5 eV to 3 eV for 30 mTorr with 50% addition) and a decrease in electron density (2.5 × 1011 cm−3 → 2.5 × 1010 cm−3 at 30 mTorr with 50% addition). At lower pressures (5 and 10 mTorr), these effects are not as pronounced. This change in electron properties is very similar for Ar/D2 plasmas due to similar electron cross-sections for H2 and D2. Ion types transition from predominantly Ar+ to molecular ions ArH+/H3 + and ArD+/D3 + with the addition of H2 and D2 to Ar, respectively. At high pressures and for the heavier isotope addition, this transition to molecular ions is much faster. Higher pressures increase the ion–molecules collision induced formation of the diatomic and triatomic molecular ions due to a decrease in gaseous mean-free paths. The latter changes are more pronounced for D2 addition to Ar plasma due to lower wall-loss of ions and an increased reaction rate for ion–molecular interactions as compared to Ar/H2. Differences in plasma species are also seen in the etching behavior of amorphous hydrocarbon films in both Ar/H2 and Ar/D2 plasma chemistries. D2 addition to Ar plasma shows a larger increase in etch rate than H2 addition.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 07/2014; 32(5):041206.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report an investigation of the effect of different doses of 5 MeV proton irradiation on circular-shaped AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. The degradation of saturation drain current (IDSS) was minimal up to an irradiation dose of 2 × 1013 cm−2. By comparison, a dose of 2 × 1014 cm−2 dose produced a 12.5% reduction of IDSS and 9.2% increase of sheet resistance. In addition, the threshold voltage showed larger positive shifts for 2×1014 cm−2 dose compared to 2×1013 cm−2, and both of these doses produced showed larger shifts for smaller gate to drain distances. Increases of 39.8% and 47.1%, respectively, in the breakdown voltage for 6 and 10 μm drain to gate distances (LGD) was observed and was attributed to the creation of a virtual gate at the AlGaN/GaN interface due to the irradiation, which reduced the peak electric field at the drain side of the gate edge.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 05/2014; 32(1):012201-012201-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Proton irradiation from the backside of the samples were employed to enhance off-state drain breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on Si substrates. Via holes were fabricated directly under the active area of the HEMTs by etching through the Si substrate for subsequent backside proton irradiation. By taking the advantage of the steep drop at the end of proton energy loss profile, the defects created by the proton irradiation from the backside of the sample could be precisely placed at specific locations inside the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. There were no degradation of drain current nor enhancement of off-state drain voltage breakdown voltage observed for the irradiated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with the proton energy of 225 or 275 keV, for which the defects created by the proton irradiations were intentionally placed in the GaN buffer. HEMTs with defects placed in the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel region and AlGaN barrier using 330 or 340 keV protons not only showed degradation of both drain current and extrinsic transconductance but also exhibited improvement of the off-state drain breakdown voltage. The Florida Object Oriented Device and Process Simulator Technology Computer Aided Design finite-element simulations were performed to confirm the hypothesis of a virtual gate formed around the 2DEG region to reduce the peak electric field around the gate edges and increase the off-state drain breakdown voltage.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 05/2014; 32(2):021203-021203-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The changes in direct current performance of circular-shaped AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) after 60Co γ-irradiation doses of 50, 300, 450, or 700 Gy were measured. The main effects on the HEMTs after irradiation were increases of both drain current and electron mobility. Compton electrons induced from the absorption of the γ-rays appear to generate donor type defects. Drain current dispersions of ∼5% were observed during gate lag measurements due to the formation of a virtual gate between the gate and drain resulting from the defects generated during γ-irradiation.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 05/2014; 32(3):031203-031203-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A hybrid nanostructure multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet decorated with a nickel (MWCNT/Ni) was synthesized for utilization as a pH sensor. Different sizes of Ni particles were coated onto MWCNT sheets by electrodeposition, which is a simple fabrication technique for binary composites. Electrical resistance of the pH sensor increased linearly with an increase in pH value. The performance of the pH sensor was significantly influenced by Ni particle size, which was easily regulated by controlling the electrodeposition time. The measured output characteristics were stable, reliable, and reproducible.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 05/2014; 116:57–60.
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    ABSTRACT: Graphene-insulator-graphene vertical tunneling structures are discussed from a theoretical perspective. Momentum conservation in such devices leads to highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics, which with gates on the tunnel junction form potentially useful transistor structures. Two prior theoretical treatments of such devices are discussed; the treatments are shown to be formally equivalent, although some differences in their implementations are identified. The limit of zero momentum conservation in the theory is explicitly considered, with a formula involving the density-of-states of the graphene electrodes recovered in this limit. Various predictions of the theory are compared to experiment.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 04/2014; 32(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of unique shapes and geometries was obtained by evaporation of platinum onto a polycrystalline graphite foil. This study was done using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The evolution of complex nanostructures was observed for various amounts of Pt deposition, and the observed structures were discussed in terms of the average fractal dimension. The fractal dimension was found to increase with increasing deposition of Pt and was found to be in the range from 1.2 to 1.6 in the submonolayer coverage regime as investigated. The changes in the average fractal dimension were correlated with the corresponding changes of the average size and width of the branches of the structures. A logarithmic dependence of the average size of the deposited structures on corresponding amount Pt deposited was found.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 03/2014; 32(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Nanolaminates comprising of TiO2 or HfO2 sublayers within an Al2O3 matrix are grown with atomic layer deposition. These nanolaminates provide an improved silicon surface passivation compared to conventional Al2O3 films. The physical properties of the nanolaminates can be described with a dynamic growth model that considers initial and steady-state growth rates for the involved metal oxides. This model links the cycle ratios of the different atomic layer deposition precursors to the thickness and the material concentrations of the nanolaminate, which are determined by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry. Effective carrier lifetime measurements show that Al2O3-TiO2 nanolaminates achieve values of up to 6.0 ms at a TiO2 concentration of 0.2%. In Al2O3-HfO2 nanolaminates, a maximum effective carrier lifetime of 5.5 ms is reached at 7% HfO2. Electrical measurements show that the TiO2 incorporation causes strong hysteresis effects, which are linked to the trapping of negative charges and result in an enhanced field effect passivation. For the Al2O3-HfO2 nanolaminates, the capacitance data clearly show a very low density of interface traps (below 5·1010 eV−1·cm−2) and a reduction of the fixed charge density with increasing HfO2 concentration. Due to the low number of recombination centers near the surface, the reduced field effect passivation only had a minor impact on the effective carrier lifetime.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2014; 32(3):03D110-03D110-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal decomposition of the native GaSb oxides is studied using time resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a temperature resolution of better than 1 K. The expected transfer of oxygen from Sb-O to Ga-O before the eventual desorption of all oxides is observed. However, an initial reaction resulting in the reduction of Sb2O3 along with the concurrent increase in both Ga2O3 and Sb2O4 is detected in the temperature range of 450–525 K. Using the relative changes in atomic concentrations of the chemical species observed; the initial reaction pathway is proposed.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2014; 32(4):041201-041201-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Nanogap interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays were fabricated by tilted angle evaporation on dry etch SiO2 substrates, suggesting a simple, inexpensive, and controllable fabrication technique. The impedance characteristics in a KCl solution clearly showed the differences between nanogap and microscaled IDEs in terms of the peak positions of the phase shift and the ratio of the resistance amplitudes. Moreover, the effect of imperfections on the edge of electrodes was quantitatively discussed through the analysis of electric-field based on finite element method. Our results provide a better understanding of impedance behavior of nanogap IDE arrays for high-performance biochemical applications.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2014; 32(2):021803-021803-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The hybrid orientation structure of the CeO2(100) and (110) regions on Si(100) substrates is studied using electron beam-induced orientation-selective epitaxial (OSE) growth by reactive magnetron sputtering. Two separate areas of growth are seen, with CeO2(100) layers found to grow in areas irradiated by electrons during the growth process, and the CeO2(110) layers growing in the areas not irradiated by the beam. The lateral orientation mapping obtained by x-ray diffraction measurements reveals the existence of transition regions between these two orientation areas. The width of the transition region is found to decrease proportionally as the logarithm of the underlying Si substrate resistivity. The OSE growth experiments using silicon-on-insulator substrates with lithographically formed trenches show that perfect isolation of the two areas becomes possible by optimizing the geometry of the trenches.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2014; 32(3):03D108-03D108-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Highly uniform AlGaN/GaN HEMT films with good electron transport properties have been grown on 200-mm silicon substrates by plasma molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate an AlGaN compositional and thickness variation of ±1% across the wafer, and a 29 point resistance map of a HEMT yielded a sheet resistance of 451 Ω/sq ± 1.1%. The electron mobility for seven measurements taken across the diameter of the wafer was 1555 cm2/Vs ± 1%. The mobility obtained on 200-mm silicon is within 10% of the mobility obtained for GaN HEMTs grown on 100-mm SiC substrates, which have a much smaller lattice mismatch with GaN. The uniform films were obtained at GaN growth rates comparable to 100-mm growth and a chamber pressure well within the free molecular flow regime.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2014; 32(3):030605-030605-3.
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    ABSTRACT: As chamber conditions gradually change with wafer processing, periodic wet cleaning is an inevitable event in semiconductor manufacturing. Since the chamber conditions are initialized during the wet cleaning, a chamber conditioning process called chamber seasoning follows the wet cleaning step. In this paper, a systematic procedure to optimize chamber seasoning for plasma etching is proposed, and the effectiveness is demonstrated in a semiconductor manufacturing environment. In order to quantitatively analyze plasma conditions for chamber seasoning and to achieve the optimum conditions objectively, a normalization technique for optical emission spectroscopy called a self-background normalization technique and a computational optimization process is suggested. By applying the optimized chamber seasoning conditions, a plasma reactor which is suffering from a serious etch rate drift after wet cleaning returns to a production ready status. Also, the etch rate of Si, which is an index for production readiness, is perfectly matched to 37.8 A/s for production. Hopefully, the proposed methodology in this paper will be disseminated to semiconductor manufacturers who experience similar issues after wet cleaning.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2014; 32(2):022203-022203-6.