Anxiety (Anxiety )

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons


Discontinued. Continues as Depression and Anxiety.

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    Anxiety website
  • Other titles
    Anxiety (Online), Anxiety
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  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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John Wiley & Sons

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    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ‚Äč green

Publications in this journal

  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):40-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Major depression is a common mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 15% of the general population, affecting almost twice as many females as males. Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3% or more. Like major depression, panic disorder affects nearly twice as many females as males. Both panic disorder and major depression are often chronic conditions, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Among patients who seek treatment for either panic disorder or major depression, both conditions are present in approximately one-third of the patient population. Substantial information suggests that individuals who suffer from both panic disorder and major depression respond poorly to acute treatment, are more likely to remain ill over the long term, require more psychiatric treatment, and are at approximately twice the risk of suicide attempts than individuals who suffer from either condition alone. There has been very little systematic study of individuals with coexisting panic disorder and major depression. This has left significant gaps in our knowledge about optimal treatment for the substantial subgroup of individuals suffering from both disorders simultaneously. Social phobia is a common disorder which affects 2-8% (females more than males) of the population. Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of social phobia are reviewed. Patterns of comorbidity, effects of coexisting psychiatric disorders on disability, health care utilization and suicidality are discussed, together with treatment implications for coexisting social phobia and major depression.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(2):61-70.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the validity and utility of distinguishing symptoms of anxiety from those of depression and grief in recently spousally bereaved elders. We also examined pathways from baseline (six months or less post-spousal death) to follow-up (12 and 18 months post-death) levels of anxiety, depression and grief-related symptoms. Baseline and follow-up data were available from 56 recently widowed elderly subjects recruited for an investigation of physiological changes in bereavement. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a model in which anxiety was specified as a third factor, apart from depression and grief factors, fit the data well and significantly better than either the one or two factor models. Path analyses revealed that both baseline severity of grief and anxiety had significant lagged effects and predicted follow-up severity of depression. Symptoms of anxiety appeared distinct from those of depression and grief, and the anxiety, depression and grief factors differentially predicted subsequent symptomatology. These findings suggest a need for more specific identification and treatment of anxiety, depression and grief symptoms within the context of late-life spousal bereavement.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(5):234-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords:panic disorder;anxiety;psychopharmacology;ondansetron
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(4):199-202.
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    ABSTRACT: Although there were no differences in response to an acute injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), there were strain differences in the development of kindled seizures to repeated injections (PTZ; 30 mg/kg 3 times weekly for 13 injections), with Wistar rats reaching stage 4 or 5 of clonic-tonic seizures, but hooded Lister rats reaching only stage 2 or 3 of convulsive waves axially through the body. The strains also reacted differently to a test dose of PTZ (20 mg/kg) one week after the end of kindling, with the Wistar strain showing stage 3 and the Lister strain stage 2 seizures. When the rats were tested 24 h after the end of the kindling injections there was an anxiolytic effect in the social interaction test, in both the low light, familiar and the low light, unfamiliar test conditions that reached significance in the Wistar strain. The Wistar kindled rats showed an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety when they were tested 24 h after the end of kindling. The anxiolytic effects found 24 h after kindling could not be due to the seizure 24 h earlier, since no changes were found in rats tested 24 h after a single seizure from PTZ (60 mg/kg). When the rats were tested 1 week after the end of kindling there were no changes, compared with vehicle-injected controls, in either test of anxiety. There was no change in benzodiazepine binding in platelets of the kindled Lister rats but there was a significant increase in the kindled Wistar rats 1 week after the end of kindling and also 24 h after a single PTZ seizure. The pattern of increased platelet benzodiazepine binding did not correspond with the time course of rebound anxiolytic effects. However, after kindling it seems that there are long-lasting changes in benzodiazepine binding that are similar to the short-term increases that are found following a single seizure.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(3):109-16.
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently observed that compulsive behaviors in mentally retarded patients appear to be quite prevalent, can be reliably assessed, and have a high rate of co-occurrence with stereotyped and self-injurious behaviors in this population. As abnormal growth rate has been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, we examined physical stature in adults with mental retardation who display repetitive movement disorders. Identification of cases with stereotypic movement disorder, and cases with compulsive behaviors was done using a symptom checklist and direct observation. Subjects with repetitive movement disorders were smaller in stature than control subjects, with gender differences observed across repetitive behavior disorders. Specifically, female subjects with compulsive behavior disorder, but not stereotypic movement disorder, were significantly shorter and weighted significantly less than same sex-matched controls. Conversely, male subjects with stereotypic movement disorder, but not compulsive disorder, were significantly shorter and weighed significantly less than same sex controls. These findings may point to a neuroendocrine abnormality associated with repetitive movement disorders.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(2):90-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Differences between phobic and normal subject perceptions of danger were examined. Nineteen spider-fearful subjects and a matched set of controls gave danger ratings before and during a spider-avoidance test. When detached from the phobic stimulus, spider-fearful subjects: (1) gave higher estimates of the probability of being bitten than did controls, (2) gave higher estimates of the injuries that would result from being bitten, and (3) believed their high levels of anticipated anxiety were more reasonable and appropriate to the demands of the situation than did controls. These findings are inconsistent with both the traditional account and Beck and Emery's (1985) more recent view that, when detached from the phobic situation, patients can accurately evaluate the danger of potential phobic encounters. The present results question the view that phobic individuals have complete insight into the inappropriateness of their own distress.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(4):179-85.
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suffer from hypervigilant attention was investigated via explicit memory (incidental recall and recognition) and priming (reading speed) measures. OCD patients did not differ from normal controls on explicit measures of memory; specifically, recognition of unusual words (experiment 1) and recall and recognition of words and feature-specific information (experiment 2). Although both normal controls and OCD patients showed priming, the pattern of priming differed for the two groups (experiment 2). Specifically, patients with OCD failed to show feature-specific priming, suggesting they may have attended more focally on the priming task than did normal controls. These findings support previous reports of normal performance in OCD on explicit memory tasks, but suggest more sensitive measures may reflect differences in processing information.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(3):123-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Fluvoxamine and imipramine were compared to placebo in an 8-week doubleblind randomized multicentre trial comprising of 148 outpatients between 19 and 57 years of age (mean: 35) with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of Panic Disorder. mean daily dose at endpoint was: fluvoxamine, 171.4 mg; imipramine 164.7 mg. The mean number of panic attacks per week at baseline were 10.9, 14.4 and 6.5 for fluvoxamine, imipramine and placebo, respectively. The intent-to-treat analysis of the change from baseline (difference score) of the number of panic attacks at endpoint revealed: a difference of 3.3 attacks (95% CI: -0.3, 6.8) between fluvoxamine and placebo and a difference of 6.0 attacks (95% CI: 1.5, 10.5) between imipramine and placebo. Treatment was stopped prematurely in 31 (62%) on fluvoxamine, 16 (33%) on imipramine and 29 (58%) on placebo. The number of patients withdrawing due to intolerance was 13 (26%) for fluvoxamine, 10 (21%) for imipramine and 4 (8%) for placebo. The number of patients withdrawing due to lack of efficacy was 10 (20%) for fluvoxamine, 4 (8%) for imipramine and 12 (24%) for placebo. Overall, this study demonstrated that fluvoxamine was not effective in the treatment of panic disorder but did show a strong effect for imipramine. A chance occurrence of significantly fewer number of panic attacks in the placebo group at baseline may limit the conclusions of this study.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(4):192-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords:panic disorder;personality;Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire;anxiety;treatment;alprazolam
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(2):95-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the performance of children with anxiety disorders with that of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal controls in the processing of emotional information. A total of 57 children ages 8 to 11 years (18 anxious, 20 ADHD, 19 normal control) were administered a dichotic listening task for the detection of words and emotions. Comparisons of overall performance, false alarms, and a sensitivity index (which took false alarms into account) were done using repeated measures analyses of variance. Anxious children made fewer false alarms for emotion targets compared to both ADHD children and normal controls, and fewer false alarms for words compared to normal controls. When controlling for false alarms, their performance exceeded that of both ADHD children and normal controls. There were no group differences in correct responses. Performance on a dichotic listening task differentiates anxious, ADHD, and normal children, particularly when listening for emotional targets. Further studies using this task may therefore elucidate differences in the processing of words and emotions between these three groups of children.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):279-85.
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    ABSTRACT: An ambulatory monitor, body suit, and calibration procedure were developed to compare the respiration of seven patients with panic disorder and twelve normal volunteers. Subjects wore a body suit with Respitrace bands, connected to a portable respiratory monitor for a period of 24 hours. Breath by breath values for respiratory rate and tidal volume were computed every two minutes. There was a significant difference between patients and controls in their patterns of minute ventilation during sleep. Tidal volume, rather that respiratory rate increases characterized the periods of anxiety and limited symptom attacks.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):296-302.
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    ABSTRACT: Worry about the generalizability of findings derived from clinical trials is a nagging problem. Because most clinical trials use individuals recruited by advertisements rather than patients solicited from clinical practice, bias in subject recruitment is a major concern. This paper compares and contrasts the demographic characteristics, symptomatologies, functional disabilities, health beliefs, and health expectations of clinical outpatients to those of subjects recruited from the media (symptomatic volunteers) for pharmacologic trials. Clinical patients were slightly younger, better educated, wealthier, and were more likely to be married. They had more recent exposure to benzodiazepines and antidepressants and were more likely to view their current condition as amenable to psychotherapy. They were more likely to feel that their symptoms would get worse without some type of treatment and to believe that treatment would cure them. The symptomatic volunteers had more presenting symptoms than the clinical patients. The two groups had similar Sheehan Disability Scale scores. These results suggest that further study is warranted of the characteristics of clinical patients and symptomatic volunteers.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(3):117-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been increased interest in the extent to which chronic pain patients fear and avoid activities that are thought to be related to the experience of pain. To date, however, few studies have evaluated the nature and extent of nonpain fears in these patients. The purpose of the present study was to address this paucity. The Fear Questionnaire was administered to 130 patients with physically unexplained chronic pain and 93 patients with a chronic condition unrelated to pain. Results indicated that the chronic pain patients were more fearful and avoidant of social interactions/situations and blood/injury than were the patient controls. Agoraphobia was minimal and did not differ significantly between groups. As well, the proportions of chronic pain patients indicating definite avoidance of particular situations related to blood/injury phobia (i.e., injection/minor surgery, hospitals, sight of blood, and thoughts of injury/illness) and social phobia (i.e., being watched/stared at, and speaking/acting to an audience) were significantly greater when compared to the patient controls. These results indicate that nonpain fear and avoidance are common in patients with chronic pain. Implications regarding the significance of these fears and avoidance behaviours on the experience and maintenance of pain symptoms and related disability are discussed.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):28-33.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):305.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):255.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):56-7.