Anxiety (Anxiety )

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons


Discontinued. Continues as Depression and Anxiety.

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    Anxiety website
  • Other titles
    Anxiety (Online), Anxiety
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  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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John Wiley and Sons

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    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently observed that compulsive behaviors in mentally retarded patients appear to be quite prevalent, can be reliably assessed, and have a high rate of co-occurrence with stereotyped and self-injurious behaviors in this population. As abnormal growth rate has been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, we examined physical stature in adults with mental retardation who display repetitive movement disorders. Identification of cases with stereotypic movement disorder, and cases with compulsive behaviors was done using a symptom checklist and direct observation. Subjects with repetitive movement disorders were smaller in stature than control subjects, with gender differences observed across repetitive behavior disorders. Specifically, female subjects with compulsive behavior disorder, but not stereotypic movement disorder, were significantly shorter and weighted significantly less than same sex-matched controls. Conversely, male subjects with stereotypic movement disorder, but not compulsive disorder, were significantly shorter and weighed significantly less than same sex controls. These findings may point to a neuroendocrine abnormality associated with repetitive movement disorders.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(2):90-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Although there were no differences in response to an acute injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), there were strain differences in the development of kindled seizures to repeated injections (PTZ; 30 mg/kg 3 times weekly for 13 injections), with Wistar rats reaching stage 4 or 5 of clonic-tonic seizures, but hooded Lister rats reaching only stage 2 or 3 of convulsive waves axially through the body. The strains also reacted differently to a test dose of PTZ (20 mg/kg) one week after the end of kindling, with the Wistar strain showing stage 3 and the Lister strain stage 2 seizures. When the rats were tested 24 h after the end of the kindling injections there was an anxiolytic effect in the social interaction test, in both the low light, familiar and the low light, unfamiliar test conditions that reached significance in the Wistar strain. The Wistar kindled rats showed an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety when they were tested 24 h after the end of kindling. The anxiolytic effects found 24 h after kindling could not be due to the seizure 24 h earlier, since no changes were found in rats tested 24 h after a single seizure from PTZ (60 mg/kg). When the rats were tested 1 week after the end of kindling there were no changes, compared with vehicle-injected controls, in either test of anxiety. There was no change in benzodiazepine binding in platelets of the kindled Lister rats but there was a significant increase in the kindled Wistar rats 1 week after the end of kindling and also 24 h after a single PTZ seizure. The pattern of increased platelet benzodiazepine binding did not correspond with the time course of rebound anxiolytic effects. However, after kindling it seems that there are long-lasting changes in benzodiazepine binding that are similar to the short-term increases that are found following a single seizure.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(3):109-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords:panic disorder;anxiety;psychopharmacology;ondansetron
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(4):199-202.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(5):234-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Worry about the generalizability of findings derived from clinical trials is a nagging problem. Because most clinical trials use individuals recruited by advertisements rather than patients solicited from clinical practice, bias in subject recruitment is a major concern. This paper compares and contrasts the demographic characteristics, symptomatologies, functional disabilities, health beliefs, and health expectations of clinical outpatients to those of subjects recruited from the media (symptomatic volunteers) for pharmacologic trials. Clinical patients were slightly younger, better educated, wealthier, and were more likely to be married. They had more recent exposure to benzodiazepines and antidepressants and were more likely to view their current condition as amenable to psychotherapy. They were more likely to feel that their symptoms would get worse without some type of treatment and to believe that treatment would cure them. The symptomatic volunteers had more presenting symptoms than the clinical patients. The two groups had similar Sheehan Disability Scale scores. These results suggest that further study is warranted of the characteristics of clinical patients and symptomatic volunteers.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(3):117-22.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):56-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the performance of children with anxiety disorders with that of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal controls in the processing of emotional information. A total of 57 children ages 8 to 11 years (18 anxious, 20 ADHD, 19 normal control) were administered a dichotic listening task for the detection of words and emotions. Comparisons of overall performance, false alarms, and a sensitivity index (which took false alarms into account) were done using repeated measures analyses of variance. Anxious children made fewer false alarms for emotion targets compared to both ADHD children and normal controls, and fewer false alarms for words compared to normal controls. When controlling for false alarms, their performance exceeded that of both ADHD children and normal controls. There were no group differences in correct responses. Performance on a dichotic listening task differentiates anxious, ADHD, and normal children, particularly when listening for emotional targets. Further studies using this task may therefore elucidate differences in the processing of words and emotions between these three groups of children.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):279-85.
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    ABSTRACT: An ambulatory monitor, body suit, and calibration procedure were developed to compare the respiration of seven patients with panic disorder and twelve normal volunteers. Subjects wore a body suit with Respitrace bands, connected to a portable respiratory monitor for a period of 24 hours. Breath by breath values for respiratory rate and tidal volume were computed every two minutes. There was a significant difference between patients and controls in their patterns of minute ventilation during sleep. Tidal volume, rather that respiratory rate increases characterized the periods of anxiety and limited symptom attacks.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):296-302.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):255.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been increased interest in the extent to which chronic pain patients fear and avoid activities that are thought to be related to the experience of pain. To date, however, few studies have evaluated the nature and extent of nonpain fears in these patients. The purpose of the present study was to address this paucity. The Fear Questionnaire was administered to 130 patients with physically unexplained chronic pain and 93 patients with a chronic condition unrelated to pain. Results indicated that the chronic pain patients were more fearful and avoidant of social interactions/situations and blood/injury than were the patient controls. Agoraphobia was minimal and did not differ significantly between groups. As well, the proportions of chronic pain patients indicating definite avoidance of particular situations related to blood/injury phobia (i.e., injection/minor surgery, hospitals, sight of blood, and thoughts of injury/illness) and social phobia (i.e., being watched/stared at, and speaking/acting to an audience) were significantly greater when compared to the patient controls. These results indicate that nonpain fear and avoidance are common in patients with chronic pain. Implications regarding the significance of these fears and avoidance behaviours on the experience and maintenance of pain symptoms and related disability are discussed.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):28-33.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):305.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the DSM-IV panic disorder field trial was to provide an empirical basis for choosing between alternate proposals (DSM-III-R and proposed DSM-IV) for the diagnostic threshold for panic disorder, in particular the number and frequency of panic attacks required for diagnosis. The two criteria sets were compared with respect to their ability to identify individuals whose panic attacks were associated with distress, impairment, or help-seeking. Subjects were a convenience sample screened in three geographically diverse primary care clinics for presence (past 6 months) or absence (lifetime) of panic attacks. Each underwent a clinician-administered semistructured interview which included assessment of panic frequency, panic-related impairment, psychiatric diagnosis, health services utilization, and medical illness. Self-perceived health-related quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire. Although both proposals diagnosed the same proportion of panic-impaired individuals, they were not completely overlapping. Twenty percent of subjects diagnosed by each criteria set were excluded by the other. Subjects who had been excluded by the DSM-III-R but included by the DSM-IV proposal were those with fewer than 4 attacks in 4 weeks who also denied worry about the "next" attack. Broadening the worry criterion to include concerns about the health implications of attacks enabled diagnosis of this group. Subjects who met DSM-III-R, but not the proposed DSM-IV criteria, had 4 attacks in 4 weeks but denied any panic related worry. Modification of the DSM-IV proposal to include a month of worry or "a significant change in behavior related to the attacks" allowed inclusion of this group in the diagnostic category. These data suggest that the finalized DSM-IV panic disorder criteria will diagnose a greater proportion of individuals whose panic attacks are associated with impairment without inflating the diagnostic category or significantly reducing specificity.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(4):157-66.
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are estimated to affect 26.9 million individuals in the United States at some point during their lives. This study used the human capital approach to estimate the direct and indirect costs of these highly prevalent disorders. In 1990, costs associated with anxiety disorders were $46.6 billion, 31.5% of total expenditures for mental illness. Less than one-quarter of costs associated with anxiety disorders were for direct medical treatment; over three-quarters were attributable to lost or reduced productivity. Most of these indirect costs were associated with morbidity, as mortality accounted for just 2.7% of the total. Greater availability of effective, relatively low-cost outpatient treatment could substantially reduce the economic and social burden of these common and often crippling disorders.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(4):167-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder among adolescents. While the effects of PTSD on quality of life (QOL) have been systematically studied with adults, research on the consequences of PTSD with adolescents has been limited. Among the other psychiatric disorders often associated with PTSD, major depression and alcohol use disorders are prevalent and have their own substantial morbidities. This study was designed to examine and compare the effects of PTSD, major depression, and alcohol use disorders on quality of life during adolescence. The subjects were 540 adolescents (ages 12-18 years old) recruited from clinical and community sources. Psychiatric disorders characterizing the sample included one or more of the three disorders studied (n = 275), other psychiatric disorders (n = 121), or no psychiatric disorders (n = 144). Analysis of covariance was utilized to determine the individual main effects and relative effects sizes of the three primary disorders on QOL variables. PTSD showed significant adverse effects on psychological, physical, and social functioning. Major depression showed a similar pattern. In contrast, alcohol use disorders primarily affected role functioning. While PTSD, major depression, and alcohol use disorders all adversely influenced adolescent QOL, the patterns of their effects differed. Remedial treatment interventions designed to restore QOL for adolescents with these disorders may need to focus on different areas for adolescents with PTSD or major depression than for adolescents with alcohol use disorders.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(5):226-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to test whether an association exists between asthenic somatotype, as measured by the Quetelet index, and panic and or agoraphobia. Ninety-nine cases with panic and/or agoraphobia diagnosed at the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a general teaching hospital were compared to 99 controls with psychiatric conditions other than panic and agoraphobia, and to 64 medical controls, matched by age and gender. No differences in weight, height and raw Quetelet and ponderal indexes were found between panic cases and controls. However, 33.3% of cases, but only 19.2% of psychiatric controls and 18.7% of medical controls, were in the asthenic group as defined by the lower quartile of the Quetelet index (age and sex adjusted odds ratio = 2.33, 95% C.I.: 1.21-4.11). In the entire sample, the asthenic somatotype was associated with lower age and with the presence of hypermobility of joints. Since both panic disorder and mitral valve prolapse may be associated with the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), an inherited disorder of collagen synthesis, it is suggested that the relationship found between panic and asthenic somatotype might be mediated through JHS.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(2):80-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-five of 102 consecutively evaluated patients with panic disorder seen in consultation at a specialty anxiety and mood disorders clinic were reinterviewed from 15 to 60 months later after naturalistic treatment in the community. Over the follow-up period, most patients displayed improvement in panic attack frequency and severity, phobic avoidance, depression, and major role functioning, although only five (10%) were asymptomatic on all measures at follow-up. The majority of patients with impaired interpersonal functioning showed no improvement on this measure. Thirty percent of the patients were panic-free at 12 months and 28% at the time of follow-up, with 43% experiencing at least three panic-free months during the follow-up period. Comorbid agoraphobia, major depression, and Axis II disorders were associated with worse outcome on selected measures of symptomatic and functional impairment. However, the strongest predictors of overall improvement were avoidance coping for outcome at 12 months and Axis I comorbidity for outcome at the time of the follow-up evaluation.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(1):13-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Self-report questionnaires have been used to compare panic patients' fears, anxious thoughts and behaviors with those of a group of controls. Individual items revealed significant differences between groups in all three areas: factor analysis revealed group differences in the pattern of intraquestionnaire associations between items. Correlational analysis of factor scores revealed significant group differences in the pattern of interquestionnaire associations. These findings only partly support a formulation of panic based upon "catastrophic interpretations." On the other hand, they do provide evidence of cognitive rigidity among panic patients which can be interpreted as evidence of impaired effortful processing when anxious.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):265-78.
  • Anxiety 02/1996; 2(2):99-101.
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined self-report personality profiles of 42 Vietnam veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) evaluated at an outpatient Veteran's Administration hospital PTSD clinic. Assessment was via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev; DSM-III-R) Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) self-report. Self-reported personality disorder symptomatology of PTSD patients was contrasted with that of 51 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of an anxiety disorder other than PTSD and with 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Symptomatology from each of the 11 DSM-III-R categories and from the three personality disorder "clusters" was calculated in terms of percentage of possible traits endorsed, thus creating personality "profiles" for the three groups. PTSD veterans endorsed more traits overall than did both the mixed anxiety and MDD groups, particularly on the Cluster A, avoidant, and borderline scales. Results suggest a PTSD-related personality profile characterized by emotional lability/poor anger control, paranoia/suspiciousness, identity disturbance/confusion, social withdrawal/avoidance, and feelings of emptiness and boredom.
    Anxiety 02/1996; 2(6):286-95.