Journal of applied biomechanics (J APPL BIOMECH)

Publisher: International Society of Biomechanics; International Society for the Biomechanics of Sport, Human Kinetics

Journal description

The Journal of Applied Biomechanics (JAB) is a quarterly journal devoted to the study of human biomechanics in sport, exercise, and rehabilitation. JAB brings you complete coverage of the applied aspects of biomechanics. In each issue, you'll find research articles, clinical studies, and other pertinent information highlighting current advances in the field. JAB is an official journal of the International Society of Biomechanics.

Current impact factor: 0.98

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.984
2013 Impact Factor 0.904
2012 Impact Factor 1.259
2011 Impact Factor 0.761
2010 Impact Factor 1.078
2009 Impact Factor 0.81
2008 Impact Factor 1.197
2007 Impact Factor 1.123
2006 Impact Factor 0.646
2005 Impact Factor 0.438
2004 Impact Factor 0.438
2003 Impact Factor 0.574
2002 Impact Factor 0.545
2001 Impact Factor 0.311
2000 Impact Factor 0.815
1999 Impact Factor 0.868
1998 Impact Factor 0.885
1997 Impact Factor 0.508
1996 Impact Factor 0.589
1995 Impact Factor 0.184
1994 Impact Factor 0.136

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.12
Cited half-life 9.30
Immediacy index 0.08
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.37
Website Journal of Applied Biomechanics website
Other titles Journal of applied biomechanics, JAB
ISSN 1065-8483
OCLC 26777588
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Human Kinetics

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's post-print only (in PDF or other image capture format)
    • On the author's personal website(s) or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statement to accompany deposit "as accepted for publication"
    • Publisher last contacted on 05/12/2013
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Instrumented insoles could benefit locomotion research on healthy and clinical populations by providing data in natural settings outside of the laboratory. We designed a low-cost, instrumented insole with eight pneumatic bladders to measure localized plantar pressure information. We collected gait data during treadmill walking at 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s and for sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks for ten subjects. We estimated a common representation of ground kinetics (three component force vector, two component center of pressure position vector, and a single component torque vector) from the insole data. We trained an inter-task neural network for each component the data. For the walking at 1.0 and 1.5m/s tasks, the normalized root mean square error was between 3.1% and 12.9% and for the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, the normalized root mean square error was between 3.3% and 21.3% Our findings suggest that the proposed low-cost, instrumented insoles could provide useful data about movement kinetics during real-world activities.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0142
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    ABSTRACT: Although the lift force (FL) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between FL and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for seven types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008sintervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the FL using the effective spin parameter (ESp) which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that FL could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (four-seam or two-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating FL from ESp.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0068
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    ABSTRACT: Biomechanical evidence is needed to determine to what extent the use of a mobility assistance dog (ADMob) may minimize mechanical loads and muscular demands at the upper limbs among manual wheelchair users. This study quantified and compared upper limb efforts when propelling up a ramp with and without a ADMob among manual wheelchair users. Ten manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury who own a ADMob ascended a ramp with and without their ADMob. The movements of the wheelchair and upper limbs were captured and the forces applied at the pushrims were recorded to compute shoulder mechanical loading. Muscular demand of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, biceps and the triceps was normalized against the maximum electromyographic values. The traction provided by the ADMob significantly reduced the total force applied at the pushrim and its tangential component while the mechanical effectiveness remained similar. The traction provided by the ADMob also resulted in a significant reduction in shoulder flexion, internal rotation and adduction moments. The muscular demands of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps were significantly reduced by the traction provided by the ADMob. The use of ADMob represents a promising mobility assistive technology alternative to minimize upper limb mechanical loads and muscular demands and optimize performance during wheelchair ramp ascent.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0292
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    ABSTRACT: The variety of experimental setups used during in vitro testing of distal radius fracture treatments impairs inter-study comparison and might lead to contradictory results. Setups particularly differ with respect to their boundary conditions, but the influence on the experimental outcome is unknown. The aim of this biomechanical study was to investigate the effects of two common boundary conditions on the biomechanical properties of an extra-articular distal radius fracture treated using volar plate osteosynthesis. Uniaxial compression tests were performed on ten synthetic radii that were randomized into a proximally constrained group (ProxConst) or movable group (ProxMove). The load was applied distally through a ball joint to enable distal fragment rotation. A significantly larger (ProxConst vs. ProxMove) stiffness (671.6 ± 118.9 vs. 259.6 ± 49.4 N·mm-1), elastic limit (186.2 ± 24.4 vs. 75.4 ± 20.2 N) and failure load (504.9 ± 142.5 vs. 200.7 ± 49.0 N) were found for the proximally constrained group. The residual tilt did not differ significantly between the two groups. We concluded that the boundary conditions have a profound impact on the experimental outcome and should be considered more carefully in both study design and inter-study comparison.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0117
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at (1) evaluating the linearity of the force-velocity relationship, as well as the reliability of maximum force (F0), maximum velocity (V0), slope (α), and maximum power (P0); (2) comparing these parameters between the traditional and ballistic bench press (BP); and (3) determining the correlation of F0 with the directly measured BP 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty-two men randomly performed 2 sessions of traditional BP and 2 sessions of ballistic BP during 2 consecutive weeks. Both the maximum and mean values of force and velocity were recorded when loaded by 20-70% of 1RM. All force-velocity relationships were strongly linear (r > 0.99). While F0 and P0 were highly reliable (ICC [intraclass correlation coefficient]: 0.91-0.96, CV [coefficient of variation]: 3.8-5.1%), lower reliability was observed for V0 and α (ICC: 0.49-0.81, CV: 6.6-11.8%). Trivial differences between exercises were found for F0 (ES [effect size] < 0.2), however the α was higher for the traditional BP (ES: 0.68-0.94), and V0 (ES: 1.04-1.48) and P0 (ES: 0.65-0.72) for the ballistic BP. The F0 strongly correlated with BP 1RM (r: 0.915-0.938). The force-velocity relationship is useful to assess the upper-body maximal capabilities to generate force, velocity, and power.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0162
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    ABSTRACT: Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges work remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modelling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12mm orthotic heel wedges. 19 healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, forceplate and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments. This resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced Tibialis Posterior and toe flexor muscles forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 10/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0107
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    ABSTRACT: Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of inter-subject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account inter-subject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and gender. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.010.88), whereas normalization using the multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (<0.29). Data normalization using dimensionless equations and detrending resulted in significant differences in stride length and double support time of PD patients; however the multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 10/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0035
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    ABSTRACT: One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion which can be difficult to coordinate and cause pre-mature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240W), one-legged (120W), and counterweighted one-legged (120W) cycling (80rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P<.05). Relative ankle plantarflexion and hip extension work for counterweighted one-legged cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P<.05). Relative knee extension work did not differ across conditions. Counterweighted one-legged cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0209
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    ABSTRACT: When the rear- and forefoot are constrained, calcaneal plantar flexion may occur, deforming the longitudinal arch. Previous research has reported calcaneal motion relative to the tibia or forefoot; these joint rotations may not accurately describe rotation of the calcaneus alone. This investigation: 1) characterized calcaneus and leg segment, and ankle joint rotations during stance in gait; and 2) described the range of calcaneal plantar flexion in different structural arch types. Men (n=14) and women (n=16) performed gait in a motion analysis laboratory. From heel strike to heel off, the leg rotated forward while the calcaneus plantar flexed. Before foot flat, calcaneal plantar flexion was greater than forward leg rotation, resulting in ankle plantar flexion. After foot flat, forward leg rotation was greater than calcaneal plantar flexion, resulting in ankle dorsiflexion. Structural arch type was classified using the longitudinal arch angle. The range of calcaneal plantar flexion from foot flat to heel off was small in low (-2° to -8°), moderate in high (-3° to -12°) and large in normal (-2° to -20°) structural arches. Calcaneal plantar flexion in gait during midstance may reflect functional arch characteristics, which vary depending on structural arch type.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0044
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    ABSTRACT: Though essential to athletic performance, the ability to land from a jump often remains limited following injury. While recommended, jump training is difficult to include in rehabilitation programs due to high impact forces. Body weight support (BWS) is frequently used in rehabilitation of gait following neurological and orthopedic injury, and may also allow improved rehabilitation of high-impact tasks. There is a differential effect of BWS on walking and running gaits, and the effect of BWS on movements with relatively large vertical displacement is unknown. The current study evaluates the effect of BWS on a replicable single leg hopping task. We posited that progressive BWS would decrease limb loading while maintaining the joint kinematics of the task. Twenty-eight participants repetitively hopped on and off a box at each of four BWS levels. Peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased by 22.5% between 0% and 30% BWS (P<.001). Average hip, knee, and ankle internal moments decreased by 0.5 Nm/kg each. Slight kinematic changes across BWS levels were clinically insignificant. The high level of task specificity evidenced by consistent kinematics coupled with a similar reduction of internal moment at each joint suggests that BWS may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of jumping tasks.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0077
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a new approach for automated identification of ice hockey skating strides, and a method to detect ice contact and swing phases of individual strides by quantifying vibrations in 3D acceleration data during the blade-ice interaction. The strides of a 30 m forward sprinting task, performed by six ice hockey players, were evaluated using a 3D accelerometer fixed to a hockey skate. Synchronized plantar pressure data was recorded as reference data. To determine the accuracy of the new method on a range of forward stride patterns for temporal skating events, estimated contact times and stride times for a sequence of five consecutive strides was validated. Bland-Altman limits of agreement (95 %) between accelerometer and plantar pressure derived data were less than 0.019 s. Mean differences between the two capture methods were shown to be less than 1 ms for contact and stride time. These results demonstrate the validity of the novel approach to determine strides, ice contact, and swing phases during ice hockey skating. This technology is accurate, simple, effective, and allows for in field ice hockey testing.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0245
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    ABSTRACT: Low back pain is a common problem among competitive swimmers and repeated torso hyperextension is claimed to be an etiological factor. The purpose of this study was to describe the three-dimensional torso configurations in the front crawl stroke and to test the hypothesis that swimmers experience torso hyperextension consistently across the stroke cycles. Nineteen collegiate swimmers underwent two measurements: a measurement of the active range of motion in three dimensions and a measurement of tethered front crawl stroke at their maximal effort. Torso extension beyond the active range of torso motion was defined as torso hyperextension. The largest torso extension angle exhibited during the stroke cycles was 9 ± 11° and it was recorded at or around (0.02 ± 0.08 s), the instant at which torso attained the largest twist angle. No participant hyperextended the torso consistently across the stroke cycles and subjects exhibited torso extension angles during tethered front crawl swimming that were much less than their active range of motion. Therefore, our hypothesis was rejected, and the data suggest that repeated torso hyperextension during front crawl strokes should not be claimed to be the major cause of the high incidence of low back pain in swimmers.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0024
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the between-day reliability of a newly developed trunk perturbation test and compares mechanical response during known and unknown conditions. Mechanical trunk response were measured in seventeen female subjects during unloading and loading perturbations of the abdomen (A: preloaded-abdomen condition) and low-back (B: preloaded-back condition). The loading perturbation increased the preload from 5.5 kg to a 10 kg pull on the trunk whereas the unloading perturbation decreased the pull from 5.5 kg to 0.1 kg. A sequence of loading (known), unloading (known) and randomized loading/unloading (unknown) perturbations were performed for A and B. Between-day reliability of stopping time, trunk displacement and velocity was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). ICCs were good to excellent for all loading and unloading measures during the known (0.70 - 0.98) and unknown (0.64 - 0.94) perturbations of A and B. In general, larger trunk displacements were seen after the unknown perturbations compared with the known perturbation. The method may be used as a diagnostic tool for screening workers who are in risk of future work related low back injuries.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0120
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6º) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9º) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16º) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation in order to accurately analyse the golf swing.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0032