Journal of applied biomechanics (J APPL BIOMECH)

Publisher: International Society of Biomechanics; International Society for the Biomechanics of Sport, Human Kinetics

Journal description

The Journal of Applied Biomechanics (JAB) is a quarterly journal devoted to the study of human biomechanics in sport, exercise, and rehabilitation. JAB brings you complete coverage of the applied aspects of biomechanics. In each issue, you'll find research articles, clinical studies, and other pertinent information highlighting current advances in the field. JAB is an official journal of the International Society of Biomechanics.

Current impact factor: 0.90

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.904
2012 Impact Factor 1.259
2011 Impact Factor 0.761
2010 Impact Factor 1.078
2009 Impact Factor 0.81
2008 Impact Factor 1.197
2007 Impact Factor 1.123
2006 Impact Factor 0.646
2005 Impact Factor 0.438
2004 Impact Factor 0.438
2003 Impact Factor 0.574
2002 Impact Factor 0.545
2001 Impact Factor 0.311
2000 Impact Factor 0.815
1999 Impact Factor 0.868
1998 Impact Factor 0.885
1997 Impact Factor 0.508
1996 Impact Factor 0.589
1995 Impact Factor 0.184
1994 Impact Factor 0.136

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.51
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.08
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.44
Website Journal of Applied Biomechanics website
Other titles Journal of applied biomechanics, JAB
ISSN 1065-8483
OCLC 26777588
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Human Kinetics

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's post-print only (in PDF or other image capture format)
    • On the author's personal website(s) or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statement to accompany deposit "as accepted for publication"
    • Publisher last contacted on 05/12/2013
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by Vertical Ground Reaction Force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak and loading rate between recreational females athletes with PFP and pain-free during stair climbing; to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and thirty-one pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. Visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r=0.46, p=0.008; r=0.56, p=0.001, respectively) and functional limitation (r=0.31, p=0.049; r=-0.36, p=0.032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0048
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    ABSTRACT: A 1:1 locomotion-respiration entrainment is observed in galloping quadrupeds, and is thought to improve running economy. However, this has not been tested directly in animals as animals cannot voluntarily disrupt this entrainment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic economy in a human gait involving all four limbs, cross-country skiing, in natural entrainment and forced non-entrainment. Nine elite cross-country skiers roller skied at constant speed using the 2-skate technique. In the first and last conditions, athletes used the natural entrained breathing pattern: inhaling with arm recovery and exhaling with arm propulsion, and in the second condition, the athletes dis-entrained their breathing pattern. The rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and metabolic rate (MR) were measured via expired gas analysis. Propulsive forces were measured with instrumented skis and poles. VO2 and MR increased by 4% and 5% respectively when skiers used the dis-entrained compared to the entrained breathing pattern. There were no differences in ski or pole forces or in timing of the gait cycle between conditions. We conclude that breathing entrainment reduces metabolic cost of cross-country skiing by approximately 4%. Further, this reduction is likely a result of the entrainment rather than alterations in gait mechanics.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0243
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to investigate why holding times on two different tests of isometric trunk flexor endurance capacity (prone 'plank' and 'v-sit') are weakly correlated. Body position and ground reaction force data from 10 men and 10 women were used to conduct static biomechanical analyses of both test postures, and bilateral activation of the rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques, latissmus dorsi, and lumbar and thoracic erector spinae was measured in a second sample of 15 men and 15 women while holding the test postures. No between-posture differences in net low-back flexor moments were found (P = .111), but the lumbar spine was 28° more flexed in the v-sit than in the plank (P < .001). No between-posture differences were detected in rectus abdominis (P = .397), external obliques (P = .204), internal obliques (P = .226), or lumbar erector spinae (P = .116) activation levels, but those of thoracic erector spinae (P = .0253) and latissmus dorsi (P < .001) were greater in the plank than in the v-sit. Altogether, the findings suggest that differences between plank and v-sit holding times are most likely related to between-test differences in lumbar spine postures and shoulder demands.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0197
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lateral wedge insole reduces the external knee adduction moment during slope walking. Twenty young healthy subjects participated in this study. Subjects walked up and down a slope using two different insoles: a control flat insole and a 7°lateral wedge insole. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plate were used to examine the knee adduction moment, the ankle valgus moment, and the moment arm of the ground reaction force to the knee joint center in the frontal plane. The lateral wedge insole significantly decreased the moment arm of the ground reaction force, resulting in a reduction of the knee adduction moment during slope walking, similarly to the level walking. The reduction ratio of knee adduction moment by the lateral wedge insole during the early stance of up-slope walking was larger than that of level walking .Conversely, the lateral wedge insole increased the ankle valgus moment during slope walking, especially during the early stance phase of up-slope walking. Clinicians should examine the utilization of a lateral wedge insole for the knee OA patients who perform inclined walking in daily activity, in consideration of the load on the ankle joint.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0247
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    ABSTRACT: In some muscles, non-uniform surface electromyography (EMG) responses have been demonstrated within a muscle, meaning that the electrode location could be critical in the results of surface EMG. The present study investigated possible region-specific EMG responses within the human biceps femoris (BF) muscle. Surface EMG was recorded from various regions along the longitudinal axis of the BF muscle with 20 electrodes. Ten healthy men performed maximal isometric contractions of hip extension and knee flexion, which involve the BF muscle. The ratio of the EMG amplitude between hip extension and knee flexion tasks (HE/KF) was calculated and compared among the regions. There were no significant differences in HE/KF among the regions along the BF muscle (p > 0.05). This suggests that the entire superficial region of the BF muscle is equally regulated in the two different tasks. We suggest that the electrode location is not critical on estimating the activation properties and/or functional role of the superficial region, which corresponds with approximately 50% of the muscle length, of the BF muscle using surface EMG during maximal contraction.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0017
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in the timing indicators separating sit-to-stand (STS) into movement phases complicates both research comparisons and clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to use kinetic reference standards to identify accurate kinematic and kinetic indicators for STS movement analysis such that consistent indicators might be used for STS from varied initial postures. Healthy adults performed STS using four foot placements: foot-neutral, foot-back, right-staggered and left-staggered. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected from force platforms and an eight-camera video system. Initiation, seat-off, vertical posture and termination were detected with 5% start and 7.5% end thresholds for changes in kinetic and kinematic STS indicators. Timing differences between kinetic and kinematic indicator time points and the reference vertical seated reaction force end point (seat-off) were determined. Kinematic indicators were compared to selected kinetic indicators using timing differences, statistical similarity, and internal consistency measures. Our results suggest that a single force platform system measuring vertical GRF or a simple camera system to evaluate the shoulder marker position and velocity can accurately and consistently detect STS initiation, seat-off, and vertical posture. In addition, these suggested STS indicators for initiation, seat-off, and vertical posture were not dependent upon foot placement.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0189
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations of joint loading in knee osteoarthritis (OA) typically normalize the knee adduction moment (KAM) to global measures of body size (e.g., body mass, height) to allow comparison between individuals. However, such measurements may not reflect knee size. This study used a morphometric measurement of the cartilage surface area on the medial tibial plateau, which better represents medial knee size. This study aimed to determine whether normalizing the peak KAM and KAM impulse during gait to the medial tibial bone-cartilage interface could classify radiographic knee OA severity more accurately than traditional normalization techniques. Individuals with mild (N = 22) and severe (N = 17) radiographic knee OA participated. The medial tibial bone-cartilage interface was quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans. Gait analysis was performed, and the peak KAM and KAM impulse were calculated in non-normalized units, and normalized to body mass, body weight times height, and the medial tibial bone-cartilage interface. Receiver operating characteristic curves compared the ability of each KAM normalization technique to classify participants according to radiographic disease severity. No normalization technique was superior at distinguishing between OA severities. KAMs normalized to medial knee size were not more sensitive to OA severity.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 07/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0249
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebral level-dependent, angular and linear translations of the spine have been measured in 2D and 3D using several imaging methods to quantify postural changes due to loading conditions and tasks. Here, we propose and validate a semi-automated method for measuring lumbar intervertebral angles and translations from upright MRI images using an endplate-based, joint coordinate system (JCS). This method was validated using 3D printed structures, representing intervertebral discs (IVD) at pre-determined angles and heights, which were positioned between adjacent cadaveric vertebrae as a gold standard. Excellent agreement between our measurements and the gold standard was found for intervertebral angles in all anatomical planes (ICC>0.997) and intervertebral distance measurements (ICC>0.949). The proposed endplate-based JCS was compared to the vertebral body based JCS proposed by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) using the 3D printed structures placed between three adjacent vertebrae from a cadaver with scoliosis. The endplate-based method was found to have better agreement with angles in the sagittal plane (ICC=0.985) compared to the vertebral body based method (ICC=0.280). Thus, this method is accurate for measuring 3D intervertebral angles in the healthy and diseased lumbar spine.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 07/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0008
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    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, and their relationship, for healthy middle aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for six functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in ten middle-aged adults (46-60yrs, 5M, 5F). Compared to young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (p=0.0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (p=0.012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 07/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0177
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this observational cross-sectional study was to investigate the normal motion of the median nerve when stretched during a neurodynamic exercise. In recent years, ultrasonography has been increasingly accepted as an imaging technique for examining peripheral nerves in vivo, offering a reliable and non-invasive method for a precise evaluation of nerve movement. Transverse motion of the median nerve in the arm during a neurodynamic test was measured. A volunteer sample of 22 healthy subjects (11 women) participated in the study. Nerve displacement and deformation were assessed by dynamic ultrasonography. Excellent interobserver agreement was obtained with kappa coefficient of 0.7 to 0.8. Ultrasonography showed no lateral motion during wrist extension in 68% of nerves while 73% moved dorsally, with statistically significant differences between sexes (ORlat=6.3; 95%CI=1.4 to 27.7 and ORdor=8.3; 95%CI=1.6 to 44.6). The cross sectional area was significantly greater in men (3.6 mm2211 ). Quantitative analysis revealed no other statistically significant differences. Our results provide evidence of substantial individual differences in median nerve transverse displacement in response to a neurodynamic exercise.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 07/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0026
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    ABSTRACT: In regard to simplifying motion analysis and estimating center of mass (COM) in ski skating, this study addressed three main questions concerning the use of inertial measurement units (IMU): How accurately can a single IMU estimate displacement of os sacrum (S1) on a person during ski skating? Does incorporating gyroscope and accelerometer data increase accuracy and precision? Moreover, how accurately does S1 determine COM displacement? Six world-class skiers roller-ski skated on a treadmill using two different sub-techniques. An IMU including accelerometers alone (IMU-A), or in combination with gyroscopes (IMU-G) were mounted on S1. A reflective marker at S1, and COM calculated from 3D full-body optical analysis, were used to provide reference values. IMU-A provided an accurate and precise estimate of vertical S1 displacement, but IMU-G was required to attain accuracy and precision of < 8 mm (root-mean-squared error and range of displacement deviation) in all directions and with both sub-techniques. Further, arm and torso movements affected COM, but not S1. Hence, S1 displacement was valid for estimating sideways COM displacement, but the systematic amplitude and timing difference between S1 and COM displacement in the antero-posterior and vertical directions inhibits exact calculation of energy fluctuations.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 07/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2015-0081
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    ABSTRACT: The step-up-and-over test has been used successfully to examine knee function after knee injury. Knee function is quantified using the following variables extracted from force plate data: the maximal force exerted during the lift, the maximal impact force at landing and the total time to complete the step. For various reasons, including space and cost, it is unlikely that all clinicians will have access to a force plate. The purpose of the study was to determine if the step-up-and-over test could be simplified by using an accelerometer. The step-up-and-over test was performed by 17 healthy young adults while being measured with both a force plate and a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the low back. Results showed that the accelerometer and force plate measures were strongly correlated for all three variables (r = .90-.98, Ps < .001), that the accelerometer values for the Lift and Impact Indexes were 6-7% higher (Ps < .01) and occurred 0.07-0.1 s later than the force plate (Ps < .05). The accelerometer returned values highly correlated to those from a force plate. Compared to a force plate, a wireless, 3-axis accelerometer is a less expensive and more portable system with which to measure the step-up-and-over test.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 07/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0214
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational kneeling is associated with an increased risk for the development of knee osteoarthritis. Previous work studying occupational kneeling has neglected to account for the fact that in many industrial settings, workers are required to wear steel-toe work boots. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of work boot wear on the center of pressure location of the ground reaction force, knee joint angle, and magnitude of the ground reaction force in a kneeling posture. Fifteen healthy males were fit with 3D motion capture markers and knelt statically over a force plate embedded in the floor. Using the tibial tuberosity as the point of reference, the center of pressure when shod was shifted significantly medially (on average, 0.009 m, p=0.005), compared to the barefoot condition. The knee was significantly more internally rotated (shod: -12.5° vs. barefoot: -17.4° (p=.009)) and the anterior/posterior shear force was significantly greater in the shod condition (shod: 6.0% body weight vs. barefoot: 1.5% body weight (p=.002)). Therefore, wearing work boots alters the kneeling posture compared to barefoot kneeling, potentially loading different surfaces of the knee, as well as altering knee joint moments.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 06/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0276
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    ABSTRACT: To date, soccer kicking biomechanical analyses have focused predominantly on lower-extremity motions, with little emphasis on the trunk and upper-body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in trunk axial kinematics between novice (n = 10) and skilled (n = 10) participants, as well as to establish the relationship of trunk axial motion and sagittal plane thigh rotation to post-strike ball velocity. 3D body segmental motion data were captured using high-resolution motion analysis (120 Hz) while each participant completed five maximal instep soccer-style kicks. The results demonstrate that skilled participants utilize 53% greater axial trunk ROM compared to novice participants (p < 0.01), as well as 62% greater peak trunk rotation velocity (p < 0.01). The results also showed a moderate, positive correlation of peak trunk rotation velocity with post-strike ball velocity (r = 0.57; p < 0.01), and peak hip flexion velocity with post-strike ball velocity (r = 0.63; p < 0.01). The current study highlights the potential for trunk rotation-specific training to improve maximum instep kick velocity in developing soccer athletes.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 06/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0188