Journal of applied biomechanics (J APPL BIOMECH)

Publisher: International Society of Biomechanics; International Society for the Biomechanics of Sport, Human Kinetics

Journal description

The Journal of Applied Biomechanics (JAB) is a quarterly journal devoted to the study of human biomechanics in sport, exercise, and rehabilitation. JAB brings you complete coverage of the applied aspects of biomechanics. In each issue, you'll find research articles, clinical studies, and other pertinent information highlighting current advances in the field. JAB is an official journal of the International Society of Biomechanics.

Current impact factor: 0.90

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.904
2012 Impact Factor 1.259
2011 Impact Factor 0.761
2010 Impact Factor 1.078
2009 Impact Factor 0.81
2008 Impact Factor 1.197
2007 Impact Factor 1.123
2006 Impact Factor 0.646
2005 Impact Factor 0.438
2004 Impact Factor 0.438
2003 Impact Factor 0.574
2002 Impact Factor 0.545
2001 Impact Factor 0.311
2000 Impact Factor 0.815
1999 Impact Factor 0.868
1998 Impact Factor 0.885
1997 Impact Factor 0.508
1996 Impact Factor 0.589
1995 Impact Factor 0.184
1994 Impact Factor 0.136

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.51
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.08
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.44
Website Journal of Applied Biomechanics website
Other titles Journal of applied biomechanics, JAB
ISSN 1065-8483
OCLC 26777588
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Human Kinetics

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's post-print only (in PDF or other image capture format)
    • On the author's personal website(s) or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statement to accompany deposit "as accepted for publication"
    • Publisher last contacted on 05/12/2013
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The assessment of vertical leg stiffness is an important consideration given its relationship to performance. Vertical stiffness is most commonly assessed during a bilateral hopping task. The current study sought to determine the inter-session reliability, quantified by the coefficient of variation, of vertical stiffness during bilateral hopping when assessed for the left and right limbs independently, this had not been previously investigated. On four separate occasions, ten healthy males performed 30 unshod bilateral hops on a dual force plate system with data recorded independently for the left and right limbs. Vertical stiffness was calculated as the ratio of peak ground reaction force to the peak negative displacement of the centre of mass during each hop and was averaged over the 6-10th hops. For vertical stiffness, average coefficients of variation of 15.3% and 14.3% were observed for the left and right limbs respectively. An average coefficient of variation of 14.7% was observed for bilateral vertical stiffness. The current study reports that calculations of unilateral vertical stiffness demonstrate reliability comparable to bilateral calculations. Determining unilateral vertical stiffness values and relative discrepancies may allow the coach to build a more complete stiffness profile of an individual athlete and better inform the training process.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 04/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0254
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    ABSTRACT: Toe-out angle alternation is a potential tactic for decreasing the knee adduction moment during walking. Published reports have not examined the medial knee contact force during the toe-out gait, although it is a factor affecting knee articular cartilage damage. This study investigated the effects of increased toe-out angle on the medial knee contact force, using musculoskeletal simulation analysis. For normal and toe-out gaits in 18 healthy subjects, the muscle tension forces were simulated based on the joint moments and ground reaction forces with optimization process. The medial knee contact force during stance phase was determined using the sum of the muscle force and joint reaction force components. The first and second peaks of the medial knee contact force were compared between the gaits. The toe-out gait showed a significantly decrease in the medial knee contact force at the second peak, compared with the normal gait. In contrast, the medial knee contact forces at the first peak were not significantly different between the gaits. These results suggest that the toe-out gait is beneficial for decreasing the second peak of the medial knee contact force.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 04/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0310
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    ABSTRACT: A disparity exists between the rates of male and female lower extremity injuries. One factor that may contribute to this disparity is high risk biomechanical patterns that are commonly displayed by females. It is unknown what biomechanical differences exist between males and females during an overhead squat. This study compared lower extremity biomechanics during an overhead squat and ranges of motion between males and females. An electromagnetic motion tracking system interfaced with a force platform was used to quantify peak lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during the descent phase of each squat. Range of motion measurements were assessed with a standard goniometer. T-tests identified differences between male and female kinematics, kinetics, and ranges of motion. Males displayed greater peak knee valgus angle, peak hip flexion angle, peak vertical ground reaction forces, and peak hip extension moments. Males also displayed less active ankle dorsiflexion with the knee extended and hip internal and external rotation than females. No other differences were observed. The biomechanical differences between males and females during the overhead squat may result from differences in lower extremity ranges of motion. Therefore, sex specific injury prevention programs should be developed to improve biomechanics and ranges of motion.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 04/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0272
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    ABSTRACT: About half of all runners sustain a running-related injury every year. Exertion may contribute to risk of injury by altering joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exertion on runners' joint mechanics using Principal Component Analysis. Three-dimensional motion analysis of the lower extremity was performed on sixteen healthy female runners before and after their typical training run. PCA was used to determine exertion-related changes in joint mechanics at the ankle, knee and hip. Statistical significance for repeated-measures MANOVA of the retained principal components at each joint and plane of motion was at P<0.05. Exercise effects were identified at the ankle (greater rate of eversion (PC2: P=0.027); decreased plantar flexion moment (Overall: P=0.044) and external rotation moment (PC3: P=0.003)), knee (increased adduction (Overall: P=0.044) and internal rotation (PC3: P=0.034); decreased abduction moment (Overall: P=0.045)), and hip (increased internal rotation (PC1: P=0.013) and range of mid- to late-stance rotation (PC2: P=0.009); decreased internal rotation moment (PC1: P=0.001)). The observed changes in running mechanics reflect a gait profile that is often linked to running injury. The effects of more strenuous activity may result in mechanics that present an even greater risk for injury.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 04/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0138
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    ABSTRACT: Knee valgus angles measured in sidestep cutting and vertical drop jumps are key variables in research on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causation. These variables are also used to quantify knee neuromuscular control and ACL injury risk. The aims of the current study were to 1) quantify the differences in the calculated knee valgus angles between six different thigh marker clusters, 2) investigate the trial ranking based on their knee valgus angles, and 3) investigate the influence of marker clusters on the cross-talk effect. Elite female handball and football players (n = 41) performed sidestep cutting and vertical drop jumping motions. We found systematic differences up to almost 15° of peak valgus between the marker sets in the drop jump test. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient varied from 0.505 to 0.974 among the six marker sets. In addition, the cross-talk effect varied considerably between the marker clusters. The results of the current study indicate that the choice of thigh marker cluster can have a substantial impact on the magnitude of knee valgus angle, as well as the trial ranking. A standardized thigh marker cluster, including non-anatomical landmark, is needed to minimize the variation of the measurement.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 04/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0137
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    ABSTRACT: In sprint kayaking the role that paddling technique plays in optimising paddle forces and resultant kayak kinematics is still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the magnitude and shape of the paddle force-time curve at different stroke rates, and their implications for kayak performance. Ten elite kayak paddlers (five males and five females) were analysed performing 200 m on-water trials, at four different paces (60, 80, 100 strokes per minute and race pace). The paddle and kayak were instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometer respectively. For both genders, the force-time curve were characterised at training paces by having a bell shape and at race pace by a first small peak, followed by a small decrease in force and then followed by a main plateau. The force profile, represented by the mean force/peak force ratio, became more rectangular with increasing stroke rate (F(3,40)=7.87, P<.01). To obtain a rectangular shape to maximise performance kayak paddlers should seek a stronger water phase with a rapid increase in force immediately after blade entry and a quick exit prior to the force dropping far below the maximum force. This pattern should be sought when training at race pace and in competition.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 04/2015; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0114
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of action of a foot orthotic is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to use Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to analyze the effects of a prefabricated foot orthotic on frontal plane knee and ankle mechanics during running. Thirty-one healthy subjects performed running trials with and without a foot orthotic and PCA was performed on the knee and ankle joint angles and moments to identify the dominant modes of variation. MANOVAs were conducted on the retained PCs of each waveform and dependent t-tests (P<.05) were performed in the case of significance. Mechanics of the ankle were not affected by the foot orthotic. However, mechanics of the knee were significantly altered as subjects demonstrated an increase in the magnitude of the knee abduction moment waveform in an orthotic condition. Subjects also demonstrated a significant shift in the timing of the knee abduction moment waveform towards later in the stance phase in the orthotic condition. These orthotic effects were not related to subject's foot mobility, measured using the Navicular Drop test. The mechanism of action of a foot orthotic may be related to their effect on the timing of frontal plane knee loading.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 12/2014; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0100
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    ABSTRACT: Linemen are at high risk for knee cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis. High intensity movements from squatting positions (i.e. three-point-stance) may produce high joint loads, increasing the risk for cartilage damage. We hypothesized that knee moments and joint reaction forces during lineman-specific activities would be greater than during walking or jogging. Data were collected using standard motion analysis techniques. Fifteen NCAA linemen (mean ± standard deviation: Height = 1.86 ± 0.07 m, Mass = 121.45 ± 12.78 kg) walked, jogged and performed three unloaded lineman-specific blocking movements from a three-point-stance. External three-dimensional knee moments and joint reaction forces were calculated using inverse dynamics equations. MANOVA with subsequent univariate ANOVA and post hoc Tukey comparisons were used to determine differences in peak kinetic variables and the flexion angles at which they occurred. All peak moments and joint reaction forces were significantly higher during jogging than during all blocking drills (all p<0.001). Peak moments occurred at average knee flexion angles >70º during blocking versus <44º in walking or jogging. The magnitude of moments and joint reaction forces when initiating movement from a three-point-stance do not appear to increase risk for cartilage damage, but the high flexion angles at which they occur may increase risk on the posterior femoral condyles.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 12/2014; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0123
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    ABSTRACT: Falls are the leading cause of injury for all age groups. However, adults over 65 are at a higher risk, with one-third falling each year. Transitioning between level and hill surfaces poses a greater fall risk than walking on either surface alone. In order to mitigate this risk, young adults adopt a cautious gait pattern. As older adults typically employ a cautious pattern during level walking, we investigated how they modify their gait pattern to safely transition between surfaces. Twenty adults over the age of 65 transitioned onto and off of a 15° ramp while we recorded kinematics and muscle activity. During the level-to-downhill and uphill-to-level transitions, participants took slower, shorter steps indicative of an exaggerated cautious gait pattern. The older adults also exhibited greater muscle activity during the transitions which may be due to muscle weakness requiring compensatory strategies to meet the greater demands of the task. However, the slower, shorter steps when transitioning from uphill to level suggest that these compensations may not always be adequate. Thus, it is important to consider the relationship between physical abilities and task demands in evaluating walking terrains that may be excessively difficult or dangerous for older adults.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 12/2014; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0073
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if children exhibit greater variability in center of mass movement and kinetics compared to adults in vertical jumping. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 20 girls and adults females were examined using force platforms analysis. The data were analyzed using continuous methods to determine differences in variability between groups and between types of jump. Jumping variability was measured by using the average coefficient of variation of the force-, velocity-, displacement-, and rate of force development-time curves across the jump. The analysis of data indicated that children and adults had similar levels of variability in the CMJ but different levels in the CMJA. In the CMJA, the children showed greater coefficient of variation than adults in force- (20 ± 7% and 12 ± 6%), velocity- (41 ± 14% and 22 ± 9%), displacement- (8 ± 16% and 23 ± 11%) and rate of force development-time (103 ± 46% and 75 ± 42%) curves as well as in force-velocity relationship (6 ± 2% and 4 ± 2%). The results of analysis suggest that the variability depends on both the level of experience of the participants in the task as well as its complexity. This seems to indicate a greater influence of task complexity on the variability of the vertical jump.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 12/2014; 30(6):679-684. DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0043
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    ABSTRACT: Although the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle has been shown to be associated with the muscle's anatomical cross-sectional area, whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy alters the moment arm of the muscle remains unexplored. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine this. Eleven men underwent a 12-week resistance-training program for the triceps brachii muscle. The maximum muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax), the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle, and the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system before and after intervention. The ACSAmax(33.6 ± 11.9%, P< .001) and moment arm (5.5 ± 4.0%, P= .001) significantly increased after training, whereas the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon did not change (P> .05). The change in moment arm was smaller than that expected from the relationship between the ACSAmaxand the moment arm before the intervention. The present results indicate that training-induced triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy could increase the muscle moment arm, but its impact can be small or negligible.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2014; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0126
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hamstrings fatigue on lower extremity joint coordination variability during a sidestep cutting maneuver. Twenty female recreational athletes performed five successful trials of a sidestep cutting task pre- and post-fatigue. Each participant completed an isolated hamstrings fatigue protocol consisting of isokinetic maximum effort knee flexion and passive extension contractions. Vector coding was used to examine hip and knee joint couplings (consisting of various planar motions) during the impact and weight acceptance phases of the sidestep cut stance phase. Paired t-tests were used to analyze differences of each phase as an effect of fatigue, where alpha was set a priori at .05. The hip rotation/knee rotation coupling exhibited a significant decrease in coordination variability as a function of fatigue in both the impact (p=.015) and weight acceptance phases (p=.043). Similarly, the hip adduction-abduction/knee rotation coupling exhibited a significant decrease in coordination variability in the weight acceptance phase (p=.038). Hamstrings fatigue significantly decreases coordination variability within specific lower extremity joint couplings that included knee rotation. Future studies should be conducted to determine if this decrease in coordination variability is related to lower extremity injury mechanisms.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2014; DOI:10.1123/jab.2013-0300
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    ABSTRACT: Girls' lacrosse is fundamentally a different sport than boys' lacrosse, and girls are not required to wear protective headgear. Recent epidemiological studies have found that stick checks are the leading cause of concussion injury in girls' lacrosse. The purpose of this study was to determine stick check speeds and estimate the head acceleration associated with direct checks to the head. Additionally, we briefly examine if commercial available headgear can mitigate the accelerations. Seven (n=7) experienced female lacrosse players checked, with varying severity, a NOSCAE and an ASTM headform. Stick speed at impact and the associated peak linear accelerations of the headform were recorded. The NOCSAE headform was fitted with four commercially available headgear and similar stick impact testing was performed. The median stick impact speed was 8.1 m/s and 777 deg/s. At these speeds, peak linear acceleration was approximately 60g. Three out of the four headgear significantly reduced the peak linear acceleration when compared to the bare headform. These data serve as baseline for understanding the potential mechanism and reduction of concussions from stick impacts in girls' lacrosse.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0102
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare muscle activity patterns between inexperienced and experienced water polo players while taking an overhead shot. The study was carried out with a group of 12 water polo players and an inexperienced group of 10 healthy participants. Signals were recorded by surface electromyography from six different muscles. The average and standard deviation of the normalized electrical activity, time to peak, time broadness and muscle sequencing during the overhead shot were determined for each muscle in both groups and compared with each other. In water polo players, the normalized electrical activities of triceps brachii, pectoralis major and wrist flexors were greater than other muscles, while in the inexperienced group the triceps brachii specifically played an important role. There was minimal activation of the middle deltoid and biceps brachii in water polo players. Increased times to peak and time broadness of muscles were found in the inexperienced group compared to experienced water polo players; this difference may be explained by different neuromuscular proprioception. Only experienced water polo players activated the observed muscles in a specific sequence, from proximal to distal. Therefore, coaches should emphasize smooth and quick transitions from proximal to distal segments, with less importance placed on individual muscle strengthening.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2014; DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0068
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the movement strategies of young, healthy participants (7 men/7 women) during the movement of a fragile object using non-linear analysis. The kinematic variables of position, velocity and acceleration were quantified using largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) and Approximate Entropy (ApEn) analysis to identify the structure of their movement variability and movement predictability, respectively. Subjects performed a total of 15 discrete trials of an upper extremity movement task without crushing the object at each fragility condition, using each hand (left/right). We tested four fragility conditions hypothesizing that an increase in fragility would result in higher movement predictability and decreased temporal variability. Comparisons between the structure of movement variability and movement predictability were based on fragility condition, handedness and kinematic measures. In this specific population, object fragility and participant handedness did not significantly impact the structure of movement variability (LyE) in the primary direction of movement (Z direction), although some effects were observed in the anterior/posterior directions. ApEn values were minimized across conditions, showing increased movement predictability, and is suggested for the analysis of discrete kinematic movements. In healthy populations, the results of this study suggest minimal effects on task performance and movement predictability as a result of object fragility.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 11/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1123/jab.2014-0056