Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC (J Int Fed Clin Chem )

Publisher: International Federation of Clinical Chemistry

Description

  • Impact factor
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  • Other titles
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, Journal of the IFCC, IFCC, JIFCC
  • ISSN
    1051-2292
  • OCLC
    21914629
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Considerable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative stress is instrumental in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative stress can arise through the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or because of a deficiency of antioxidant defenses. Antioxidant deficiencies can develop as a result of decreased antioxidant intake (such as vitamins C and E), synthesis of enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) or increased antioxidant utilization. Insufficient antioxidant enzyme synthesis may in turn be due to decreased micronutrient availability (such as selenium, magnese, copper and zinc). Of those diseases linked with oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease provides the strongest evidence for the protective role of antioxidants. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables, which are good sources of antioxidants, is associated with a lower coronary risk. More specifically, there is evidence of a reduced coronary risk in populations with high blood levels of the antioxidant nutrients, vitamins C and E. Evidence is also accumulating that diabetes, and microvascular complications associated with diabetes, involve oxidative stress and have compromised antioxidant status. In addition, patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) also exhibit clear evidence of oxidative stress. Definitive proof for active oxygen formation and oxidative cell damage being causative rather than a result of other underlying these pathologies remains elusive; however, evidence is sufficiently compelling to suggest that antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents in the above conditions.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 04/1998; 10(1):21-3.
  • Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 04/1998; 10(1):20.
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the analysis of complex mixtures. Up to now, little of its potential in everyday clinical chemistry has been realized. An overview of the fundamentals, a discussion of the technology, and some outstanding examples of the clinical chemical research are presented. Clinical chemists are encouraged to seek out and apply this methodology to problems for which it is well suited.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 04/1998; 10(1):6-8, 11-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is the accumulation of changes that increase the risk of death. Aging changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and the inborn aging process. The latter is the major risk factor for disease and death after age 28 in the developed countries. In these countries, average life expectancies at birth (ALE-B) now range from 76-79 years, 6-9 years less than the limit of about 85 years imposed by aging. Aging changes may be caused by free radical reactions. The extensive studies based on this possibility show promise of increasing the ALE-B to 85 years and beyond.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 04/1998; 10(1):24-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Each year a vast number of biomedical articles and books are published and based on the articles reviews are written. Such reviews should be performed in a systematic manner. Systematic reviewing is a new discipline with its own methods for locating, appraising, and summarizing primary studies. Such methods have also been developed for studies on diagnostic test evaluations. It is important for the laboratory disciplines to engage in this work. IFCC has established a Committee for Systematic Reviewing in Laboratory Medicine. This committee will work to promote the understanding, the use and the performance of systematic reviewing.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 01/1998; 9(4):154-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of a serum and/or urinary monoclonal immunoglobulin (monoclonal component, MC), or its subunits, heavy and light chains produced by a B cell clone in serum and/or urine characterizes a wide group of conditions called monoclonal gammapathies (MG). In most instances, the MG is clinically silent, and remains so throughout life. However, the clone may be, or will become, clinically overt because of its proliferation (i.e., multiple myeloma and its variants) and/or because the MC produces organ damage (i.e., kidney failure, amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, etc.). The clinical laboratorian greatly contributes to the diagnosis and management of these conditions mainly through detection and quantitation of the monoclonal immunoglobulin, which represents an ideal tumor marker.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 01/1998; 9(4):171-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A wide range of nongovernmental organizations are involved in laboratory quality assurance at the international level. These organizations include for-profit organizations such as Murex or Randox, nonprofit organizations such as the Institute for Standardization and Documentation in Medical Laboratories (INSTAND), national professional organizations such as the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), regional organizations such as the Asian Pacific and Latin American Federation of Clinical Biochemists and International organizations such as the IFCC and WHO. The Interaction and roles of such organizations are discussed.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 01/1998; 9(4):144-6, 148, 150.
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics of primary immunodeficiencies over the last few years. The genetic defects underlying many forms of severe combined immunodeficiency, antibody deficiency, and neutrophil disorders are now known, raising the possibility of curative gene therapy for severe defects. These advances have also led to significant changes in our knowledge of basic mechanisms, not only of immunologic control but of cellular development and gene regulation.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 10/1997; 9(3):126-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important tumor marker for prostate cancer, although it is not a perfect marker as it is not cancer-specific. PSA, a member of the human kallikrein family, is present in two molecular forms in serum: free and complexed to protease inhibitors. PSA is now commonly measured on automated immunoassay systems employing monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Results from different assays can vary since some assays are not equimolar and react to the free and complexed forms differently. Utilization of the molecular forms of PSA is one approach to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the PSA assay. Patients with prostate cancer have a greater percentage of PSA bound to alpha1-antichymotripsin (ACT) than those without cancer. Measurement of the free to total PSA ratio in the diagnostic gray zone (usually 4-10 micrograms/liter of total PSA), where prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) overlap, has been shown to eliminate between 16 and 79% of unnecessary biopsies. Free to total PSA cutoffs are influenced by the sensitivity and specificity values chosen, the reflex range for total PSA used, differences in free PSA assays, differences in populations studied, and factors such as total PSA concentrations, age, and prostate gland size. In addition to the molecular forms of PSA, age-specific reference ranges, rate of change of PSA concentrations (PSA velocity), ratio of serum PSA to prostate volume (PSA density), and neural network derived indices have been employed to improve the clinical utility of PSA measurements.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 10/1997; 9(3):120-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoassay and other ligand assays have made a major impact on medical research and diagnosis since the first modern (radioisotopically-based) methods emerged. These ubiquitous microanalytic techniques are broadly classifiable as first generation (generally of "competitive" design, e.g., radioimmunoassay), and second generation (generally "noncompetitive," and relying on nonisotopic labels) these (often described as "ultrasensitive") being distinguished by dramatic improvements in sensitivity and performance time. A third generation is now in prospect (based on microarrays of antibody microspots) capable of ultrasensitive determination of hundreds of analytes in a drop of blood. Analogous technology (based on oligonucleotide arrays) is under intensive development for DNA analysis. Array technologies are likely to transform diagnostic medicine in the next decade.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 10/1997; 9(3):100-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphate is an important component of all tissues and disorders of phosphate homeostasis are common in hospital populations. Hypophosphatemia, which is much more frequent than hyperphosphatemia, is commonly caused by infusion of carbohydrate or respiratory alkalosis. If hypophosphatemia is prolonged, severe consequences such as hemolysis, myopathy, and respiratory dysfunction may occur. In order to prevent these complications it is important to measure plasma phosphate concentration in a number of clinical situations. If severe hypophosphatemia is detected, phosphate supplements should be given to correct it.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 10/1997; 9(3):110-3, 116-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the health reforms introduced in 1994 include universal coverage and cost containment. With these reforms, a new uniform for schedule and standards for laboratories have been introduced. The impact of these reforms is yet to be realized. It is predicted that with the imposition of new standards, many laboratories based in physicians' offices will disappear. Standards will also require more scientists and physicians trained in laboratory medicine.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 12/1996; 8(4):167-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A number of reliable methods are currently available for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. These diagnostic tests can be classified into invasive methods that require endoscopy and gastric biopsy, and noninvasive methods. Invasive methods include gastric mucosal biopsies at endoscopy for bacteriologic culture, histology, and the rapid urease test. Noninvasive methods include the urea breath test and serologic tests. Each of these diagnostic tests has its advantages and disadvantages. Histologic examination remains the gold standard for diagnosis. It can also detect coccoidal forms of the bacteria and be used to assess the severity of gastritis. Culture of H pylori should be performed if antibiotic sensitivity of the organism is required. A rapid urease test is the quickest test for H pylori status. The urea breath test detects urease activity in the entire stomach, thus eliminating the possibility of a sampling error, which occurs in random gastric biopsies. Serologic tests using either ELISA or latex-agglutination methods are excellent for diagnosis of H pylori infection, but not useful for monitoring effects of therapy. Recently, the polymerase chain reaction has been applied to fixed-tissue biopsies, as well as body secretions in the diagnosis of H pylori infection.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 12/1996; 8(4):161, 164-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Belatedly, automation is being introduced into hemostasis laboratories. Now, new analytic systems are also available for less specialized laboratories. New tests have been added as knowledge of the mechanisms of coagulation increases. This article will review the new technologies in coagulation testing and their diagnostic applications.
    Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry / IFCC 10/1996; 8(3):117-22.