IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine (IEEE ANTENN PROPAG M )

Publisher: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


Covers all areas relating to antenna theory, design, and practice; propagation, including theory, effects, and system considerations; analytical and computational electromagnetics, scattering, diffraction, and radar cross sections; and all relationships of these areas to applications, including telecommunications, broadcasting, electromagnetic effects in systems, and design and measurement techniques.

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    IEEE antennas & propagation magazine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers antennas & propagation magazine, Antennas & propagation magazine, IEEE antennas and propagation magazine, Antennas and propagation magazine, AP-S magazine, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society magazine
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [accepted for publication, publication expected June 2015] Ionospheric radio wave propagation can be used to bridge hundreds of kilometers with a direct radio link. This makes ionospheric radio communication a practical solution for information transport in regions that have no telecommunication infrastructure, or for disaster relief operations in areas where the telecommunication infrastructure is destroyed by a natural catastrophe. Ionospheric radio wave propagation adds fading to the received signal, decreasing the link reliability and throughput, which may be countered with diversity reception. Effective diversity reception may be obtained by adapting the polarization of the receive antenna to the characteristic waves propagating in the ionosphere, thereby creating two independent propagation paths from transmitter to receiver. This article describes a method to measure the isolation between these paths and demonstrates its effectiveness in a Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) experiment on a frequency of 7 MHz over a 105 km distance. Characteristic wave isolation exceeding 25 dB is measured during the 'Happy Hour': the interval when the propagation path just opens or closes and only the extraordinary wave propagates. The use of circular polarization promises significant improvement of NVIS diversity reception or MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [accepted for publication, publication expected June 2015] Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) communication uses the ionosphere as a reflector to cover a continuous area with a radius of at least 150 km around the transmitter, on frequencies typically between 3 and 10 MHz. In developing countries – in areas lacking any other telecommunication infrastructure – it is used on a daily basis for voice and data communication. It may also be used in ad-hoc emergency (disaster) communication in other regions. This paper proposes optimum heights above ground for horizontal dipole antennas for NVIS, based on simulations and empirical data. Firstly, the relationship between elevation angle and skip distance is obtained using ionospheric ray tracing. The high elevation angles found by simulation are confirmed by elevation angle measurements using a professional Radio Direction Finder. The measurements also show the dominance of NVIS over ground wave propagation starting at a short distance. For these elevation angles, the optimum receive and transmit antenna heights above ground are derived using antenna simulations. A distinction is made between optimum transmit signal strength and optimum received signal-to-noise ratio. These optima are verified experimentally, demonstrating a novel evaluation method that can be used in the presence of the fading typical for ionospheric propagation. For farmland soil (sigma = 20mS/m, 17 Er = 17) the optimum height above ground for the transmit antenna is 0.18 − 0.22 lambda . If the antenna is lowered to 0.02 lambda a transmit signal loss of 12 dB occurs. This corresponds with the theory. The receive antenna height, however, while appearing uncritical in the simulations, showed a clear optimum at 0.16 lambda and a 2-7 dB SNR deterioration when lowered to 0.02 lambda.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 01/2015;
  • IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 10/2014; 56(5):91-100.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the infl uence of the topology and morphology of a particularly complex scenario on the deployment of ZigBee wireless sensor networks is analyzed. This complex scenario is a car. The existence of loss mechanisms, such as material absorption (seats, dashboard, etc.), and strong multipath components due to the great number of obstacles and the metallic environment (bodywork), as well as the growing demand for wireless systems within a vehicle, emphasize the importance of the confi guration of heterogeneous intra-car wireless systems. Measurement results, as well as simulation results by means of an in-house three-dimensional ray-launching algorithm, illustrate the strong infl uence of this complex scenario on the overall performance of the intra-car wireless sensor network. Results also show that ZigBee is a viable technology for successfully deploying intra-car wireless sensor networks.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 08/2014; 56(4):232-245.
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    ABSTRACT: Design of antennas for metal mountable radio-frequency identification tags is driven by a unique set of challenges: cheap, small, low-profile and conformal structures need to provide reliable operation when tags are mounted on conductive platforms of various shapes and sizes. During the past decade, tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to meet these stringent requirements. Currently, the tag read ranges of several meters are achieved with flexible label type tags. Moreover, a whole spectrum of tag size-performance ratios has been demonstrated through a variety of innovative antenna design approaches. This article reviews and summarizes the progress made in antennas for metal mountable tags and presents future prospects.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(1):79.
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless body-centric sensing systems have an important role in the fields of biomedicine, personal healthcare, safety, and security. Body-centric radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology provides a wireless and maintenance-free communication link between the human body and the surroundings through wearable and implanted antennas. This enables real-time monitoring of human vital signs everywhere. Seamlessly integrated wearable and implanted miniaturized antennas thus have the potential to revolutionize the everyday life of people, and to contribute to independent living. Low-cost and low-power system solutions will make widespread use of such technology become reality. The primary target applications for this research are body-centric sensing systems and the relatively new interdisciplinary field of wireless brain-machine interface (BMI) systems. Providing a direct wireless pathway between the brain and an external device, a wireless brain-machine interface holds an enormous potential for helping people suffering from severely disabling neurological conditions to communicate and manage their everyday life more independently. In this paper, we discuss RFID-inspired wireless brain-machine interface systems. We demonstrate that mm-size loop implanted antennas are capable of efficiently coupling to an external transmitting loop antenna through an inductive link. In addition, we focus on wearable antennas based on electrically conductive textiles and threads, and present design guidelines for their use as wearable-antenna conductive elements. Overall, our results constitute an important milestone in the development of wireless brain-machine interface systems, and a new era of wireless body-centric systems.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(1):271.
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Soon after this issue of the Magazine reaches you, all members of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society (AP-S) will have an opportunity to vote in at least two elections: the AP-S election for AdCom members and President Elect, and the IEEE election. If this year is similar to previous years. indeed, previous decades. depending on where they live, less than 14% to 34% of AP-S members will vote. That's sad. It also means that the vast majority of AP-S members must not really care about any of the following: ?? What new conferences the Society organizes ?? Where the Society's conferences are held ?? What publications the Society publishes ?? Who is Editor-in-Chief of those publications ?? How much money is spent supporting Chapters, and in what form ?? How much money is spent supporting students ?? What other benefits are offered to members Those are just a very few of the issues the Society's elected representatives have voted on this year, and typically make decisions about each year. If you don't vote for the people who make these decisions, then your preferences regarding these issues are not represented.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(3):12-12.
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    ABSTRACT: The Microwave Lab in the Electrical Engineering Department of the Penn State University (PSU) was recently dedicated in a ceremony organized by the College of Engineering. Figure 1 shows the plaque along with excerpts from the official press release (Figure 2), delivered by Dean Atchley of the Penn State College of Engineering (COE). Prof. Aydin, head of the EE Department, also said a few kind words about my sixteen years at Penn State, where I migrated from the University of Illinois in 1996.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(3):188-191.
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3-D) frequency-selective structures are a recent development that exhibit superior filtering responses compared to conventional two-dimensional (2-D) frequency-selective surfaces. A three-dimensional frequency-selective structure typically comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of multimode cavities the modes of which and the coupling of which with air can be controlled to obtain a desired frequency response. Based on their distinct configuration, we seek to classify them as a separate class of high-performance frequency-selective structures, and to highlight their unique features in this paper. We also present a review of recent advances in three-dimensional frequency-selective structures, and suggest a number of related research topics for future exploration.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(3):43-67.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society is interested in increasing industrial participation in the Society's activities. In these activities, antenna conferences are key to promoting interaction between industry and academia. Thanks to the efforts of the organizing committee, the European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), held in The Hague this spring, had an enormous number of participants (over 1300) with a significant industrial participation at all levels of the conference. We would like to thank their participation in this corner.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(3):268-270.
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    ABSTRACT: Analytic representations of coherent-wave polarization draw from well-known physics in this subject as applied to electromagnetic problems, and especially antennas. However, the physical visualization, bases, and their interrelationships are frequently from disparate sources. The increasing use of multi-function phased arrays highlights other topics of concern, since the changing directions of steered beams results in dynamic changes in polarization that must be dealt with. Following basic visualization in terms of circular basis components, the circular-to-linear basistransform matrices are derived. Since similarities or interactions among different polarizations are concerned, the physical and analytic utility of the Poincar¿¿ sphere is reviewed. Geometric effects inherently basic to all phased array problems are demonstrated and analyzed in connection with polarization control. Cross-polarization interpretation and association with pattern measurements are described.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 06/2014; 56(3):90-102.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the design and characterization process of an active array demonstrator for the mid-frequency range (i.e., 300 MHz??1000 MHz) of the future Square Kilometre Array (SKA) radio telescope. This demonstrator, called FIDA3 (FG-IGN: Fundaci??n General Instituto Geogr??fico Nacional ?? Differential Active Antenna Array), is part of the Spanish contribution for the SKA project. The main advantages provided by this design include the use of a dielectric-free structure, and the use of a fully-differential receiver in which differential low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) are directly connected to the balanced tapered-slot antennas (TSAs). First, the radiating structure and the differential low-noise amplifiers were separately designed and measured, obtaining good results (antenna elements with low voltage standing-wave ratios, array scanning capabilities up to 45??, and noise temperatures better than 52 K with low-noise amplifiers at room temperature). The potential problems due to the differential nature of the proposed solution are discussed, so some effective methods to overcome such limitations are proposed. Second, the complete active antenna array receiving system was assembled, and a 1 m2 active antenna array tile was characterized.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 04/2014; 56(2):27-38.
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    ABSTRACT: Car radios were introduced for commercial (broadcast) and professional (communications) purposes in the 1920s [1]. This novelty was just one of many innovative technologies and products that were taken into mass production in passenger cars, and vehicles in general, since then [2, 3]. Wireless communications in particular nowadays represent an important business area for the automotive market, for ??infotainment?? (information and entertainment), comfort, environ mental, and safety-related services. In the field of connectivity ?? and specifically in the context of antennas for wireless functions ?? the case of the European satellite technology based on S band is analyzed here. The DVB-SH standard (Digital Video Broadcasting-Satellite Handheld [4]) is considered for the forward link, and the ETSI S-MIM standard (S-Band Mobile Interactive Multimedia [5, 6]) is considered for the return link. These standards can provide satellite services for mobile terminals, such as broadcasting of radio, TV, and data by using DVB-SH, and interactive services on the return link by using the ETSI S-MIM.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 04/2014; 56(2):240-250.
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: The 30th International Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics Conference (ACES) was held on March 23??27, 2014, in Jacksonville, Florida. The ACES conference once again provided an opportunity for students to present their research in computational electromagnetics in a special student paper competition session, and to compete for cash prizes. ACES requires participants to be the only student authors of the submitted papers.
    IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 04/2014; 56(2):262-264.