Advances in food and nutrition research (Adv Food Nutr Res )


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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by significant losses of important micronutrients due to metabolic basis of the disease and its complications. Evidence of changes in trace mineral and vitamin metabolism as a consequence of type 2 diabetes is reviewed in this chapter. This review is not a meta-analysis but an overview of the micronutrient status, metabolic needs, and potential micronutrient requirements in type 2 diabetics. This chapter will not concentrate on vitamin D and type 2 diabetes as this is a topic that has been extensively reviewed before. The less well-known micronutrients notably zinc, magnesium, chromium, copper, manganese, iron, selenium, vanadium, B-group vitamins, and certain antioxidants are assessed. While some evidence is available to demonstrate the positive influence of micronutrient supplementation on glycemic control, much remains to be investigated. Additional research is necessary to characterize better biomarkers of micronutrient status and requirements in type 2 diabetics. The optimal level of micronutrient supplementation to achieve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics remains a challenge.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:55-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable progress in medical research, cancer is still one of the high-ranking causes of death in the world. It is the second most common cause of death due to disease after heart disease, and according to World Health Organization it will be the cause of death for more than 10 million people in 2020; therefore, one of the main research goals for researchers investigating new anticancer agents. But the major complication for the cancer cure without surgeries is side effects. Especially, cytotoxic anticancer chemotherapeutic agents generally produce severe side effects, while reducing host resistance to cancer and infections. Therefore, it is important to find new, powerful anticancer agents that are highly effective, biodegradable, and biocompatible. Chitin and chitosan are biopolymers which have unique structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions. These biopolymers are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic, and their chemical properties allow them to be easily processed into gels, sponges, membranes, beads, and scaffolds forms also. Due to their unique properties, they are excellent candidates for cancer cure or cancer diagnosis.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:215-25.
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    ABSTRACT: The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:45-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Hybrid carrageenan is a special class of carrageenan with niche application in food industry. This polysaccharide is extracted from specific species of seaweeds belonging to the Gigartinales order. This chapter focuses on hybrid carrageenan showing the ability to form gels in water, which is known in the food industry as weak kappa or kappa-2 carrageenan. After introducing the general chemical structure defining hybrid carrageenan, the isolation of the polysaccharide will be discussed focusing on the interplay between seaweed species, extraction parameters, and the hybrid carrageenan chemistry. Then, the rheological experiments used to determine the small and large deformation behavior of gels will be detailed before reviewing the relationships between gel properties and hybrid carrageenan chemistry.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:17-43.
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    ABSTRACT: There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring "total antioxidant content" of food will be presented. The FRAP assay and the modified version FRASC will be described, and the total antioxidant content (as the FRAP value) of a range of foods will be presented. Finally, issues of bioavailability and redox balance will be discussed in relation to the biological significance and molecular action of antioxidants in foods, some caution and caveats are presented about overcoming biological barriers to absorption of antioxidant phytochemicals, and research needs to further our understanding in the important area of food, antioxidants, and health will be highlighted.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:1-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases are endopeptidases which belong to the group of metalloproteinases that contribute for the extracellular matrix degradation and several tissue remodeling processes. An imbalance in the regulation of these endopeptidases eventually leads to several severe pathological complications like cancers, cardiac, cartilage, and neurological-related diseases. Hence, inhibitory substances of metalloproteinases (MMPIs) could prove beneficial in the management of above specified pathological conditions. The available synthetic MMPIs that have been reported until now have few shortcomings, and thus many of them could not make to the final clinical trials. Hence, a growing interest among researchers on screening of MMPIs from different natural resources is evident and especially natural products from marine origin. As there has been an unparalleled contribution of several biologically active compounds from marine resources that have shown a profound applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals, we have attempted to discuss the various MMPIs from edible seaweeds.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:177-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Biomaterials are playing a vital role in our day-to-day life. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid), a biomaterial, receives special attention among them. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polyanionic natural polymer occurring as linear polysaccharide composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine repeats via a β-1,4 linkage. It is the most versatile macromolecule present in the connective tissues of all vertebrates. Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of applications with its excellent physicochemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and nonimmunogenicity and serves as an excellent tool in biomedical applications such as osteoarthritis surgery, ocular surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. It plays a key role in cushioning and lubricating the body and is abundant in the eyes, joints, and heart valves. A powerful antioxidant, hyaluronic acid is perhaps best known for its ability to bond water to tissue. Hyaluronan production increases in proliferating cells, and the polymer may play a role in mitosis. This chapter gives an overview of hyaluronic acid and its physicochemical properties and applications. This chapter gives a deep understanding on the special benefits of hyaluronic acid in the fields of pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental applications. Hyaluronic acid paves the way for beneficial research and applications to the welfare of life forms.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:137-76.
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, chitin and chitosan are produced from the shells of crabs and shrimps, and bone plate of squid in laboratory to industrial scale. Production of chitosan involved deproteinization, demineralization, and deacetylation. The characteristics of chitin and chitosan mainly depend on production processes and conditions. The characteristics of these biopolymers such as appearance of polymer, turbidity of polymer solution, degree of deacetylation, and molecular weight are of major importance on applications of these polymers. This chapter addresses the production processes and conditions to produce chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide and methods for characterization of chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:1-15.
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    ABSTRACT: To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:95-112.
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and humic substances. Microbial polysaccharides are multifunctional and can be divided into intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides, and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of marine microorganisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of current knowledge on extracellular polysaccharides producing marine bacteria isolated from marine environment.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:79-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Red seaweeds are popular and economically important worldwide and also well known for their medicinal effects due to the presence of phycocolloids. Carrageenans, the major phycocolloid group of red algae, have been extensively investigated for their vast array of bioactivities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, cholesterol-lowering effects, immunomodulatory activity, and antioxidant. Carrageenan possesses promising activity both in vitro and in vivo, showing promising potential to be developed as therapeutic agents. In this chapter, attempts have been made to examine the health benefit effects of carrageenans.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:113-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:195-213.
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. The digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. With its naturally high nonstarch polysaccharide content, it would be expected that kiwifruit would possess the characteristics of a good source of fiber for nutrition and health. Kiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter summarizes fiber digestion in general and current knowledge of kiwifruit fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:187-203.
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    ABSTRACT: Beneficial effects of consumption of fruit and vegetables on the cardiovascular system have been reported. Fruit and vegetable components affect the cardiovascular system in both antioxidant and nonantioxidant ways. The mechanisms of their actions are, however, still not well understood. The compounds present in fruits and vegetables may function individually or in concert to protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation or by other mechanisms such as reducing plasma lipid levels, high blood pressure, and platelet hyperactivity. Emerging data indicate that kiwifruit is beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as consumption of two or three fruit per day for 28 days or more lowers platelet hyperactivity, plasma lipids, and blood pressure in human volunteers. These studies suggest that kiwifruit may provide a new dietary means as part of a preventive or therapeutic strategy to favorably modify cardiovascular risk factors. The relevance of lowering the cardiovascular risk factors by kiwifruit in human health is discussed.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:273-283.
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    ABSTRACT: Kiwifruit has long been regarded in China, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. There are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. The mucous layer, which comprises mucins and other materials, overlying the mucosal epithelium, is an important component of the gut barrier. The gut barrier plays a crucial role in separating the host from the often noxious external environment. The mucous layer, which covers the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is the front line of innate host defense. There have been few direct studies of the effect of kiwifruit ingestion on mucin production in the GIT, and findings that are available using animal models are somewhat inconsistent. Taking results for digesta mucin content, number of goblet cells, and mucin gene expression, together, it would seem that green kiwifruit and possibly gold kiwifruit do influence gut mucin production, and the kiwifruit as part of a balanced diet may help to maintain the mucous layer and gut barrier. More corroborative experimental evidence is needed, and studies need to be undertaken in humans.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:169-85.

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