Advances in food and nutrition research (Adv Food Nutr Res )

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  • Website
    Advances in Food & Nutrition Research website
  • Other titles
    Advances in food and nutrition research
  • ISSN
    1043-4526
  • OCLC
    19499025
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:137-63.
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    ABSTRACT: There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring "total antioxidant content" of food will be presented. The FRAP assay and the modified version FRASC will be described, and the total antioxidant content (as the FRAP value) of a range of foods will be presented. Finally, issues of bioavailability and redox balance will be discussed in relation to the biological significance and molecular action of antioxidants in foods, some caution and caveats are presented about overcoming biological barriers to absorption of antioxidant phytochemicals, and research needs to further our understanding in the important area of food, antioxidants, and health will be highlighted.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:1-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by significant losses of important micronutrients due to metabolic basis of the disease and its complications. Evidence of changes in trace mineral and vitamin metabolism as a consequence of type 2 diabetes is reviewed in this chapter. This review is not a meta-analysis but an overview of the micronutrient status, metabolic needs, and potential micronutrient requirements in type 2 diabetics. This chapter will not concentrate on vitamin D and type 2 diabetes as this is a topic that has been extensively reviewed before. The less well-known micronutrients notably zinc, magnesium, chromium, copper, manganese, iron, selenium, vanadium, B-group vitamins, and certain antioxidants are assessed. While some evidence is available to demonstrate the positive influence of micronutrient supplementation on glycemic control, much remains to be investigated. Additional research is necessary to characterize better biomarkers of micronutrient status and requirements in type 2 diabetics. The optimal level of micronutrient supplementation to achieve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics remains a challenge.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:55-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Preserving or restoring adequate nutritional status is a key factor to delay the onset of chronic diseases and to accelerate recovery from acute illnesses. In particular, consistent and robust data show the loss of muscle mass, that is, sarcopenia, is clinically relevant since it is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals and patients. Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. International study groups have recently proposed separate definitions and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Unfortunately, the rate of agreement in assessing the prevalence of sarcopenia is just fair, which highlights the need for a common effort to harmonize definitions and diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia should be distinct from myopenia, which is the disease-associated loss of muscle mass, although in clinical practice it may be impossible to separate them (i.e., in old cancer patients). The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. Consequently, its treatment should target the different factors involved, including quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:101-36.
  • Article: Preface.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 70:ix.
  • Article: Preface.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 69:xi.
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    ABSTRACT: Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 70:137-79.
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    ABSTRACT: It is becoming clear that the ecology and functionality of the human gut microbiota are extremely diverse and complex. The microbiota have coevolved with us metabolically to live symbiotically and to share the workload of extracting nutrients and energy from the diet. It is also clear that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals is good for general health and gut health and that this is due partly to the phytochemicals and partly to the nondigestible carbohydrates (or dietary fiber) that are present in plants. Kiwifruit contain polyphenolics and nondigestible carbohydrates in the form of pectic, hemicellulosic, and cellulosic polysaccharides, all of which can be degraded by various members of the gut microbiota and result in beneficial effects. This chapter summarizes how kiwifruit act to modify the colonic microbiota and the resultant beneficial effects on human health.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:205-17.
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    ABSTRACT: Maintenance of an adequate and properly regulated immune system is essential for health and well-being. Components in food may modulate immune responses in a positive way (immunonutrition), and some of these components are present in kiwifruit. Kiwifruit contains vitamin C, carotenoids, polyphenols, and dietary fiber, and these are all potentially beneficial to the immune system. Research that has contributed to our understanding of the beneficial effects that kiwifruit may have on immune responses spans from in vitro studies using cell lines and human blood cells, to using animal models targeting both mucosal and systemic immunity. Some limited human intervention trials have been undertaken and are described, in which kiwifruit has been shown to influence a number of biomarkers of oxidative stress and beneficial immune responses, to reduce the incidence and severity of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and potentially be more beneficial than supplementation with vitamin C alone.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:301-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has a multifactorial etiology. Although obesity is widespread and associated with serious health hazards, its effective prevention and treatment have been challenging. Among the currently available treatment approaches, lifestyle modification to induce a negative energy balance holds a particularly larger appeal due to its wider reach and relative safety. However, long-term compliance with dietary modifications to reduce energy intake is not effective for the majority. The role of many individual nutrients, foods, and food groups in inducing satiety has been extensively studied. Based on this evidence, we have developed sample weight-loss meal plans that include multiple satiating foods, which may collectively augment the satiating properties of a meal. Compared to a typical American diet, these meal plans are considerably lower in energy density and probably more satiating. A diet that exploits the satiating properties of multiple foods may help increase long-term dietary compliance and consequentially enhance weight loss.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 69:105-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. Food plays an important role in the management of blood glucose and associated complications in diabetes. This is attributed to the ability of food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose without causing any adverse health consequences. This chapter focuses on four important food groups such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and spices that have active ingredients such as soluble dietary fiber, polyphenols, and antinutrients with the ability to reduce glycemic and insulin response in humans. Other food ingredients such as simple sugars, sugar alcohols, and some proteins are also discussed in moderation.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 70:181-227.
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    ABSTRACT: Beneficial effects of consumption of fruit and vegetables on the cardiovascular system have been reported. Fruit and vegetable components affect the cardiovascular system in both antioxidant and nonantioxidant ways. The mechanisms of their actions are, however, still not well understood. The compounds present in fruits and vegetables may function individually or in concert to protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation or by other mechanisms such as reducing plasma lipid levels, high blood pressure, and platelet hyperactivity. Emerging data indicate that kiwifruit is beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as consumption of two or three fruit per day for 28 days or more lowers platelet hyperactivity, plasma lipids, and blood pressure in human volunteers. These studies suggest that kiwifruit may provide a new dietary means as part of a preventive or therapeutic strategy to favorably modify cardiovascular risk factors. The relevance of lowering the cardiovascular risk factors by kiwifruit in human health is discussed.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:273-82.
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    ABSTRACT: The defining characteristics of the genus Actinidia, to which kiwifruit belong, are described. Taxonomic relationships between the two important cultivated species, A. chinensis and A. deliciosa, are summarized, and the history of the domestication of these two species is outlined. Most commercially important kiwifruit cultivars are selections from the wild, not the result of planned breeding programs. There is great variability within the genus, and it is therefore important when considering the possible contributions of kiwifruit to the human diet to define the particular genotypes or cultivars used in experimental studies and the origin and postharvest management of the fruit.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:15-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the functions and effects of polyphenols has gained considerable momentum in recent times. This is attributed to their bioactivities, ranging from antioxidant to anticancer activities. But their potential is seldom fully realized since their solubility and stability is quite low and their bioavailability is hampered due to extensive metabolism in the body. Biotransformation of polyphenols using enzymes, whole cell microbes, or plant cell cultures may provide an effective solution by modifying their structure while maintaining their original bioactivity. Lipase, protease, cellulase, and transferases are commonly used enzymes, with lipase being the most popular for carrying out acylation reactions. Among the whole cell microbes, Aspergillus, Bacillus, and Streptomyces sp. are the most widely used, while Eucalyptus perriniana and Capsicum frutescens are the plant cell cultures used for the production of secondary metabolites. This chapter emphasizes the development of green solvents and identification of different sources/approaches to maximize polyphenol transformation for varied applications.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 69:183-217.
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. The digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. With its naturally high nonstarch polysaccharide content, it would be expected that kiwifruit would possess the characteristics of a good source of fiber for nutrition and health. Kiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter summarizes fiber digestion in general and current knowledge of kiwifruit fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:187-203.
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    ABSTRACT: Kiwifruit has long been regarded in China, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. There are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. The mucous layer, which comprises mucins and other materials, overlying the mucosal epithelium, is an important component of the gut barrier. The gut barrier plays a crucial role in separating the host from the often noxious external environment. The mucous layer, which covers the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is the front line of innate host defense. There have been few direct studies of the effect of kiwifruit ingestion on mucin production in the GIT, and findings that are available using animal models are somewhat inconsistent. Taking results for digesta mucin content, number of goblet cells, and mucin gene expression, together, it would seem that green kiwifruit and possibly gold kiwifruit do influence gut mucin production, and the kiwifruit as part of a balanced diet may help to maintain the mucous layer and gut barrier. More corroborative experimental evidence is needed, and studies need to be undertaken in humans.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:169-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Both green and gold kiwifruit contain high concentrations of vitamin C, and much of the "health story" of kiwifruit involves this vitamin. Kiwifruit also contain other compounds that are bioactive and beneficial to health. In this chapter, the secondary metabolite composition of kiwifruit is presented. Although there are limited compositional data for kiwifruit published in the scientific literature, the concentrations of 42 compounds have been documented. Included are compounds that are often associated with "healthfulness," such as the vitamins (A, C, E, and K), carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene), folate, and antioxidant phenolic compounds. Metabolite discovery is advancing rapidly with the introduction of "metabolomic" studies where the goal is to identify and measure the complete metabolite composition of a sample. In a metabolomic experiment using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry, it was possible to measure more than 500 metabolites in kiwifruit extracts. The large number of detectable metabolites present suggests that there is an abundance of kiwifruit metabolites still to be discovered. Such studies will provide a more complete understanding of the metabolite composition of kiwifruit that will lead to new and improved hypotheses as to the function and effects of kiwifruit metabolites, including their relevance to human health.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2013; 68:101-24.

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