Advances in food and nutrition research (Adv Food Nutr Res )

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Website Advances in Food & Nutrition Research website
Other titles Advances in food and nutrition research
ISSN 1043-4526
OCLC 19499025
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Nutrition is a multisectoral problem; current state of empirical evidence for agricultural interventions' impacts on nutrition is weak. In the past 10 years, both agriculture and nutrition have risen on the global policy agenda. Several recent international movements have created great momentum for nutrition among global political leaders and policymakers. The 2008 world food price crisis prompted larger investment pledges to agricultural development. The U.S. Government launched the Feed the Future initiative in 2009 to address global hunger and food security, with a primary goal to reduce poverty and undernutrition by simultaneously promoting inclusive agriculture sector growth and improved nutritional status for women and children. With operations in 19 focus countries, Feed the Future provides an important laboratory of learning where efforts can be effective and, once proven, taken to scale to make agriculture work for nutrition. The Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project has been conducting a series of research on the Feed the Future initiative. This chapter will first provide a review of the nutrition narrative in relation to food and nutrition, introduce the current understanding of linkages between agriculture and nutrition and the Feed the Future initiative's efforts to strengthen the nutritional impact of agricultural and economic growth activities, and describe an extensive review of how the design and early implementation of Feed the Future activities linked agriculture and nutrition. Finally, the chapter presents an updated framework that incorporates ways to improve nutrition outcomes of agricultural programming in the broader context of food system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2015; 74:1-46.
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter describes the various compounds that can act as prebiotic fibers: their structure, occurrence, production, and physiological effects (health effects) will be presented. The basis for the description is the latest definitions for dietary fibers and for prebiotics. Using as much as possible data from human studies, both the fiber and the prebiotic properties will be described of a variety of compounds. Based on the presented data the latest developments in the area of prebiotics, fibers and gut and immune health will be discussed in more detail as they show best what the potential impact of prebiotics on health of the human host might be. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2015; 74:47-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order to exert a therapeutic effect. Successful gene therapy relies on effective vector system. Viral vectors are highly efficient in transfecting cells, but the undesirable complications limit their therapeutic applications. As a natural biopolymer, chitosan has been considered to be a good gene carrier candidate due to its ideal character which combines biocompatibility, low toxicity with high cationic density together. However, the low cell specificity and low transfection efficiency of chitosan as a gene carrier need to be overcome before undertaking clinical trials. This chapter is principally on those endeavors such as chemical modifications using cell-specific ligands and stimuli-response groups as well as penetrating modifications that have been done to increase the performances of chitosan in gene therapy.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 73:83-101.
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    ABSTRACT: Polysaccharides are macromolecules made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides from marine sources are widely distributed as the principle component in cell wall structures of seaweeds or exoskeletons of crustaceans. So far, marine polysaccharides have been used in many fields of biomaterials, food, cosmetic, and pharmacology. Especially, numerous pharmaceutical properties of marine polysaccharides have been revealed such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antitumor, antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticoagulant, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, antihepatopathy, antiuropathy, and antirenalpathy activities. Recently, several marine polysaccharides such alginate, porphyran, fucoidan, and chitin and its derivatives have been found as modulators of allergic responses due to enhancing innate immune system, altering Th1/Th2 balance, inhibiting IgE production, and suppressing mast cell degranulation. This contribution, therefore, focuses specially on the immunomodulatory effect of marine polysaccharides and emphasizes their potential application as candidates of pharmaceuticals as well as nutraceuticals to prevent allergic disorders.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 73:1-13.
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    ABSTRACT: To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:95-112.
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, chitin and chitosan are produced from the shells of crabs and shrimps, and bone plate of squid in laboratory to industrial scale. Production of chitosan involved deproteinization, demineralization, and deacetylation. The characteristics of chitin and chitosan mainly depend on production processes and conditions. The characteristics of these biopolymers such as appearance of polymer, turbidity of polymer solution, degree of deacetylation, and molecular weight are of major importance on applications of these polymers. This chapter addresses the production processes and conditions to produce chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide and methods for characterization of chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:1-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by significant losses of important micronutrients due to metabolic basis of the disease and its complications. Evidence of changes in trace mineral and vitamin metabolism as a consequence of type 2 diabetes is reviewed in this chapter. This review is not a meta-analysis but an overview of the micronutrient status, metabolic needs, and potential micronutrient requirements in type 2 diabetics. This chapter will not concentrate on vitamin D and type 2 diabetes as this is a topic that has been extensively reviewed before. The less well-known micronutrients notably zinc, magnesium, chromium, copper, manganese, iron, selenium, vanadium, B-group vitamins, and certain antioxidants are assessed. While some evidence is available to demonstrate the positive influence of micronutrient supplementation on glycemic control, much remains to be investigated. Additional research is necessary to characterize better biomarkers of micronutrient status and requirements in type 2 diabetics. The optimal level of micronutrient supplementation to achieve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics remains a challenge.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 71:55-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates (CHOs) are the most abundant organic compounds found in living organisms and are a great source of metabolic energy, both for plants and animals. Besides of CHOs great potential to solve animal's energy requirements and diminishing high feed cost, we first must to understand its digestibility and assimilation to avoid several inconvenients. Today, CHOs feed animal inclusions are of great concern about cost-benefits, animal's health status, and environmental pollution. In this chapter, we make a brief description about sugars (DP1-2), oligosaccharides (DP3-9), polysaccharides (DP ≥10), and their essential characteristics to understand the role of marine and terrestrial CHOs in animal nutrition. Subsequently, we talk about basic concepts, CHOs functional benefits, suggestions about their application and successful cases. This information will contribute to produce a new generation of high-quality and energetic functional feed formulations for livestock and aquaculture farms; which must be of low cost, healthy, and environmentally friendly, with the inclusion of prebiotics and probiotics.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 73:259-88.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable progress in medical research, cancer is still one of the high-ranking causes of death in the world. It is the second most common cause of death due to disease after heart disease, and according to World Health Organization it will be the cause of death for more than 10 million people in 2020; therefore, one of the main research goals for researchers investigating new anticancer agents. But the major complication for the cancer cure without surgeries is side effects. Especially, cytotoxic anticancer chemotherapeutic agents generally produce severe side effects, while reducing host resistance to cancer and infections. Therefore, it is important to find new, powerful anticancer agents that are highly effective, biodegradable, and biocompatible. Chitin and chitosan are biopolymers which have unique structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions. These biopolymers are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic, and their chemical properties allow them to be easily processed into gels, sponges, membranes, beads, and scaffolds forms also. Due to their unique properties, they are excellent candidates for cancer cure or cancer diagnosis.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:215-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives are considered to promote diverse activities, including antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antitumor and anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, and antidiabetic effects, one of the most crucial of which is the antioxidant effect. By modulating and improving physiological functions, chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives may provide novel therapeutic applications for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. Antioxidant activity of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives can be attributed to in vitro and in vivo free radical-scavenging activities. Antioxidant effect of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives may be used as functional ingredients in food formulations to promote consumer health and to improve the shelf life of food products. This chapter presents an overview of the antioxidant activity of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives with the potential utilization in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 73:15-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 73:183-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Hybrid carrageenan is a special class of carrageenan with niche application in food industry. This polysaccharide is extracted from specific species of seaweeds belonging to the Gigartinales order. This chapter focuses on hybrid carrageenan showing the ability to form gels in water, which is known in the food industry as weak kappa or kappa-2 carrageenan. After introducing the general chemical structure defining hybrid carrageenan, the isolation of the polysaccharide will be discussed focusing on the interplay between seaweed species, extraction parameters, and the hybrid carrageenan chemistry. Then, the rheological experiments used to determine the small and large deformation behavior of gels will be detailed before reviewing the relationships between gel properties and hybrid carrageenan chemistry.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2014; 72:17-43.