Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (J ZOO WILDLIFE MED )

Publisher: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians


The Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine is published by the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

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    Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine (Online), Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, Zoo and wildlife medicine
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes is a causative agent of suppurative infections in domestic and wild animals. In some populations of captive or free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), cranial abscess disease is an important source of mortality 30 of adult males. Although the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood, T. pyogenes has been isolated from active infections with other opportunistic bacteria. In this study, bacteria associated with cranial abscess infections were identified, the prevalence of T. pyogenes associated with these infections was determined, and presence of known virulence determinants in T. pyogenes isolates was ascertained. Using routine biochemical techniques we identified 35 seven bacterial species from 65 samples taken from active cranial abscess infections of 65 male white-tailed deer. T. pyogenes was recovered from 46 samples; in 32 samples it was the only bacterium species detected. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 26 samples. From these samples, the presence of known and putative virulence genes of T. pyogenes, plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, and fimG were examined by conventional PCR. All T. pyogenes 40 isolates were positive for the pyolysin gene plo, nanP and fimA. Furthermore, nanH, fimA, fimC, and fimE were detected in over 70% of isolates. Of the isolates tested, 48% had genotypes containing all virulence genes except cbpA. The suggestive virulence potential of all isolates, coupled with the large number of pure cultures obtained, implies T. pyogenes is a causative agent of cranial abscess disease.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 03/2015;
  • Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12/2014; 45(4):757-760.
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    ABSTRACT: An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2014; 45(3):469-475.
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    ABSTRACT: This marks the first report of the implementation of hemoglobin binding protein quantitation in loggerhead turtles. This analyte was measured in conjunction with plasma protein electrophoresis values in 18 turtles as pre and post rehabilitation samples.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2014; 45(3):700-703.
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    ABSTRACT: An 8-yr-old female slender-tailed meerkat (Suricata suricatta) presented with a necrotic sublingual mass and osteolysis of the mandible. After 1 mo of palliative care, the meerkat was euthanized. The mass was diagnosed histologically as an anaplastic carcinoma with extensive rostral mandibular destruction. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin and cytokeratin was validated in this nontypical species and showed that neoplastic cells expressed both mesenchymal and epithelial characteristics, suggestive of a primitive and poorly differentiated tumor. A review of 150 adult slender-tailed meerkat histopathology reports showed a 2% prevalence of orofacial neoplasia, suggesting that oral neoplasms are uncommon in meerkats.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):413-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Hemangiosarcoma, hemangioma, transitional cell carcinoma, and chronic cystitis were diagnosed in the urinary bladder of six captive fallow deer (Dama dama). Hematuria and thin body condition were observed in the advanced cases. These findings were compatible with chronic enzootic hematuria and were suspected to have been induced by chronic ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) present on the premises. These lesions were similar to those described in bovine enzootic hematuria in cattle. Hemangiosarcoma metastases, hydronephrosis, and renal carcinoma were also associated in some cases. This is the first report of hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and renal carcinoma of the urinary bladder in fallow deer and the first indication of bracken fern intoxication in deer.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):380-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A female southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) calf presented with a patent urachus at 5 days of age. It was immobilized for examination and medical treatment was elected over surgical repair. Systemic antibiotics and topical treatment of the site by cleaning with chlorhexidine solution were followed by silver nitrate cautery. This animal required no further treatment and has reached 1 yr of age with no other medical problems. Although patent urachus is relatively common in domestic animals, especially horses, neither the problem nor its resolution are well documented in exotic animals and surgical intervention is more commonly performed.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):420-2.
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    ABSTRACT: For treatment of hypoxemia, delivery of the minimum effective oxygen flow rate is advantageous during field anesthesia because it prolongs the life of the oxygen cylinder. Portable oxygen concentrators as the oxygen source require less logistical considerations than cylinders and are a safer alternative during helicopter field work because they are nonexplosive devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate low oxygen flow rates by continuous or pulsed intranasal delivery for treatment of hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Nine captive adult female deer (body mass 56-72 kg) were physically restrained in a drop-floor chute and hand injected intramuscularly with medetomidine (0.1-0.14 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.5-4.3 mg/kg). Intranasal oxygen was delivered from an oxygen cylinder at continuous flow rates of 1 and 2 L/min or from a battery driven oxygen concentrator (EverGo Portable Oxygen Concentrator, Respironics) with pulse-dose delivery (maximum capacity of 1.05 L/min). The pulse-dose setting (pulse volume 12-70 ml) was adjusted according to the respiratory rate. Arterial blood gases were analyzed before, during, and after O2 supplementation. A 10-min washout period was allowed between treatment groups. All three treatments adequately treated hypoxemia. The partial pressure of arterial oxygenation increased significantly from baseline values of 55 +/- 10 to 115 +/- 31 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen concentrator, to 138 +/- 21 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen cylinder at 1 L/min, and to 201 +/- 42 mm Hg at 2 L/min. In conclusion, low flow rates of intranasal oxygen supplemented continuously from an oxygen cylinder or by pulsed delivery from a portable oxygen concentrator effectively treated hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):272-7.
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective study to assess changes in selected plasma biochemistry and electrolyte values, plasma insulin and aldosterone concentrations, and electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on eight female captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and three lions (Panthera leo) undergoing general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic ovariectomy. Each animal was sedated with medetomidine (18-25 microg/kg) and midazolam (0.06-0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and anesthesia was induced with ketamine (1.9-3.5 mg/kg) intramuscularly and maintained with isoflurane. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma biochemistry parameters and insulin and aldosterone concentrations. An ECG was recorded at the time of each blood sample collection. Mean plasma potassium, glucose, phosphorus, and aldosterone concentrations increased during anesthesia (P < or = 0.05). One tiger developed hyperkalemia (6.5 mmol/L) 2.5 hr after anesthetic induction. Plasma insulin concentrations were initially below the low end of the domestic cat reference interval (72-583 pmol/L), but mean insulin concentration increased (P < or = 0.05) over time compared with the baseline values. Three tigers and two lions had ECG changes that were representative of myocardial hypoxemia. Based on these results, continuous monitoring of clinical and biochemical alterations during general anesthesia in large nondomestic felids is warranted, and consideration should be given to reversal of medetomidine in these animals should significant changes in electrolytes or ECG occur.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):328-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):393-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Animals from seven zoological gardens located in Romania, including 18 species of herbivores, 10 species of carnivores, and 13 species of omnivores, were screened for the presence of parasites. Overall, the prevalences of parasites identified in the sampled population were 54.2% (58/107) for herbivores, 54.5% (24/44) for carnivores, and 32.6% (17/52) for omnivores. In herbivores, Eimeria spp., Dicrocelium lanceolatum, and pulmonary and digestive strongyles were detected. In carnivores, the genera Eimeria and Cystoisospora and nematodes from Ancylostomatidae, Strongyloidae, Ascaridae, Capillariidae and Trichocephalidae were identified. Of 13 omnivore species included in the study, parasites from Eimeridae, Ascaridae, Strongyloidae, and Trichocephalidae were identified in seven species. Toxoplasma antibodies were identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all definitive hosts (lions and wild cats) examined. In intermediate hosts (herbivores and omnivores), antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii had a prevalence of 58.8%, except in wild boars (Sus scrofa), in which the prevalence was 100%.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):239-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):389-92.
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    ABSTRACT: A 16-yr-old northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon) presented with a large, firm midcoelomic swelling. A complete blood count, survey radiographs, coelomic ultrasound, and fine needle aspirate of the mass were performed. Survey radiographs revealed a soft tissue opacity mass. Ultrasonographic examination confirmed the presence of the mass but could not aid in its visceral localization. After 2 weeks, the snake presented again because of continued anorexia and poor quality of life. Euthanasia was performed. Gross necropsy revealed a multilobulated mass attached to and effacing the splenopancreas. Histologically, the mass was composed of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells forming tubules surrounded by variable amounts of fibrovascular stroma. Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining of other tissues revealed local invasion in the subserosa and tunica muscularis of the stomach, metastasis within the liver, in the mesovarium, and an intravascular metastasis within the ventricle of the heart surrounded by a thrombus.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):437-40.