Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (J ZOO WILDLIFE MED)

Publisher: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

Journal description

The Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine is published by the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Current impact factor: 0.32

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.315
2012 Impact Factor 0.427
2011 Impact Factor 0.381
2010 Impact Factor 0.473
2009 Impact Factor 0.456
2008 Impact Factor 0.386
2007 Impact Factor 0.343
2006 Impact Factor 0.322
2005 Impact Factor 0.359
2004 Impact Factor 0.376
2003 Impact Factor 0.168
2002 Impact Factor 0.301
2001 Impact Factor 0.283
2000 Impact Factor 0.35
1999 Impact Factor 0.322
1998 Impact Factor 0.288
1997 Impact Factor 0.233
1996 Impact Factor 0.255
1995 Impact Factor 0.281
1994 Impact Factor 0.338
1993 Impact Factor 0.355
1992 Impact Factor 0.341

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.61
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.14
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.17
Website Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine website
Other titles Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine (Online), Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, Zoo and wildlife medicine
ISSN 1042-7260
OCLC 46381514
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Between 1998 and 2008, 15 cases of segmental to diffuse hemorrhagic to necrohemorrhagic enterocolitis were diagnosed in neonatal and weaned juvenile harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) presented from the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Mammal Rescue Centre for rehabilitation. Based on a combination of gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial isolation, and toxin testing, Clostridium difficile enterocolitis was diagnosed. Most pups were anorexic or inappetant and died acutely with few other premonitory signs. Due to ongoing clinical concerns and possible emergence of this pathogen at the facility, efforts to better characterize the disease and understand the epidemiology of C. difficile was initiated in 95 harbor seal pups presented for rehabilitation in a single stranding season. Fecal samples were collected on admission, following completion of antibiotic treatment, and also prerelease or postmortem. All samples were collected fresh and submitted either directly or stored frozen. Fecal samples were inoculated into selective media for culture and screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for C. difficile toxins A, B, or both. Results of the 95 seals in the study were as follows: on hospital admit 72 seals were sampled, 10 were culture positive, 12 were ELISA positive; following antibiotic therapy 46 seals were sampled noting three culture positive and nine ELISA positive; prior to release 58 seals were sampled noting zero culture positive and one ELISA positive; and on postmortem exam seven seals were sampled noting zero culture positive and two ELISA positive. Clostridium difficile was not deemed to be the cause of death in any of the animals. Although the exact mechanism of disease is unknown, this study suggests that C. difficile infection is not a significant cause of mortality and may be part of the normal flora in harbor seals undergoing rehabilitation. Morbidity and mortality from this bacterium can likely be minimized by judicious use of antibiotics, effective biosecurity-biocontainment protocols, and clean husbandry practices.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):191-197. DOI:10.1638/2014-0048R2.1
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrient concentrations in a diet can be expressed either "as fed," relative to dry matter (DM), or relative to metabolizable energy (ME). Most published literature evaluates the diet of dolphins by comparing nutrient content relative to DM. Nevertheless, ME requirements, not DM, determine how much food dolphins need to maintain their body condition. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate why it is important to calculate the ME content of fish fed to dolphins and compare nutrient concentrations in dolphin diets relative to ME, not DM. Two studies that compared the nutrient composition of fish species on a DM basis were reevaluated. The ME content of each fish species was calculated and found to vary widely among species, from 0.94 to 1.58 Mcal/kg as fed. Water, mineral, and fat concentrations relative to ME also varied markedly among fish species. To demonstrate the magnitude of nutrient content differences between fish, the percent change in nutrient concentration for each species was calculated relative to herring. The percent changes for DM and ME analyses were then compared. Percent change in nutrient concentration was either over- or underestimated on a DM basis when compared with the percent change on an ME basis. Notable discrepancies were evident among important nutrients, such as crude protein, water, and sodium. Caretakers of managed dolphins must account for differences in energy density when deciding how much to feed and assessing the nutrient composition of the diet.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1638/2014-0064R1.1
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    ABSTRACT: Septicemia and foot infections associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum , Pasturella multocida, and Streptococcus suis in captive fallow deer ( Dama dama ) are reasonably treated with ceftiofur hydrochloride. This study describes the disposition of ceftiofur after single-dose intravenous and intramuscular administration of 3.65 ± 0.1678 mg/kg in six female adult fallow deer using a nonrandomized crossover design and a 7-day washout period. Serial blood samples were collected for 12 hr postdrug administration. Ceftiofur bioactivity, including its active metabolite desfuroylceftiofur, was quantitated in serum using a microbiologic assay. After i.v. administration, the extrapolated serum drug concentration reported as median (range) was 52.83 (43.32-57.49) μg/ml and elimination half-life was 178.36 (19.75-217.22) min. The volume of distribution at steady-state was 0.171 (0.101-0.229) L/kg and serum clearance was 0.97 (0.48-4.3) ml/min per kg. After i.m. administration, median peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 14.37 (9.00-32.00) μg/ml at 54.5 (11.00-95.00) min. The median elimination half-life and mean residence time were 128.32 (38.03-242.40) and 203.65 (62.48-347.15) min, respectively. The median absorption time after i.m. administration was 14.77 (-57.74 to 94.79) min. Bioavailability of ceftiofur following i.m. administration was 78.00 (58.00-137.00) percent. Based on this study, a mean i.m. dose of ceftiofur of 3.65 ± 0.1678 mg/kg every 12 hr is recommended for maintaining serum concentrations above MIC90 levels for infections associated with F. necrophorum , P. multocida , and S. suis , in addition to other susceptible infectious bacteria.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):255-261. DOI:10.1638/2014-0250R.1
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    ABSTRACT: Aeromonas spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus , and Plesiomonas shigelloides are commonly implicated in foodborne and waterborne diarrheal illnesses of humans and other animals. The present study assessed the prevalence, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic susceptibility of Aeromonas spp., V. parahaemolyticus , and P. shigelloides by analyzing samples from 729 sources at a zoo, including animal feces (n = 607), watering facilities (n = 104), and pond water samples (n = 18). Of the 729 samples collected, 40 (5.5%) contained one of these four species of bacteria: A. hydrophila (n = 16; 2.2%), A. sobria (n = 12; 1.6%), V. parahaemolyticus (n = 10; 1.4%), and P. shigelloides (n = 2; 0.3%). The 16 isolates of A. hydrophila came from three fecal samples, eight watering facilities, and five pond water samples. The 12 isolates of A. sobria came from four fecal samples, three watering facilities, and five pond water samples. The 10 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus came from one fecal sample and nine watering facilities. The two isolates of P. shigelloides came from one watering facility and one pond water sample. Of the 40 isolates, 16 (40.0%), 21 (52.5%), and three (7.5%) originated from mammals, birds, and reptiles, respectively. All isolates tested positive for NO3, tryptophan, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, glucose assimilation, N-acetyl-glucosamine, maltose, gluconate, malate, and oxidase. Aeromonas spp. and V. parahaemolyticus exhibited similar biochemical characteristics, whereas P. shigelloides exhibited distinct fermentation characteristics. All the isolated strains exhibited hemolytic activity; variable results of DNase, protease, and Congo red uptake tests; and resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, novobiocin, penicillin, and vancomycin. All the strains were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxazole. Because of the high proportion of asymptomatic carriers of these potentially pathogenic bacteria and their wide distribution, consistent monitoring of food and water sources is necessary to prevent disease outbreaks.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):298-305. DOI:10.1638/2014-0194R.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 25-yr-old Diana monkey ( Cercopithecus diana ) with a 1.5-yr history of chronic colitis and diarrhea was found to have disseminated granulomatous disease with intralesional acid fast bacilli. Bacilli were identified as Mycobacterium genavense by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer (ITS) gene, and mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycobacterium genavense is a common cause of mycobacteriosis in free-ranging and captive birds. In addition, recognition of opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients is increasing. Disease manifestations of M. genavense are similar to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and include fever, wasting, and diarrhea with disseminated disease. Similar clinical signs and lesions were observed in this monkey. Mycobacterium genavense should be considered as a differential for disseminated mycobacterial disease in nonhuman primates as this agent can mimic MAC and related mycobacteria.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):339-344. DOI:10.1638/2013-0246R2.1
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    ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are tumors that occur in most animals and show strong invasiveness into surrounding tissues and nearby osseous tissues. This report describes a case of SCC in a 5-yr-old female nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) with a hemorrhagic mass on the left mandibular region. The tumor originated in skin tissues and showed invasion of the oral cavity, adjacent to the submandibular salivary gland histologically. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SCC in a nine-banded armadillo.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):333-334. DOI:10.1638/2013-0258R1.1
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    ABSTRACT: Ciprofloxacin is commonly selected for clinical use due to its broad-spectrum efficacy and is a frequently administered antibiotic at The Marine Mammal Center, a marine mammal rehabilitation facility. Ciprofloxacin is used for treatment of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) suffering from a variety of bacterial infections at doses extrapolated from other mammalian species. However, as oral absorption is variable both within and across species, a more accurate determination of appropriate dosage is needed to ensure effective treatment and avoid emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains. A pharmacokinetic study was performed to assess plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin in California sea lions after a single oral dose. Twenty healthy California sea lions received a single 10-mg/kg oral dose of ciprofloxacin administered in a herring fish. Blood was then collected at two of the following times from each individual: 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 18, and 24 hr postingestion. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentration was assessed via high-performance liquid chromatography. A population pharmacokinetics model demonstrated that an oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg achieved an area under the concentration vs. time curve of 6.01 μg hr/ml. Absorption was rapid, with ciprofloxacin detectable in plasma 0.54 hr after drug administration; absorption half-life was 0.09 hr. A maximum plasma concentration of 1.21 μg/ml was observed at 1.01 hr, with an elimination half-life of 3.09 hr. Ciprofloxacin administered orally at 10 mg/kg produced therapeutic antibacterial exposure for only some of the most susceptible bacterial organisms commonly isolated from California sea lions.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):266-272. DOI:10.1638/2014-0159R.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 13-yr-old male cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) presented for an acute history of lateral recumbency and anorexia. Upon physical examination under general anesthesia, severe icterus was noted. A serum biochemical profile confirmed markedly elevated total bilirubin and alanine transaminase. Based on ultrasound-guided liver aspirates and cytology, a presumptive diagnosis of large granular lymphocyte hepatic lymphoma was reached. Abdominal and thoracic radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination and histopathology provided a definitive diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma with acute massive hepatocelluar necrosis and hemorrhage, as well as concurrent lesions of gastric ulcers, ulcerative and sclerosing enteritis, myocardial hypertrophy, and splenic myelolipomas. Immunohistochemistry of the liver yielded CD-3 positive and CD-20 negative results, confirming lymphocytes of a T-cell lineage. Due to concern for possible retrovirus-associated disease, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were performed retrospectively on a banked serum sample and yielded negative results, thus diminishing concern for the male conspecific housed in the same exhibit.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):400-404. DOI:10.1638/2014-0199R.1
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to isolate filamentous fungi from the fur of primates of the genus Callithrix kept in the Centre for Rehabilitation of Wild Animals (CRWA) at the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Samples of the fur of 19 specimens of black-tufted marmosets ( Callithrix penicillata ) and 6 specimens of white-tufted-ear marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) were obtained by the square carpet technique. The samples were plated on Mycosel™ agar medium (Difco™) and incubated at 25°C for 21 days. The identification of each isolated mold was based on its macroscopic and microscopic features and followed classical recommendations. The following filamentous fungi were isolated: Penicillium spp. (76%), Cladosporium spp. (60%), Acremonium spp. (44%), Scopulariopsis spp. (24%), Aspergillus spp. (16%), Chrysosporium spp. (16%), and Fusarium spp. (8%). Dermatophyte fungi were not detected. We conclude that C. penicillata and C. jacchus kept in captivity are sources of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi that may represent a risk factor for immunocompromised individuals who may eventually establish contact with them.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):350-354. DOI:10.1638/2013-0242R3.1
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    ABSTRACT: Urolithiasis is a significant disease concern in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinerea ), with over 60% of captive animals affected. Bilateral ureteral stent placement, using endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were performed as salvage procedures in a 13-yr-old intact female Asian small-clawed otter following a 7-yr history of nephrolithiasis and progressive renal insufficiency. Following the procedure, radiographs revealed a slight shifting of urolith position, although a decrease in urolith mass was not observed. As a result of declining quality of life related to severe osteoarthritis, the otter was euthanized 5 wk after the procedure. While this treatment approach was unsuccessful in this case, the technique was clinically feasible, so ESWL and ureteral stent placement may remain a consideration for other individuals of this species presented earlier in the course of this disease.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):345-349. DOI:10.1638/2014-0085R1.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 10-yr-old female okapi ( Okapia johnstoni ) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park was evaluated for intermittent malaise, inappetence, occasional cough, abdominal splinting, and licking at both flanks. Physical examination revealed tachypnea, tachycardia, and fluid sounds on thoracic auscultation. Transthoracic ultrasound showed multiple uniform, anechoic filled structures in the right and left pleural space. Surgical exploration of the thoracic cavity revealed bilateral, mature, fibrous, compartmentalizing adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura, confirming a diagnosis of chronic, infectious, fibrinous pleuritis. The suspected etiology was occult aspiration pneumonia secondary to historical episodes of regurgitation associated with general anesthesia. Culture of the pleural fluid and fibrous adhesions grew Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum , and few Fusobacterium species. Treatment consisted of chest-tube placement to establish drainage, thoracic lavage, unilateral surgical debridement, and long-term antibiotics. The animal made a complete clinical recovery over 7 mo.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):427-430. DOI:10.1638/2014-0232R.1
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    ABSTRACT: An adult female bettong ( Bettongia gaimardi ) presented with extensive alopecia and dermatitis affecting the ventral and lateral aspects of the neck and thorax. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings collected from the affected area revealed large numbers of the dermanyssid mite Thadeua greeni. A histopathologic diagnosis of chronic proliferative and hyperkeratotic perivascular dermatitis with intralesional mites was returned. Treatment with a combination of topical fipronil and parenteral ivermectin weekly for 3 wk resulted in the resolution of clinical signs and apparent elimination of the mite.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):435-437. DOI:10.1638/2014-0251R.1
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    ABSTRACT: A female northern elephant seal ( Mirounga angustirostris ) weaned pup presented with malnutrition. During rehabilitation, the seal developed regurgitation and reduced lung sounds on auscultation. Radiographs and endoscopy performed under sedation suggested a diaphragmatic hernia. A Type I (or sliding) hiatal hernia was confirmed with a positive contrast upper gastrointestinal study, revealing varying degrees of herniation of the gastric fundus through the diaphragm into the caudal thorax as well as esophageal reflux. The animal was treated preoperatively with an H2 antagonist and antinausea medication. A laparoscopic gastropexy was performed under general anesthesia. The animal recovered well postoperatively and resolution of clinical signs was achieved. The animal was released back into the wild 21 kg above admit weight. To our knowledge, we report here the first surgical correction of a hiatal hernia in a marine mammal.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):414-416. DOI:10.1638/2014-0226R.1
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    ABSTRACT: Reports of neoplasia in Chiroptera species are rare. (6 , 10) This retrospective study describes five types of neoplasia identified within a captive population of male Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) housed in a zoo from 2004 through November of 2014. Tumor types identified include fibrosarcoma, cutaneous lymphoma, benign focal bronchioloalveolar neoplasm, anaplastic sarcoma, and sebaceous epithelioma. To the author's knowledge, aside from a recent report of focal brochioloalveolar adenoma, (8) these tumor types have not previously been described in the Rousettus species, nor in chiropterans in general. Based upon these findings and other recent publications regarding R. aegyptiacus , neoplasia does appear to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in captive members of this megachiropterid species.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):325-332. DOI:10.1638/2014-0069R2.1
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    ABSTRACT: A fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) involving an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) occurred in November 2013 at the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. An adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. Gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. Histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular cardiomyocytes with concurrent lymphoplasmocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. An EMCV was isolated from several organs and considered the causative agent of the myocarditis. The same strain of virus was also isolated in rodents captured on zoo premises and considered to be the reservoir of the virus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first EMCV case in a captive African elephant in Europe.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):393-396. DOI:10.1638/2014-0132R1.1