Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (J ZOO WILDLIFE MED)

Publisher: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

Journal description

The Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine is published by the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Current impact factor: 0.42

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.424
2013 Impact Factor 0.315
2012 Impact Factor 0.427
2011 Impact Factor 0.381
2010 Impact Factor 0.473
2009 Impact Factor 0.456
2008 Impact Factor 0.386
2007 Impact Factor 0.343
2006 Impact Factor 0.322
2005 Impact Factor 0.359
2004 Impact Factor 0.376
2003 Impact Factor 0.168
2002 Impact Factor 0.301
2001 Impact Factor 0.283
2000 Impact Factor 0.35
1999 Impact Factor 0.322
1998 Impact Factor 0.288
1997 Impact Factor 0.233
1996 Impact Factor 0.255
1995 Impact Factor 0.281
1994 Impact Factor 0.338
1993 Impact Factor 0.355
1992 Impact Factor 0.341

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.58
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.02
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.16
Website Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine website
Other titles Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine (Online), Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, Zoo and wildlife medicine
ISSN 1042-7260
OCLC 46381514
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):588-591. DOI:10.1638/2014-0140.1
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    ABSTRACT: An adult female emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) with no previous abnormal clinical signs was found dead in its stall. A postmortem examination revealed carcinomatosis of unknown origin. Histopathology identified the masses as teratomas with malignant transformation by the presence of poorly differentiated tissue and dissemination throughout the coelomic cavity. We propose a new term, "teratocarcinomatosis," for this finding. This is the first case of a reproductive tumor described in an emu and the first case of such marked spread of malignant teratomas in a bird.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):633-6. DOI:10.1638/2015-0054.1
  • Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):657-9. DOI:10.1638/2015-0073.1
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    ABSTRACT: Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n = 6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P < 0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):534-9. DOI:10.1638/2014-0193.1
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined the tissue distribution and activities of eight enzymes in 13 juvenile Kemp's ridley turtles ( Lepidochelys kempii ) that died after stranding. Samples from the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, pancreas, lung, small intestine, and spleen were evaluated for activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipase. AST, CK, and LDH activities were highest in cardiac and skeletal muscle but were also found in all other tissues. Amylase and lipase activities were highest in the pancreas and low in all other tissues. ALP activity was highest in the lung. ALT activity was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle, and GGT activity was highest in the kidney, but activities of these enzymes were low in all tissues. These data may assist clinicians in interpretation of plasma enzyme activities of Kemp's ridley turtles.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):637-640. DOI:10.1638/2015-0014.1
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    ABSTRACT: The VetScan® i-STAT® 1 Handheld Analyzer and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) cartridges (i-STAT cTnI assay) measured greater median cTnI concentration [cTnI] in free-ranging white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) hand-injected with anesthetic drugs after physical restraint in Clover traps than in those ground-darted with the same drugs. This suggested that Clover trapping induces myocardial damage, bringing the use of this capture method under scrutiny. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of the i-STAT cTnI assay in deer before recommending changes in capture methods. Median [cTnI] measured by the i-STAT cTnI assay ([cTnI]i) in heparinized whole blood collected from 52 healthy, reproductively mature, female deer physically restrained in a chute was 0.01 ng/ml (10-90% percentiles: 0.00-0.03 ng/ml; minimum, maximum: 0.00, 0.07 ng/ml); [cTnI]i was 0.00 ng/ml in 42% of the deer. There was no association between [cTnI]i and either clotting or hemolytic index. [cTnI]i was 0.00 ng/ml when deer skeletal muscle homogenate was added to deer blood with [cTnI]i of 0.00 ng/ml, confirming the i-STAT cTnI assay does not detect skeletal muscle troponins. When deer cardiac muscle homogenate was serially diluted with 1) deer blood, 2) deer plasma, and 3) cow blood, [cTnI]i was directly proportional (Y intercept = -0.09, 0.7, and -0.08 ng/ml, respectively; r(2) ≥ 0.97) to the fraction of homogenate in each sample. Deer cardiac muscle homogenate was diluted with deer blood to produce three samples with low, intermediate, and high [cTnI]i; serial measurements (n = 10) performed on each sample yielded coefficients of variation (CVs) of 8, 20, and 11%, respectively. Corresponding CVs when plasma was used as diluent were 13, 9, and 7%, respectively. [cTnI]i increased when plasma with a low [cTnI]i was stored at 20-24°C for 9 days. Three freeze-thaw cycles caused no systematic change in plasma [cTnI]i.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):468-475. DOI:10.1638/2014-0131.1
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    ABSTRACT: Three rock hyraxes ( Procavia capensis ) maintained in a zoological collection had chronic hypercalcemia and azotemia. In addition, all animals displayed signs of lameness due to footpad lesions that were histologically characterized as marked metastatic mineralization with granulomatous inflammation, reminiscent of calcinosis circumscripta. Although the animals were managed with aggressive fluid therapy, calciuresis, and dietary modification, all were eventually humanely euthanized due to the severity of their footpad lesions and/or progression of renal disease. Metastatic mineralization was also noted in other soft tissues among the three cases, including the stomach, colon, lung, vascular wall, ovary, and kidney. Varying degrees of interstitial nephritis were confirmed on postmortem examination, and in the absence of other causes for hypercalcemia, metastatic mineralization was presumably the consequence renal dysfunction. The renal pathway is the primary mode of calcium excretion in the rock hyrax. In renal dysfunction, hypercalcemia may develop secondary to decreased calcium excretion. Footpad mineralization is an uncommon sequel to renal dysfunction in domestic animals but has not been reported in rock hyraxes. A retrospective review of mortality data in this collection revealed a notable prevalence of renal lesions, including two additional animals with metastatic mineralization and renal dysfunction. Expanding knowledge of renal diseases will further guide preventative and clinical measures, including screening for metastatic mineralization and therapeutic trials for management of hypercalcemia and calcium mineral deposition in the footpads and other soft tissues.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):565-574. DOI:10.1638/2015-0008.1
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    ABSTRACT: In order to provide tools for future health-based monitoring programs, we developed reference intervals for hematology and plasma biochemistry and partitioned data for sex and season (winter and autumn). Ninety-one physically healthy kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) were sampled in the city of Talcahuano, Chile, during winter (July-September) of 2007, autumn (April-June) and winter of 2008, and autumn of 2009. After blood sampling, the kelp gulls were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin, total plasma protein (TPP), and complete blood count were performed. Alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid were analyzed. No significant differences were found between sexes (P > 0.05). When a comparison was made between the two seasons, the values of PCV, TPP, white blood cell, heterophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were significantly higher in winter than in autumn (P < 0.05) while and urea and uric acid concentrations were higher in autumn. Heterophils were the predominant circulating leukocyte for all birds. There was no significant difference in body condition between autumn and winter nor between sexes. Body condition showed a significant relationship with TPP and basophil concentration and ALP activity.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):447-455. DOI:10.1638/2012-0080.1
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    ABSTRACT: Disease control management relies on the development of policy supported by an evidence base. The evidence base for disease in zoo animals is often absent or incomplete. Resources for disease research in these species are limited, and so in order to develop effective policies, novel approaches to extrapolating knowledge and dealing with uncertainty need to be developed. This article demonstrates how qualitative risk analysis techniques can be used to aid decision-making in circumstances in which there is a lack of specific evidence using the import of rabies-susceptible zoo mammals into the United Kingdom as a model.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):540-546. DOI:10.1638/2015-0001.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-yr-old neutered male pet serval (Felis serval) was presented for progressive hind limb lameness that started at 6 mo of age. Previous therapy included only nutritional supplementation. Direct and video gait analysis confirmed bilateral hind limb lameness, more severe on the right. Physical examination and radiography revealed a multifocal complex bilateral angular deformity with a significant rotational component. A right tibial corrective osteotomy was followed by internal rotation and stabilization with a 2.7-mm eight-hole locking compression plate and locking screws. Other deformities were not corrected. Clinical improvement was noted immediately and has been maintained over the 16-mo follow-up.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):609-612. DOI:10.1638/2012-0290.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-yr-old female red wolf ( Canis rufus gregoryi) sustained a degloving injury to the left thoracic limb while in a display habitat. Initial attempts to resolve the extensive wound by using conservative measures were unsuccessful. Subsequent treatment using a free skin graft consisted first of establishment of an adequate granulation bed via cortical bone fenestration. After establishment of a healthy granulation bed was achieved, free skin graft was harvested and transposed over the bed. To monitor viability and incorporation of the graft, serial thermographic imaging was performed. Thermography noninvasively detects radiant heat patterns and can be used to assess vascularization of tissue, potentially allowing early detection of graft failure. In this case, thermography documented successful graft attachment.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):617-620. DOI:10.1638/2014-0197.1
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    ABSTRACT: Gabapentin (1-[aminomethyl] cyclohexane acetic acid) is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that has been shown to be efficacious for neuropathic pain control in humans. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2 μg/ml are considered effective in treating epilepsy in humans and are suggested to provide analgesia for neuropathic pain. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of gabapentin suspension (11 mg/kg) in great horned owls ( Bubo virginianus ). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined in six healthy birds for 48 hr using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Plasma gabapentin concentrations were estimated by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The harmonic mean (±SD) maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and elimination half-life (tv2λZ) for gabapentin (11 mg/kg) were 6.17 ± 0.83 μg/ml, 51.43 ± 5.66 min, and 264.60 ± 69.35 min, respectively. In this study, plasma gabapentin concentrations were maintained above 2 μg/ml for 528 min (8.8 hr), suggesting that gabapentin administered orally every 8 hr may be appropriate in great horned owls.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):547-552. DOI:10.1638/2015-0018.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 23-yr old female Patagonian sea lion ( Otaria byronia ) presented multifocal to coalescing and ulcerative skin lesions on the lumbar region. Skin scrapings were collected and a microscopic examination was conducted followed by a fungal culture that revealed a Trychophyton rubrum infection, an anthropophilic dermatophytosis agent. Oral terbinafine and topical eniconazole were used as a treatment for a period of 75 days and complete recovery was achieved. Epidemiological analysis revealed a dermatophytosis case in one of the carnivore section keepers a few weeks before the lesions were diagnosed in the sea lion.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):621-623. DOI:10.1638/2014-0214.1
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    ABSTRACT: A 17-yr-old female fallow deer presented with ataxia, inappetence, decreased fecal output, and decreased mentation. A complete blood count demonstrated leukocytosis (24.1 × 10(3)/μl, n = 1.16-7.38 × 10(3)/μl), characterized by lymphocytosis (22.89 × 10(3)/μl, n = 0.18-3.65 × 10(3)/μl), anemia (packed cell volume 20%, n = 29.0-55.8%), decreased red blood cell count (4.1 × 10(3)/μl, n = 6.86-14.72 × 10(3)/μl), and decreased hemoglobin (7.5 g/dl, n = 9.4-19.2 g/dl). Numerous mature, well-differentiated lymphocytes were noted on the blood film. Despite treatment and clinical improvement, the decision was made to euthanize the deer. Histopathology identified a monomorphic population of CD3 positive, CD79a negative small lymphocytes replacing most of the hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow without evidence of tissue invasion. Results of viral screening were negative.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):580-582. DOI:10.1638/2014-0207.1
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    ABSTRACT: In 2012, 543 harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) and 124 grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ) were admitted to the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre in Pieterburen, The Netherlands. In 19 seals (3%), signs of infection in a hind flipper were observed. Initial treatment consisting of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs resolved the symptoms in 15 animals. In four harbor seals, estimated to be 3 to 4 mo old, a necrotizing infection developed that resulted in osteoarthritis of the tarsus or tibiotarsal joint or both. Bacterial culture revealed the presence of polymicrobial infection in three of the four animals. Treatment consisted of amputation of the hind flipper under general anesthesia combined with tumescent anesthesia in the operation field. Amputations were done at the diaphysis of the tibia and fibula. After resecting these bones, the flipper was discarded, leaving a good muscle-skin cuff to cover the edges of the bones and close the skin without tension. The estimated blood loss varied between <50 to 150 ml. Healing was uneventful, and both antibiotics and analgesics were gradually reduced according to the individual response. The seals did not show any functional impairment 1 mo postoperatively. After release to the sea, scrutinous revision of all radiographs showed signs of osteomyelitis in at least one animal in the proximal part of the tibia, also present preoperatively. It is concluded that tumescent anesthesia in seals may reduce perioperative blood loss and that a lower leg amputation is a surgically easy and clean approach for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hind flipper of seals, giving good functional results (diving, catching fish, exiting a pool, and moving on land).
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):553-559. DOI:10.1638/2014-0229.1