Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids (RADIAT EFF DEFECT S )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

Experimental and theoretical papers of both a fundamental and applied nature that contribute to the understanding of either phenomena induced by the interaction of radiation with condensed matter or defects in solids introduced not only by radiation but also by other processes are published in three groups. Section A: Radiation Effects - Suitable topics include, but are not limited to, atomic collisions, radiation induced atomic and molecular processes in solids, the stopping and range of ions and radiation damage, sputtering and mixing in solids, radiation-induced transport phenomena and the role of defects and impurities introduced by radiation. Papers on ion implantation in metals and semiconductors; radiation effects in insulators, biomatter, superconductors, fusion and fission devices and space research; as well as fission tracks, isotope dating, ion beam analytic techniques and applications of ion irradiation and ion tracks are also welcome. Section B: Crystal Lattice Defects and Amorphous Materials ÷ Topics covered include atomic and electronic properties of defects, the influence of defects on lattice properties and processes, the lattice-defect approach to solid state reactions such as clustering, precipitation, laser annealing and the role of impurities, the defect dynamics in a non-steady state such as under particle or electromagnetic irradiation or during a rapid temperature change and problems associated with the metastable nature of amorphous materials. NEW Section C: Biological Applications ÷ Contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied radiobiology are invited for our new Biological Applications Section. Topics will include tumour radio-therapy and fundamental research in radiative cell degeneration.

  • Impact factor
    0.50
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    0.50
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.09
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.17
  • Website
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids website
  • Other titles
    Radiation effects and defects in solids (Online)
  • ISSN
    1042-0150
  • OCLC
    51533049
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Taylor & Francis

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanocrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) is synthesized by combustion technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of 900 °C annealed sample revealed a cubic structure. The average crystallite size is found to be 20.5 nm. γ-irradiated Y3Al5O12 exhibits two thermoluminescence (TL) glows: a prominent one with a peak at ∼410 K and another one with a peak at ∼575 K. It is found that the TL glow peak intensity at 410 K increases, while its glow peak temperature is almost steady with an increase in the γ-dose. The effect of the heating rate on the TL glow curve is studied. It is found that T m1 shifts towards higher temperature region while the I m1 decreases with an increase in the heating rate. The TL glow curves are analyzed by Chen's peak shape method and the TL parameters are estimated.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 08/2014; 169(8).
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    ABSTRACT: The optical characterization of poly (ethylene oxide)/zinc oxide thin films has been done by analyzing the absorption spectra in the spectral wavelength region 380–800 nm using a ultraviolet-spectrophotometer at room temperature. Thin film polymer composites made of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) containing zinc oxide (ZnO) filler concentrations (0%, 2%, 6%, 10%, and 14%) by weight were used in this study. The optical results obtained were analyzed in terms of the absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The optical energy gap and other basic optical constants such as dielectric constants and optical conductivity were investigated and showed a clear dependence on the ZnO filler concentration. It was found that the optical energy gap for the composite films is less than that for the neat PEO, and that it decreases as the ZnO concentration increases. Enhancement of the optical conductivity was observed with increase in the ZnO concentration. Dispersion of refractive index was analyzed using the Wemple–DiDomenico single oscillator model. The refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), and dispersion parameters (E o, E d) were calculated for the investigated films.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 08/2014; 169(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-linking of the polyethylene was performed with a high-energy electron beam. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the lifetime of unpaired electron in the irradiated samples. Time-dependent electrical parameters are investigated for the cross-linked low-density polyethylene. Both dielectric constant and dielectric strength almost remained unchanged, but for short times, the volume resistivity and loss factor increased and decreased, respectively. It is predicted that for lifetime longer than 48 h, the electrical parameters were constant. It is believed that the variation of some electrical properties during time is due to the effects of trapped electrons.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 08/2014; 169(8).
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    ABSTRACT: The SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy phosphors prepared by solid state reaction technique in a reduced atmosphere of 95% Ar+5% H2 exhibit very intense mechanoluminescence (ML) which can be seen in daylight with naked eye. When the phosphors are deformed by the impact of a low-power electric hammer, initially the ML intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value and then decreases with time. After the threshold pressure, the peak of ML intensity I m and the total ML intensity I T increase with the increasing value of the impact pressure. For the ML excited by the pressure pulse of short duration, two decay times of ML are observed; however, for the ML excited by the pressure pulse of long duration, only one decay time is observed. The ML intensity decreases with successive applications of pressure on SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy phosphors. For the low applied pressure in the range below the limit of elasticity recovery of ML intensity takes place when the sample is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. This fact indicates that the vacant traps produced during the application of pressure pulses get filled during the exposure of the sample to UV light. The ML in the elastic region of SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy phosphors can be understood on the basis of the piezoelectrically induced detrapping model. The non-irradiated SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphors exhibit ML during the fracture of the compact mass of phosphors whose ML intensity is less when compared to that of the UV-irradiated compact masses. The ML induced by pressure pulses may be useful for determining the magnitude and rise time of unknown pressure pulses and to determine the lifetime of charge carriers in shallow traps.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 08/2014; 169(8).
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    ABSTRACT: The present work aims to investigate the pre- and post-effect of 50 MeV Li3+ ion irradiation at a fluence of 5×1013 ions/cm2 on the dielectric properties of Y3+x Fe5−x O12, x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, garnet system over broad temperature, 300–673 K, and frequency, 100 Hz–13 MHz, ranges. Thermal variation of ac resistivity measurements suggests that the mechanism responsible for conduction in the system is polaron hopping. The observed modifications in dielectric properties after swift heavy ion irradiation are mainly due to the modifications of the metal–insulator contacts due to radiation damage-induced disorder and irradiation-induced point/cluster of defects in the material and also compressive strain generated in the lattice structure. The electric modulus presentation and the complex impedance spectral analysis have been employed to study the relaxation process. The YFeO3 phase is found to be irradiation hard phase as compared with the garnet phase.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 08/2014; 169(8).
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    ABSTRACT: In this contribution, we have presented two techniques for the determination of plasma equilibrium position in IR-T1 tokamak: relaxation and optical methods. An analysis method of tokamak plasma equilibrium by a relaxation method with a specified magnetic axis is presented. The degrees of freedom due to designated positions of the magnetic axis are possible by using poloidal field coil currents. Stable steady-state tokamak plasma equilibria are calculated along with the magnetohydrodynamic potential energy. The plasma generates a plasma current which partially or fully cancels the magnetic field from the poloidal field coils. For low-temperature plasmas, the plasma current distribution is centrally peaked; for high-temperature plasmas, the plasma current has a hole. A centrally peaked current distribution in a low-temperature plasma is evolved into a current distribution with a hole by increasing the plasma pressure by Ohmic heating, radio frequency heating, or by neutral beam injection heating. In the second technique, an image-processing technique was used for the output signal of the charge coupled device camera and plasma emission intensity profile and then the plasma position was obtained. Results are compared and discussed.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 08/2014; 169(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) uses a high dose of radiation to create images of the body. As patients are exposed to radiation during a CT scan, the use of shielding materials becomes essential in CT scanning. This study was focused on the radiation shielding materials used for patients during a CT scan. In this study, sheets were manufactured to shield the eyes and the thyroid, the most sensitive parts of the body, against radiation exposure during a CT scan. These sheets are manufactured using silicone polymers, barium sulfate (BaSO4) and tungsten, with the aim of making these sheets equally or more effective in radiation shielding and more cost-effective than lead sheets. The use of barium sulfate drew more attention than tungsten due to its higher cost-effectiveness. The barium sulfate sheets were coated to form a multigate structure by applying the maximum charge rate during the agitator and subsequent mixing processes and creating multilayered structures on the surface. To measure radiation shielding effectiveness, the radiation dose was measured around both eyes and the thyroid gland using sheets in three different thicknesses (1, 2 and 3 mm). Among the 1 and 2 mm sheets, the Pb sheets exhibited greater effectiveness in radiation shielding around both eyes, but the W sheets were more effective in radiation shielding around the thyroid gland. In the 3 mm sheets, the Pb sheet also attenuated a higher amount of radiation around both eyes while the W sheet was more effective around the thyroid gland. In conclusion, the sheets made from barium sulfate and tungsten proved highly effective in shielding against low-dose radiation in CT scans without causing ill-health effects, unlike lead.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: A fragment of the silver reliquary bust of St. Leo, made in Messina, Italy, in the last of 1739 and now preserved in the church of SS. Savior of Africo Nuovo, Reggio Calabria, Italy, was investigated with spectroscopic techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)+energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD)) in order to analyze the composition of the sample in terms of elements and compounds. EDX analysis employs an electron beam that interacts with the sample, leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays as secondary radiation. In the XRD analysis, a Cu Kα X-ray radiation is detected by a Si(Li) solid-state detector after the interaction with the sample. The chemical composition of the bulk allowed to identify the constituting metal alloy, while the detection of surface elements and compounds, closely related to the sample preservation, was useful in order to suggest to restorators the best interventions to minimize the conservation problems that could affect the durability of the precious artefact.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Polydimethylsiloxane rubber was irradiated at various radiation doses up to 800 kGy in air. The lifetime and intensity of the long component τ3 were obtained by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The crystallization property and the molecular flexibility were estimated using the differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic thermomechanic analysis. Thermal volatile property was determined by thermogravimetry analysis. It was proved that the cross-linking reaction made the chain flexibility of the rubber to reduce gradually during gamma radiation, which resulted in the reduction of the o-Ps intensity observed by PALS. Although the degradation effect existed during gamma radiation, it was still less significant than the cross-linking effect when the radiation dose was up to 800 kGy.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors g xx , g yy , g zz and hyperfine structure constants A xx , A yy , A zz ) are interpreted by taking account of the admixture of d-orbitals in the ground state wave function of the Cu2+ ion in a Zn(C3H3O4)2(H2O)2 (DABMZ) single crystal. Based on the calculation, local structural parameters of the impurity Cu2+ center were obtained (i.e. R A ≈1.92 Å, R b ≈1.96 Å, R c ≈1.99 Å). The theoretical EPR parameters based on the above Cu2+−O2− bond lengths in the DABMZ crystal show good agreement with the observed values and some improvements have been made as compared with those in the previous studies.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: In order to study variations in the thermoelectric properties, some commercial glassy carbon samples were subjected to a sequence of steps consisting of a combination of irradiation with γ-rays produced by radioisotopes 60Co, and hydrogen adsorption when the samples were put in an over pressured atmosphere of this gas. With this procedure it was possible to observe that the irradiation decreases the electrical conductivity of glassy carbon samples and the hydrogenation changes the sign of Seebeck coefficient. The material initially is an n-type semiconductor, but with hydrogenation changes to p-type semiconductor. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the hydrogenated vitreous carbon is more amorphous than the pristine material and the γ-rays irradiation produces changes in the crystallite size and shape.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium tetra borate (MTB) doped with rare earths (REs) was prepared by the solid state sintering technique. Among the different RE dopants studied in this phosphor, gadolinium-doped phosphors resulted in a dosimetric peak at a relatively higher temperature. The thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra of RE-doped MTB showed characteristic RE 3+ emissions. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were carried out in these phosphors to identify the defect centers formed during gamma irradiation and to establish a mechanism for the TL process. Signals corresponding to (BO 3)2−, O v− were seen upon irradiation which vanished on annealing at 250 °C, showing the role of these centers in the TL process. The thermal activation energies calculated based on the decay of these signals matched well with those calculated on the basis of the usual conventional method showing the validity of the mechanism of TL.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanical properties of FeCr alloys rely heavily on atomic distribution and can be affected by phenomena such as Cr precipitation. While precipitation of FeCr alloys of various Cr concentrations has been studied before, dissolution of already existing Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys has not; this was the focus of this study. Our means of investigation was molecular dynamics computer simulation: we set up a number of configurations of FeCr alloys containing Cr precipitates of various sizes embedded in matrices of either pure Fe or with a 15% random Cr distribution, and examined their behaviour after thermal ageing at temperatures T ranging between 600 and 2000 K. The T range was selected so that it would include the (α+α′)−α transition in the standard FeCr phase diagram. High-T results provide insight into the mechanisms that govern the dissolution: Cr precipitates dissolve by vacancy exchange, leading to a random distribution of Cr atoms in an Fe matrix, as the short-range order parameter shifts from a positive value (clustering) to zero (random atomic arrangement). Precipitates at low T were found to be stable, as were those at intermediate T (∼1000 K), in agreement with previous experimental and simulation studies that challenge the standard phase diagram's reliability.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation damage in materials relevant to applications evolves over time scales spanning from the femtosecond – the characteristic time for an atomic collision – to decades – the aging time expected for nuclear materials. The relevant kinetic energies of atoms span from thermal motion to the MeV range.The question motivating this contribution is to identify the relationship between elementary atomic displacements triggered by irradiation and the subsequent microstructural evolution of metals in the long term. The Marlowe code, based on the binary collision approximation (BCA) is used to simulate the sequences of atomic displacements generated by energetic primary recoils and the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA, parameterized on a range of ab initio calculations, is used to predict the subsequent long-term evolution of point defect and clusters thereof. In agreement with full Molecular Dynamics, BCA displacement cascades in body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe and a face-centered cubic (FCC) Fe\bond Ni\bond Cr alloy display recursive properties that are found useful for predictions in the long term.The case of defects evolution in W due to external irradiation with energetic H and He is also discussed. To this purpose, it was useful to extend the inelastic energy loss model available in Marlowe up to the Bethe regime. The last version of the Marlowe code (version 15) was delivered before message passing instructions softwares (such as MPI) were available but the structure of the code was designed in such a way to permit parallel executions within a distributed memory environment. This makes possible to obtain N different cascades simultaneously using N independent nodes without any communication between processors. The parallelization of the code using MPI was recently achieved by one author of this report (C.J.O.). Typically, the parallelized version of Marlowe allows simulating millions of displacement cascades using a limited number of processors ( Keywords: Marlowe; damage; metals; multiscale modeling; theory Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420150.2014.920018 Affiliations: 1: Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético-CIEMAT, 28040, Madrid, Spain 2: Faculté des Sciences, Département de Physique, Université Dr. Tahar Moulay of Saida, En-nasr. BP138, Saida, 20000, Algeria 3: Laboratoire de Métallurgie Physique et Génie des Matériaux, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Université Lille-1, UMR 8517, Bat. C6, F-59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq cédex, France 4: EDF-R&D Département MMC, Les renardières, F-77818, Moret sur Loing Cédex, France 5: Faculté des Sciences, CP223, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bd du Triomphe, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium Publication date: July 3, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Physical & Theoretical Chemistry By this author: Ortiz, C.J. ; Souidi, A. ; Becquart, C.S. ; Domain, C. ; Hou, M. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of 40 ps pulse duration laser emitting at 532 nm wavelength with human dental tissue (enamel, dentin, and dentin–enamel junction) has been investigated. The crater profile and the surface morphology have been studied by using a confocal auto-fluorescence microscope (working in reflection mode) and a scanning electron microscope. Crater profile and crater morphology were studied after applying consecutive laser pulses and it was found that the ablation depth increases with the number of consecutive pulses, leaving the crater diameter unchanged. We found that the thermal damage is reduced by using short duration laser pulses, which implies an increased retention of restorative material. We observe carbonization of the irradiated samples, which does not imply changes in the chemical composition. Finally, the use of 40 ps pulse duration laser may become a state of art in conservative dentistry.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 07/2014; 169(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of powder forms of DL-2-aminoadipic acid and ammonium acetate to gamma radiation results in the formation of free radicals detected by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy at room temperature. In these compounds, the observed paramagnetic species were attributed to the HOOCCH2CH2CH2CHCOOH and CH2COONH4 radicals, respectively. The g values and the hyperfine coupling constants of the unpaired electron with the environmental protons were determined for these two radicals. In work, the observed paramagnetic species were found to be stable at room temperature for more than two months. Also, these compounds were characterised by FT-IR and UV–VIS. Their thermal stabilities were determined by TGA and DTA measurements. Thermal analyses were shown to be unstable of the HOOCCH2CH2CH2CH(NH2)COOH and CH3COONH4 against thermo-oxidative decomposition.
    Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 03/2014;

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