Reproduction Fertility and Development Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia); Fertility Society of Australia; Australian Academy of Science; Australian Society for Reproductive Biology; Society for Reproductive Biology, CSIRO Publishing

Journal description

Reproduction, Fertility and Development is an international journal for the publication of original and significant contributions related to reproduction and developmental biology in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Contributions may take the form of research articles, reviews, short communications or viewpoint articles that deal with the scientific aspects of reproductive and developmental physiology, biochemistry, endocrinology, immunology, cell biology, genetics and behaviour, and the applications of reproductive technologies in humans, livestock, wildlife and pest management.

Current impact factor: 2.58

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.577
2012 Impact Factor 2.583
2011 Impact Factor 2.109
2010 Impact Factor 2.553
2009 Impact Factor 2.379
2008 Impact Factor 2.439
2007 Impact Factor 2.805
2006 Impact Factor 2.541
2005 Impact Factor 1.515
2004 Impact Factor 0.92
2003 Impact Factor 1.086
2002 Impact Factor 0.959
2001 Impact Factor 0.667
2000 Impact Factor 1.098
1999 Impact Factor 1.082
1998 Impact Factor 1.089
1997 Impact Factor 1.055
1996 Impact Factor 1.184
1995 Impact Factor 1.059
1994 Impact Factor 0.806
1993 Impact Factor 1.038
1992 Impact Factor 1.493

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.56
Cited half-life 6.80
Immediacy index 0.49
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.66
Website Reproduction, Fertility and Development website
Other titles Reproduction fertility and development
ISSN 1031-3613
OCLC 19505713
Material type Conference publication, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

CSIRO Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal repository or institutional repository
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Yusheng Qin, Ling Liu, Yanan He, Wenzhi Ma, Huabin Zhu, Mingyuan Liang, Haisheng Hao, Tong Qin, Xueming Zhao, Dong Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneal busulfan injections are used to prepare recipients for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation but they are associated with haematopoietic toxicity. Testicular injections of busulfan have been proposed to overcome this limitation. To date, testicular injections have not been studied in the mouse model. Therefore, in the present study we used ICR mice as recipients for SSC transplantation and prepared these mice by testicular injection of busulfan on both sides (2, 3, 4 or 6 mg kg-1 per side). Following this, donor germ cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) from transgenic C57BL/6J male mice were transplanted into recipients via the efferent duct on Days 16-17 after busulfan treatment. Positive control mice were prepared by intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg kg-1 busulfan and negative control mice were treated with bilateral testicular injection of 50% dimethyl sulfoxide. On Day 49 after transplantation, recipient mice that were RFP-positive by in vivo imaging were mated with ICR female mice. Donor-derived germ cell colonies with red fluorescence were observed on Day 60 after transplantation, and donor-derived offspring were obtained. The results demonstrated that endogenous germ cells were successfully eliminated in the seminiferous tubules via testicular busulfan administration, and that exogenous SSCs successfully undergo spermatogenesis in the testes of recipient mice prepared by testicular injections of busulfan. In addition to its effects on recipient preparation, this method was safe in rodents and could possibly be adapted for use in other species.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14290
  • Qiaoli Zhang, Dong Liu, Meiling Zhang, Na Li, Shulan Lu, Yanzhi Du, Zi-Jiang Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed extensively in the mammalian female reproductive system and has been implicated in the development of follicles and oocytes. However, BDNF expression patterns in the ovary and its effects on oocyte maturation and embryonic development in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have not been established. In the present study, we established a PCOS model by treating the rats with insulin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Rats treated with insulin + hCG had heavier bodyweight and ovarian weight, higher circulating concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH) and testosterone (T), and greater homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared with control rats (P < 0.05). BDNF and its receptor tyrosine kinase type B (TrkB) were located in cyst walls, granulosa and theca cells, and BDNF protein levels were lower in ovaries of insulin + hCG-treated rats (P < 0.05). The rate of oocyte maturation and formation of blastocysts and morulae was greatest in rats treated with 5 ng mL-1 BDNF (P < 0.05) compared to other BDNF groups (1 and 10 ng mL-1) and the control. The control rats were also PCOS rats and were treated without BDNF. There were no significant differences in the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and fertilisation among the various treatment groups (1, 5 and 10 ng mL-1) and the control group (P > 0.05). The results indicate that in vitro treatment with an appropriate concentration of BDNF not only promotes oocyte maturation, but also rescues embryonic development in rats treated with insulin + hCG as a model of PCOS.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD15131
  • Maria Lígia Sousa, Ana Silva, Fernanda Malhão, Maria João Rocha, Eduardo Rocha, Ralph Urbatzka
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    ABSTRACT: The basic pathway of oocyte development and its regulation is evolutionarily conserved among vertebrates; however, little is known about the role of hormones at the first stages (Stages I and II) of follicle development in fish. In the present study, zebrafish follicles at Stages I and II were exposed in vitro to the reproductive hormones 17β-oestradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and to the secondary messenger dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) at a concentration of 1 µM for a 48-h period. Morphological alterations of the ooplasm were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and of the granulosa cell layer by quantitative stereology. Expression of mRNA was analysed for cell-cycle genes (cyclin B and E) and resident proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (calnexin and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (grp78/bip)). E2 and db-cAMP stimulated the presence of endoplasmic reticulum in the ooplasm and calnexin mRNA increased in the db-cAMP treatment, but also in response to 11KT and DHP. 11KT, DHP and db-cAMP inhibited the progression of the cell cycle in the granulosa-theca cell layer, indicated by a reduction of the nucleus volume-weighted size of granulosa cells and of increased cyclin E mRNA expression. Reproductive hormones had different effects on the ooplasm and the granulosa-theca cell layer of zebrafish follicles, predominantly at Stage II.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD15100
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an original perfusion system for the culture of whole ovine ovaries for up to 4 days. A total of 33 ovaries were divided into six groups: control (n = 6), not perfused and fixed; Groups SM72 and SM72-FSH (n = 6 each), perfused with a simple medium for 72 h with or without FSH; Groups CM96 and CM96-FSH (n = 6 each), perfused with a complex medium for 96 h with or without FSH; Group CM96-FSH-cryo, (n = 3) cryopreserved and perfused for 96 h with Group CM96-FSH medium. Depending on the medium used, morphological parameters of cultured ovaries differed from fresh organs after 72 (SM72, SM72-FSH) or 96 (CM96, CM96-FSH) h of perfusion. Oestradiol and progesterone were secreted in all groups but FSH had an effect only on Group CM96-FSH, stimulating continued oestradiol secretion 10 times higher than in all other groups. Morphological parameters and hormone secretion of cryopreserved ovaries were not different from fresh controls. This method enables the culture of whole ovaries for up to 4 days, the time required in vivo for 0.5-mm follicles to grow to 2.2 mm and then for these follicles to reach the ovulatory size of 4 mm or more. It could be used as a research tool or to complement current techniques for preserving female fertility.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD15101
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    ABSTRACT: Testosterone (T) synthesised in Leydig cells enters the epididymis and may there be converted into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase (5α-red) or into 17β-oestradiol (E2) by P450 aromatase (P450-aro). D-aspartate (D-Asp) is known to induce T synthesis in the testis. In this study, we investigated the effects of in vivo D-Asp administration in two major regions of the rat epididymis (Region I: initial segment, caput, corpus; Region II: cauda). The results suggest that exogenous D-Asp was taken up by both regions of rat epididymis. D-Asp administration induced a rapid increase in T, followed by a more gradual decrease in the T : DHT ratio in Region I. In Region II, T levels rapidly decreased and the T : DHT ratio was consistently lower relative to the control. Expression of 5α-red and androgen receptor genes showed a good correlation with DHT levels in both regions. D-Asp treatment also induced an increase of both E2 levels and oestradiol receptor-α (ERα) expression in Region I, whereas neither E2 levels nor ERα expression were affected in Region II. The early increase of P450-aro expression in Region I and late increase in Region II suggests a direct involvement of D-Asp modulation in P450-aro gene expression. Our results suggest that D-Asp modulates androgen and oestrogen levels and expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on the expression of 5α-red and P450-aro genes.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD15092
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    ABSTRACT: The Notch and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling pathways play an important role in granulosa cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms underlying the cross-talk between these two signalling pathways are unknown. Herein we demonstrated a functional synergism between Notch and TGF-β signalling in the regulation of preantral granulosa cell (PAGC) proliferation. Activation of TGF-β signalling increased hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 2 gene (Hey2) expression (one of the target genes of the Notch pathway) in PAGCs, and suppression of TGF-β signalling by Smad3 knockdown reduced Hey2 expression. Inhibition of the proliferation of PAGCs by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butylester (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch signalling, was rescued by both the addition of ActA and overexpression of Smad3, indicating an interaction between the TGF-β and Notch signalling pathways. Co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to identify the point of interaction between the two signalling pathways. CoIP showed direct protein-protein interaction between Smad3 and Notch2 intracellular domain (NICD2), whereas ChIP showed that Smad3 could be recruited to the promoter regions of Notch target genes as a transcription factor. Therefore, the findings of the present study support the idea that nuclear Smad3 protein can integrate with NICD2 to form a complex that acts as a transcription factor to bind specific DNA motifs in Notch target genes, such as Hey1 and Hey2, and thus participates in the transcriptional regulation of Notch target genes, as well as regulation of the proliferation of PAGCs.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14398
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations in captive koalas during lactation were determined by serial blood sampling. PRL concentrations were low (1.3 ± 0.1 ng mL-1; n = 5) during early lactation until pouch young (PY) began to emerge from the pouch (around Day 130) before significantly (P < 0.05) increasing between Day 161 and Day 175 (5.3 ± 1.0 ng mL-1). A significant (P < 0.001) peak in PRL (7.7 ± 0.6 ng mL-1) coincided with maturing young between Day 189 and Day 231. All females failed to exhibit any signs of oestrous behaviour until Day 268.8 ± 8.5 (n = 4), some 102 ± 19 days before PY were weaned following achieving target weights of 2.5-2.7 kg. Throughout lactation, plasma LH concentrations were relatively high (range 4.9-8.7 ng mL-1) and LH responses to exogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormone were observed in all koalas at all times during lactation.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14384
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    ABSTRACT: We characterised DNA methylation and gene expression of four tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors DR4, DR5, DcR1 and DcR2 in three choriocarcinoma (JAR, JEG-3, BeWo) and two transformed (HTR-8/SVneo and HPT-8) cell lines. DR4 mRNA was detected in JAR, JEG-3, BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells, whereas DR5 was present in all detected cells. DcR1 transcripts were expressed only in JAR, JEG-3 and BeWo cells, whereas DcR2 transcripts were detected only in HTR-8/SVneo and HPT-8 cells. Hypermethylated DR4 promoter was observed in JAR, JEG-3, BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells, hypermethylated DcR1 promoter in HTR-8/SVneo and HPT-8 cells and hypermethylated DcR2 promoter in JAR, JEG-3 and BeWo cells. Restoration of DR4, DcR1 and DcR2 expression with decreased DNA methylation of these genes was induced by the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) in trophoblast cells, whereas DR5 expression did not exhibit any change. Significant negative correlation between the expression and DNA methylation of these genes was also observed. In all tested cell lines, only HPT-8 demonstrated sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Combined treatment with 5-aza-CdR and TRAIL resulted in apoptosis in JAR, JEG-3, BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells but not in HPT-8 cells. The results indicate that DNA methylation is associated with TRAIL receptor expression and might be involved in trophoblast apoptosis.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14408
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological changes associated with the varying hormonal environment throughout the oestrous cycle are linked to the different functions the uterus needs to fulfil. The aim of the present study was to generate global gene expression profiles for the equine uterus during oestrus and Day 5 of dioestrus. To achieve this, samples were collected from five horses during oestrus (follicle >35 mm in diameter) and dioestrus (5 days after ovulation) and analysed using high-throughput RNA sequencing techniques (RNA-Seq). Differentially expressed genes between the two cycle stages were further investigated using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. The expression of 1577 genes was found to be significantly upregulated during oestrus, whereas 1864 genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in dioestrus. Most genes upregulated during oestrus were associated with the extracellular matrix, signal interaction and transduction, cell communication or immune function, whereas genes expressed at higher levels in early dioestrus were most commonly associated with metabolic or transport functions, correlating well with the physiological functions of the uterus. These results allow for a more complete understanding of the hormonal influence on gene expression in the equine uterus by functional analysis of up- and downregulated genes in oestrus and dioestrus, respectively. In addition, a valuable baseline is provided for further research, including analyses of changes associated with uterine inflammation.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14513
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    ABSTRACT: Cumulus cells (CCs) are distinct from other granulosa cells and the mutual communication between CCs and oocytes is essential for the establishment of oocyte competence. In the present study we assessed genomic expression profiles in mouse CCs before and after oocyte maturation in vitro. Microarray analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression in CCs between the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) stages, with 2615 upregulated and 2808 downregulated genes. Genes related to epidermal growth factor, extracellular matrix (Ptgs2, Ereg, Tnfaip6 and Efemp1), mitochondrial metabolism (Fdx1 and Aifm2), gap junctions and the cell cycle (Gja1, Gja4, Ccnd2, Ccna2 and Ccnb2) were highlighted as being differentially expressed between the two development stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the validity and reproducibility of the results for the selected differentially expressed genes. Similar expression patterns were identified by western blot analysis for some functional proteins, including EFEMP1, FDX1, GJA1 and CCND2, followed by immunofluorescence localisation. These genes may be potential biomarkers for oocyte developmental competence following fertilisation and will be investigated further in future studies.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD15077
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    ABSTRACT: This study analysed the temporal association between ovarian cyst development induced by neonatal androgenisation and sympathetic innervation. Neonatal rats (postnatal Days 1 to 5) were treated with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone and the effects were evaluated at postnatal Days 20, 40, 90 or 180. Ovulation rate, number of cystic follicles and density of sympathetic fibres were analysed. The effects of surgical denervation or gonadotrophin stimulation were also assessed. Rats exposed to testosterone showed no oestrous cycle activity and did not ovulate, maintaining a polycystic ovarian morphology at all ages studied. Also, a significant increase in ovarian density of noradrenergic fibres was detected at postnatal Days 90 and 180. Sympathectomy was unable to re-establish ovarian activity; however, human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation was enough to induce ovulation. The impact of dihydrotestosterone on ovarian function was less noticeable, showing the coexistence of corpora lutea and cystic structures without changes in sympathetic innervation. Our findings suggest that a remodelling of ovarian sympathetic innervation occurs as a response to modifications in the pattern of follicular growth induced by testosterone. A role of sympathetic innervation in the maintenance of the polycystic condition is suggested.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14460
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    ABSTRACT: Proper oocyte maturation is crucial for subsequent embryo development; however, oocyte mitochondrial and lipid-droplet behaviour are still poorly understood. Although excessive lipid accumulation during in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has been linked with impaired cryotolerance, lipid oxidation is essential for adequate energy supply. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) are supplements used during IVP, containing high and low lipid content, respectively. This study aimed to understand how these supplements influence oocyte mitochondrial and lipid behaviour during in vitro maturation (IVM) in comparison to in vivo maturation, as well as their influence on development rates and embryo lipid accumulation during IVP. We demonstrate that only in vivo-matured oocytes maintained correlation between lipid content and active mitochondria. IVM media containing FBS increased total lipid content 18-fold and resulted in higher lipid accumulation in oocytes when compared with media with BSA. IVM using a lower FBS concentration combined with BSA resulted in satisfactory maturation and embryo development and also reduced lipid accumulation in blastocysts. In conclusion, IVM causes changes in mitochondrial and lipid dynamics, which may have negative effects on oocyte development rates and embryo lipid accumulation. Moreover, decreasing FBS concentrations during IVM may reduce embryo lipid accumulation without affecting production rates.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD15067
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    ABSTRACT: G9A-like protein (GLP) plays an important role in mouse early embryonic development. Glp-deficient embryos exhibit severe growth retardation and defects that lead to lethality at approximately Embryonic Day 9.5. In the present study we investigated the effect of microinjection of Glp-specific short interference (si) RNA into mouse zygotes on in vitro embryonic development. Knockdown of Glp induced abnormal embryonic development and reduced blastocyst formation. Expression of the pluripotency markers octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2) and Nanog was also significantly decreased in Glp-deficient embryos. The apoptotic index and expression of two pro-apoptotic genes, namely Caspase 3 and Caspase 9, were increased in Glp-deficient embryos. Moreover, methylation levels of dimethylated H3K9 (H3K9me2) were decreased in Glp-knockdown embryos. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Glp deficiency suppresses H3K9me2 modification and hinders mouse embryo development in vitro.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14341
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    ABSTRACT: The cost of developing replacement nanny goats could be reduced by decreasing the age at puberty because this way nanny goats could be brought into production at an earlier age. The aim of the present study was to screen genes related to puberty to investigate the molecular mechanisms of puberty. Subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed for hypothalami from juvenile (Group A), pubertal (Group B) and age-matched control pubertal (Group E) Jining grey (JG) and Liaoning cashmere (LC) goats using suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Differentially expressed genes were analysed by bioinformatics methods. There were 203 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the subtracted cDNA libraries that were differentially expressed between JG and LC goats at the juvenile stage, 226 that were differentially expressed at puberty and 183 that were differentially expressed in the age-matched control group. The differentially expressed ESTs in each subtracted cDNA library were classified as known gene, known EST and unknown EST according to sequence homology in the GenBank non-redundant (NR) and EST database. According to gene function analysis in the COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) database, the known genes were grouped into 10 subdivisions in Group A, into seven subdivisions in Group E and into nine subdivisions in Group B under three categories: cellular processes and signalling, information storage and processing, and metabolism. Pathway analysis in the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database of known genes revealed that the three pathways that most differentially expressed genes were involved in were metabolic pathways, Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation. Protein interaction analysis of the high homology genes revealed the most dominant network to be structure of ribosome/protein translation, oxidative phosphorylation and carbohydrate metabolism. The results reveal that the onset of puberty is a complex event involving multiple genes in multiple biological processes. The differentially expressed genes include genes related to both neuroendocrine and energy metabolism.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14434
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    ABSTRACT: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to overcome fertility problems has continued to increase since the birth of the first baby conceived by ART over 30 years ago. Similarly, embryo transfer is widely used as a mechanism to advance genetic gain in livestock. Despite repeated optimisation of ART treatments, pre- and postnatal outcomes remain compromised. Epigenetic mechanisms play a fundamental role in successful gametogenesis and development. The best studied of these is DNA methylation; the appropriate establishment of DNA methylation patterns in gametes and early embryos is essential for healthy development. Superovulation studies in the mouse indicate that specific ARTs are associated with normal imprinting establishment in oocytes, but abnormal imprinting maintenance in embryos. A similar limited impact of ART on oocytes has been reported in cattle, whereas the majority of embryo-focused studies have used cloned embryos, which do exhibit aberrant DNA methylation. The present review discusses the impact of ART on oocyte and embryo DNA methylation with regard to data available from mouse and bovine models.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; 27(5). DOI:10.1071/RD14333
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    ABSTRACT: There is compelling evidence that oocytes from mares >18 years of age have a high incidence of inherent defects that result in early embryonic loss. In women, an age-related decrease in oocyte quality is associated with an increased incidence of aneuploidy and it has recently been determined that the gene expression profile of human oocytes is altered with advancing age. We hypothesised that similar age-related aberrations in gene expression occur in equine oocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare gene expression profiles of individual oocytes and cumulus cells from young and aged mares, specifically evaluating genes that have been identified as being differentially expressed with advancing maternal age and/or aneuploidy in human oocytes. Expression of 48 genes was compared between 14 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from mares aged 3-12 years and 10 COCs from mares ≥18 years of age. Three genes (mitochondrial translational initiation factor 3 (IF3), heat shock transcription factor 5 (HSF5) and Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2)) were differentially expressed in oocytes, with all being more abundant in oocytes from young mares. Three genes (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 6 (ARL6IP6), BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and hypoxia upregulated 1 (HYOU1)) were differentially expressed in cumulus cells, with all being more abundant in aged mares. The results of the present study confirm there are age-related differences in gene expression in equine COCs, which may be associated with the lower quality and decreased developmental competence of oocytes from aged mares.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14446
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of adoptive transfer of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced regulatory T (Treg) cells in preventing spontaneous abortion in mice were investigated. CD4+CD25- cells were isolated from the spleens of pregnant CBA/J mice and induced into Treg cells positive for CD4, CD25 and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) ex vivo using interleukin (IL)-2 and TGF-β1. CBA/J mice were mated with DBA/2J mice to establish a model of spontaneous abortion and, on the first day of pregnancy, mice were injected intravenously with 2 × 105 either freshly isolated Treg cells or those induced with TGF-β1. After 14 days, the surviving and reabsorbed fetuses in both groups were counted, and serum cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ or TGF-β1-induced Treg cells significantly reduced the fetal resorption rate, increased serum IL-10 and TGF-β1 concentrations and decreased interferon-γ levels. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that adoptive transfer of TGF-β1-induced Treg cells prevents spontaneous abortion in mice by increasing the secretion of T helper (Th) 2 cytokines and decreasing the secretion of Th1 cytokines.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14503