Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan J Biol Sci)

Publisher: Asian Network for Scientific Information, Asian Network for Scientific Information

Journal description

Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences is an international official journal of Asian Network for Scientific Information publishing original articles, reviews and short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in biological sciences. Subjects covered include: animal science, bacteriology, biological chemistry, forestry, genetics and molecular, biology, immunology and microbiology, plant and soil science, pharmacology and toxicology, virology, zoology and fisheries.

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Website Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences website
Other titles PJBS
ISSN 1028-8880
OCLC 70218946
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Asian Network for Scientific Information

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website
    • If required, on Funders designated repository after 6 months, for publications after 2 May 2005
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Non commercial use
  • Classification
    ‚Äč blue

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out at the Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Khon Kaen University in the rainy season of 2011. The objective of this study was to identify proteins in leaves of drought-susceptible peanut plants when regulated by progressive water stresses. The drought-susceptible peanut plants of Khon Kaen 4 cultivar were grown in pots under controlled environment. At day 30 after seed emergence, the plants were subjected to stress conditions for 5 and 6 days. The results showed that withheld water supply for 5 and 6 days gave moderately and severely water stresses, respectively. Under moderate water stress conditions, two up-regulated and eight down-regulated proteins were attained. The up-regulated proteins were striated fibre assembling and flap endonuclease 1. The down-regulated proteins were peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP4, tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthase, chloroplastic, chloroplastic thioredoxin F-type, cytidinedeaminase 7, ALF domain class transcription factor, nudix hydrolase 8, pentatricopeptide repeat super-family protein, putative and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, a large sub-unit. Under severe water stress conditions, two proteins, i.e., tRNA(Ile) lysidine synthase, chloroplastic and ALF domain class transcription factor did not change their relative abundance significantly where it indicated drought acclimation. The remaining proteins displayed significant changes and the changes were the same as those found in the peanut leaves when deprived water for 5 days. Up-regulated proteins are responsible for alleviating oxidative damages to plant genome and mediating plants responsive to the environmental factors in providing mechanical support, barriers and a rapid transport route. Down-regulated proteins were associated with drought susceptibility of the Khon Kaen 4 peanut plants.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):19-26. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.19.26
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    ABSTRACT: Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):46-49. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.46.49
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    ABSTRACT: This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):37-41. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.37.41
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin C ascorbic acid) is a well-known antioxidant that is involved in anxiety, stress, depression, fatigue and mood state in humans. Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may trigger neuropsychological disorders. Antioxidants may play an important therapeutic role in combating the damage caused by oxidative stress in individuals that suffer from anxiety. In this context, it was hypothesized that oral vitamin C supplementation would reduce anxiety. However, few up to date studies have evaluated the consequences of oral vitamin C supplementation on anxiety in humans. The present study examined the effects of oral vitamin C supplements in 42 high school students, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The students were given either vitamin C (500 mg day(-1)) or placebo. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and blood pressure were measured before the intervention and then one day after the intervention. Anxiety levels were evaluated for each student before and after 14 days following supplementation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that vitamin C reduced anxiety levels and led to higher plasma vitamin C concentration compared to the placebo. The mean heart rates were also significantly different between vitamin C group and placebo control group. Present study results not only provide evidence that vitamin C plays an important therapeutic role for anxiety but also point a possible use for antioxidants in the prevention or reduction of anxiety. This suggests that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to medical and psychological treatment of anxiety and improve academic performance.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):11-18. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.11.18
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    ABSTRACT: Potency of medicinal plant is related to microorganisms lived in the plant tissue. Those microorganisms are known as endophytic microbes that live and form colonies in the plant tissue without harming its host. Each plant may contains several endophytic microbes that produce biological compounds or secondary metabolites due to co-evolution or genetic transfer from the host plant to endophytic microbes. Endophytic fungi research done for turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) gave 44 isolated fungi as results. Those 44 fungi isolated were fermented in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media, filtered, extracted with ethylacetate and then were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method and tested for their antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity of the ethylacetate filtrate extracts either from Sukabumi or Cibinong were higher than the biomass extracts. There were 6 fungi that showed antioxidant activities over 65%, i.e., with code name K.Cl.Sb.R9 (93.58%), K.Cl.Sb.A11 (81.49%), KCl.Sb.B1 (78.81%), KCl.Sb.R11 (71.67%) and K.Cl.Sb.A12 (67.76%) from Sukabumi and K.Cl.Cb.U1 (69.27%) from Cibinong. These results showed that bioproduction by endophytic microbes can gave potential antioxidant compounds.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):42-45. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.42.45
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    ABSTRACT: Ethion, an insecticide, is widely used with fruit and vegetable crops. This research studied the reduction and oxidative degradation of standard ethion by TiO2 photocatalysis. A standard ethion solution (1 mg L(-1)) was treated with different concentrations of TiO2 powder (5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg mL(-1)) for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The amount of ethion residue was detected by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) and the concentration of anions produced as major degradation products was determined by Ion Chromatography (IC). The TiO2 photocatalysis efficiently reduced ethion concentrations, with the highest degradation rate occurring within the first 15 min of reaction. The reaction produced sulphate and phosphate anions. The TiO2photocatalysis reduced 1 mg L(-1) ethion to 0.18 mg L(-1) when treated with 60 mg mL(-1) TiO2 powder for 60 min. The lethal concentration (LC50) of standard ethion was also estimated and compared to the treated ethion. All treatments, especially 60 mg mL(-1) TiO2 powder, markedly detoxified ethion, as tested with brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), with an LC50 value of 765.8 mg mL(-1), compared to the control of 1.01 mg mL(-1).
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):27-31. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.27.31
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    ABSTRACT: Flexor tendon injury is the most commonly seen hand injury. Tendons are the structures which enable the muscles to adhere to the bones and transmit the movement starting from the muscle to the bones. They have significant role in hand movement. As treatment method, surgical repair: (1) Primary repair, (2) Secondary repair; techniques are used. With the scientific studies conducted, flexor tendon morphology, kinematics, biomechanics, biological properties and tendon improvement became quite understandable, good suturing materials were developed and consequently successful studies regarding primary repair results were published. Flexor tendon surgery has reached its current level with the accumulation of knowledge obtained from the increased clinical and experimental studies. This study addresses flexor tendon injuries and surgical treatment methods. We achieved 76.12% full functioning fingers in the results; we obtained following the physical treatment application that started on the 10th day after primary repair that we performed in 67 patients who applied with acute flexor tendon Zone 1-2 and 3 incision. Flexion restriction and contracture developed in 16 patients (23.88%) at various levels. Scar softening and revision surgery for contracture excision was performed in 8 patients (11.94%) with Zone 2 injury due to contracture. Superficial skin infection developed in 21 patients (31.34%) and was treated. Revision surgery was performed in 6 patients with Zone 1 injury due to rupture occurred during rehabilitation.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):32-36. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.32.36
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    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are categorized as fungi which have symbioses with terrestrial plants and are distributed in various habitat types. The objectives of this research were to investigate the diversity of AMF in stands of kayu kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thw.) in Southeast Sulawesi. Collection of samples of soil and root were conducted in six locations. Isolation of spores used the method of wet sieving and decanting, whereas AMF identification was conducted by observing morphology of AMF spores. Parameters of AMF diversity, namely species richness, diversity index, dominance index, evenness index and colonization were studied using method of infected root length. Research results showed that location differences affected significantly the spore density and parameters of AMF diversity, except colonization of AMF (p < 0.116). Location around the Governor office showed the highest number of spores (208.6 spores/100 g of soil). Soil chemical properties, such as C, N, P and heavy metal contributed towards AMF spore density and diversity. Soil C and N correlated negatively with spore density. In terms of location, Glomeraceae constituted the genera with the largest number of species and possessed wide distribution in all research locations. In general, natural forest has higher AMF diversity index (Shannon-Weiner diversity index-H'), evenness (E) and species richness (S) as compared with location of PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; 18(1):1-10. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.1.10
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma infection is a major problem in veterinary medicine and in poultry production. The pathogen has many strains, so that diagnosis of the disease using culture method is not effective. The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in Kuwait poultry farms using serology and molecular methods in comparison to the culture under specific conditions. A total of 50 swab samples from choanal cleft and tracheal samples and blood samples were obtained from three different local farms, the blood samples were processed for an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detection and the swab samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and culture methods detection. A PCR diagnostic kit (VenoMGs) and ELISA diagnostic kit (ProFLOK), were used in comparison to the traditional culture method, to study the spread of this disease in samples from broiler and layer flocks. Fifty chicken samples were tested for mycoplasmosis, samples tested with ELISA gave 24 positive (48%) and 29 were positive by PCR (58%) and only seven (14%) were positive with culture methods. Swab samples obtained from the choanal cleft gave more positive (60%) with PCR than tracheal samples (56.6%). The culture gave 20 and 5% positive, respectively for tracheal and choanal samples. The methods reported here are of high sensitivity and specificity for Mycoplasma. Both the PCR and ELISA methods are superior to culture method for detection of avian mycoplasmosis. This study showed that MG infection is prevalent in commercial broiler and layer chickens in Kuwait poultry farms. The use of these methods for surveillance of the disease will establish data concerning the predominant Mycoplasmosis diseases in Kuwait if done on a large scale.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):81-87. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.81.87
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    ABSTRACT: Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period of 30 min for the tomato fruits. The increase in juice yield can be attributed to the hydrolysis of pectin which releases the sap inside the cells of the pulp. The occurrence of polygalacturonase in tomato tissues infected by A. niger coupled with the trace amount in the non-infected tissues suggests that the enzyme is of fungal origin. The role of the polygalacturonase in the clarification process was established. This study will be very useful for industrial tomato juice production.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):74-80. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.74.80
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):50-58. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.50.58
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    ABSTRACT: The main things that need to be considered in the preparation of probiotics are viability during preparation and storage which are the disadvantages of the use of fresh culture probiotics. Dried probiotic can be applied through the feed, easy to be applied and has a long shelf life but application of dried probiotic in aquaculture is still not widely studied. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of dried Bacillus NP5 as the probiotic through in vitro assays and determine the best dose for the growth performance of tilapia. The treatment of in vitro assays including the production of dried probiotic without using of the coating material and dried by spray drying method (NS); freeze drying method (NF); with using of the coating material and dried by spray drying method (WS); freeze drying method (WF). The treatment which showed the best result at in vitro assays was applied for in vivo assays. The in vivo assays containing 4 treatments and 5 replicates which were control (K) and the administration of dried Bacillus NP5 RfR (1010 CFU g-1) in feed with dose of 0.5% (A), 1% (B) and 2% (C). The fish fed 3 times a day by at satiation for 28 days. Probiotic that encapsulated by maltodextrin and dried by spray drying method that stored in room temperature had the higher percentage product, viability after drying process and storage. The administration of 0.5% dried Bacillus NP5 showed the best growth performance in tilapia
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):88-93. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.88.93
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    ABSTRACT: Heavy metals contamination on the coast of Jakarta Bay has led to the level of pollution and can cause toxicity to organisms living in the sea, i.e., green mussels. Green mussels have the ability to detoxify metals entering their bodies. Their ability to accumulate metals is higher than other aquatic animals. This is due to their sedentary life which prevents them from avoiding the effects of pollution and their high tolerance to certain metals. The high concentration of metal content would be toxic to the cell because metal ions can act as oxidants and bind to organic and protein molecules. The results of the study showed that traces of heavy metals were detected in the hepatopancreas, gills, muscles and gonads organs of the mussels living in the waters of Muara Angke. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were found in all four organs, while mercury (Hg) was not detected in the muscles. Traces of Hg and Cd were not detected in hepatopancreas, gills, muscles and gonads of green mussels inPanimbang, while Pb was detected by 0.001 in the male gonads and 0.01 in hepatopancreas. The concentration of Pb in the male gonads are still below the acceptable limit and concentration of Pb in the hepatopancreas is relatively equivalent to the acceptable limit. Metal detection in the organs above shows that the Muara Angke waters tend to be polluted and have an impact on the mussels weight loss as a result of heavy metal toxicity.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):94-98. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.94.98
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing Escherichia coli biofilm formation. The plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. The various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. Biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of E. coli. Biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count and turbidity at 600 nm. From the obtained results, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum delayed the onset of biofilm formation for a week. Ocimum gratissimum coated catheter had the highest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) with bacterial count ranging from 2.2 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(5)-3.7 x10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. The Psidium guajava coated catheter had the lowest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1), with bacterial count ranging between 4.3 x 10(5)-1.9 x 10(3) and 7.7 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. Despite the antimicrobial activities, the differences in the activity of these plant extracts were statistically not significant (p < 0.05).
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):67-73. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.67.73
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    ABSTRACT: One of the fish diseases that is becoming the main problem in tilapia culture is streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Application of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic are expected to be an alternative for controlling the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the administration of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic through artificial feed to control streptococcosis in tilapia. This study consisted of five treatments with three replications, namely positive control, negative control; 1% probiotic treatment; 2% prebiotic treatment and synbiotic treatment (1% probiotic and 2% prebiotic). Results showed that fish survival rate before the challenge test for all treatments was between 95 and 100%. Growth and feed conversion ratios in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were better than that of the controls. After the challenge test, the fish survival rate in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were 74.08, 74.08 and 85.19%, respectively; whereas, in the positive control it was only 18.52%. Results showed that S. agalactiae bacteria could be found in the brain, kidney, liver and eyes. The number of S. agalactiae bacteria and the damage level of various target organs in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were lower than that of positive control.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2015; 18(2):59-66. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.59.66
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried to explore the potential antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Ferula assa-foetida L. and Ferula tenuissima Hub-Mor & Pesmen extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant activity and acute toxicity study of both plants were performed. Both extracts showed considerable antioxidant potential in vitro. In diabetic rats, F. assa-foetida (200 and 400 mg kgG1 ) and F. tenuissima (400 mg kgG1 ) showed significant elevation in plasma insulin level, total hemoglobin (Hb) and decrease in Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Significant elevations in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and pancreas homogenates were observed in diabetic animals following F. assa-foetida (200 and 400 mg kgG1 ) and F. tenuissima (400 mg kgG1 ) treatments. The antihyperlipidemic effect of F. assa-foetida extract was demonstrated by a significant reduction in plasma triglycerides (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) and the increase of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C). Plasma activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of Total Protein (TP) and bilirubin (BIL) in diabetic rats were recovered significantly after F. assa-foetida and F. tenuissima treatment in comparison with diabetic controls. The present data suggest that F. assa-foetida have both antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects with enhancement of insulin-secreting activity.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 18(7):314-323.
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    ABSTRACT: The adverse effect of crude oil on aquatic ecosystem is a modern day peril. This study investigated the acute toxicities of some Nigerian crude oil (Forcados, Bonnylight and Qua-Iboe) against Clarias gariepinus and the antioxidant enzyme response of the fish to the pollutants. The toxicity assessment was based on LC50 at 96 h. Static renewal bioassays were used to determine the toxicological effects of the 3 crude oils on the antioxidant enzymes of post juveniles Clarias gariepinus using the liver. The 96 h LC50 value for Qua Iboe was 18.966 mL L(-1), Forcados, 2.776 mL L(-1) and Bonny light, 3.948 mL L(-1), indicating that Forcados is the most toxic of the crude oils. Induction of the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the liver of Clarias gariepinus exposed to Forcados and Bonny light for a period of 28 days was inhibited while it was enhanced in Qua-Iboe crude oil. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased with increasing toxicity and exposure time. SOD, CAT, GSH, GST and MDA are reliable environmental biomarkers for crude oil induced oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus and therefore useful biological indicators of environmental contamination in the aquatic ecosystem.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 12/2014; 17(12):1225-30. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2014.1225.1230