Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan J Biol Sci )

Publisher: Asian Network for Scientific Information


Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences is an international official journal of Asian Network for Scientific Information publishing original articles, reviews and short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in biological sciences. Subjects covered include: animal science, bacteriology, biological chemistry, forestry, genetics and molecular, biology, immunology and microbiology, plant and soil science, pharmacology and toxicology, virology, zoology and fisheries.

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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted to investigate the morphological status of the critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita using morphometric and meristic traits. About 158 species of Rita were collected from the old Brahmaputra river in Mymensingh district and were studied in the laboratory of the Fisheries Biology and Genetics Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University. Measurement of length and weight of Rita were recorded by using measuring scale and electric balance respectively. Significant curvilinear relationship existed between total length and other morphometric characters and between head length and other characters of the head. Relationships between total length and various body measurements of the fish were highly significant (p < 0.01) except the relationship between total length and pelvic fin length of male fish (p < 0.05). In case of meristic characters-dorsal fin rays, pelvic fin rays, pectoral fin rays, anal fin rays, caudal fin rays, number of vertebrae and branchiostegal rays were found to be more or less similar except slight differences. The values of condition factors (k) in the total length body-weight relationships for female and male were found to be 0.41 and 0.38, respectively. The mean values of relative condition factors (kn) were 1.0 and 1.005 for female and male, respectively.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):234-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):272-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of three Pleurotus species (P. florida LCJ 65, P. ostreatus LCJ 183 and P. sajorcaju LCJ 184) was compared for the decolourization of bromophenol blue, brilliant green and methylred using by solid and liquid medium. All three Pleurotus species were effective in decolourizing the dyes on potato dextrose agar plate. During quantitative decolourization experiments, the absorption spectrum of the dye solution showed a steady decrease in decolourization with the increase in the days of incubation. The decolourization efficiency varied for species to species and it was found that P. sajorcaju LCJ 184 effectively decolourized the selected dyes by 85-98%. In present study, different factors (dye concentration, inoculums size, pH, static and shaking culture conditions) influencing the ability of Pleurotus species to decolourize three different dyes is documented and the result proposes P. florida LCJ 65 and P. sajorcaju LCJ 184 as potential strains for decolourization ofbromophenol blue, brilliant green and methylred dye.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):248-53.
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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to determine the effect of morphine and lacosamide on levels of dopamine and 5-HIAA in a hypoglycemic model. Female Wistar rats (n = 30), mean weight of 180 g were treated as follow: Group 1 (control) received 0.9% NaCl, Group II; morphine (10 mg kg(-1)), Group III; lacosamide (10 mg kg(-1)), Group IV; insulin (10 U.I. per rat), Group V; morphine (10 mg kg(-1))+insulin, Group VI; lacosamide (10 mg kg(-1))+ insulin. All administrations were made intraperitoneally every 24 h, for 5 days. Animals were sacrificed after the last dose to measure the levels of glucose in blood; dopamine and 5-HIAA in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum/medulla oblongata regions. Levels of glucose decreased significantly in animals treated with morphine, lacosamide and all groups that received insulin alone or combined with respect to control group. Levels of Dopamine diminished significantly in cortex and increased significantly in hemispheres of animals that received morphine. In cortex, 5-HIAA increase significantly in the groups treated with morphine, morphine+insulin and lacosamide+insulin, however a significant decrease of the same substance was witnessed in cerebellum and medulla oblongata of animals that received morphine or lacosamide plus insulin. GSH increased significantly in cortex and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of animals treated with morphine and lacosamide alone or combined with insulin. Lipid peroxidation decreased significantly in cortex and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of groups that received lacosamide alone or combined with insulin. These results indicate that hypoglycemia induced changes in cellular regulation while morphine and lacosamide are accompanied by biochemical responses.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):292-6.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study maternal and neonatal outcome evaluated in each trimester of pregnancies with non obstetric laparotomies. In this descriptive-analytic study, 100 pregnant women operated during pregnancy were evaluated. Based on available data a questionnaire comprising general information, kind of surgery as well as the maternal-neonatal outcome was fulfilled. These outcomes were compared in the different gestational ages. In this study, 28 (28%), 48 (48%) and 24 (24%) patients had been operated in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. The patients of these three groups were matched for general characters. Sixty one patients had appendectomy, 30 adnexal mass or torsion, 6% cholecystectomy, 3% abdominal mass. Maternal complications were recorded in 6, 3 and 9% patient in 3rd, 2nd and 1st trimester of pregnancy, respectively. Abortion in first trimester was 8.2%. Low apgar in fifth minute and asphyxia were higher in third trimester. Appendectomy was the most common surgery in the pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications were higher in third and first trimester. Besides obstetric and pediatric consultation before surgery are necessary for optimal safety of the woman and the fetus.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):260-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Determination of uric acid concentration in human urine and blood is needed to diagnose several diseases, especially the occurrence of kidney disease in gout patients. Therefore, it is needed to develop a simple and inexpensive method for uric acid detection. The purpose of the research was to observe the use of Indonesian microbe that was immobilized on natural zeolite as a source of uricase for uric acid biosensor. Selection of mediators and determination of optimum condition measurement, the stability and kinetic properties of L. plantarum uricase were performed using carbon paste electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to investigate the catalytic behavior of the biosensor. The result indicated that the best mediator for measurement of L. plantarum uricase activity was Qo (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4 benzoquinone). Optimum conditions for immobilization of L. plantarum uricase on zeolite were obtained at pH 7.6, with temperature of 28 degrees C, using uric acid concentration of 0.015 mM and zeolite mass at 135 mg K(M) and V(Max) of L. plantarum uricase obtained from Lineweaver-burk equation for the immobilization uricase on zeolite were 8.6728 x 10(-4) mM and 6.3052 mM, respectively. K(M) value of L. plantarum uricase directly immobilized onto the electrode surface was smaller than K(M) value of L. plantarum uricase immobilized on zeolite. The smaller K(M) value shows the higher affinity toward the substrate. The Electrode when kept at 10 degrees C was stable until 6 days, however the immobilized electrode on zeolite was stable until 18 days. Therefore, Indonesian L. plantarum could be used as a uric acid biosensor.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):277-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):206-12.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study and done in four seasons during April 2011 to March 2012.The objective of the present study was to examine Physico-chemical properties of groundwater around Tehran. The results are also compared with the guideline values of Iranian legislation. A total of 160 drinking water samples were collected from different drinking groundwater around the Tehran. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), conductivity and pH, were measured by using standard methods and the concentration of ions Cl-, F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), Ca2+, K+, Na+ and NH4+ in groundwater was performed using Ion chromatography (Metrohm Company, USA) with standard method. This study showed that most of the parameters in groundwater were below the Iranian permissible limit except total dissolved solids (N = 2), conductivity (N = 2), nitrate as NO3- (N = 22), chloride (N = 3), sulphate (N = 2), fluoride (N = 3) and ammonia (N = 8). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between physico-chemical parameters such as pH, nitrite (NO2-), sodium, potassium, sulphate, ammonia, bromide and phosphate in different seasons. These results are important, not only for the many people who drink groundwater but also for the health supervisory agencies such as Ministry of Health and Institute of Standards and Industrial of Iran (ISIRI) to have more effective control on groundwater.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):287-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Patient satisfaction is an integral component of service quality and obtaining feedback from patients about quality of primary healthcare is a powerful way to develop more patient-centered approaches to healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to measure patients' satisfaction with family physician program in central provinces of Iran in the fall of 2010. A cross sectional survey was conducted at 60 medical centers with family physician services at central provinces of Iran. Patient satisfaction was measured by a standardized questionnaire with eight domains: personnel manner, time consumption, guidance and training, cost of services, service adequacy, capability and skills of personnel, adequacy of equipment and amenities. Student t test, Analysis of Variance (AVOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in data analysis. Overall, 76.03% of the respondents were satisfied with the whole performance of family physician program, 76.41% of the respondents were satisfied with the family physicians. The strongest domains of client satisfaction were the manner of staffs and adequacy of equipments. It was shown that high patient satisfaction with the family physician was the most powerful predictor of patients' satisfaction with the program. A considerable proportion of patients are unsatisfied with guidance and training and adequacy of program services. Iranian policymakers can develop better programs based on comments from service recipients and promoting the project and some program processes.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):227-33.
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p < 0.01) total yield of 840 g kg(-1) on P. hysterophorus, Significantly (p < 0.01) biological efficiency (83.87%) and production rate of 3.13 was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on P. hysterophorus. The highest total ash content (13.90%) was recorded for P. florida grown on L. camara. while the lowest (6.92%) was for P. sajor-caju grown on the P. juliflora. Crude protein ranged from 40.51-41.48% for P. florida grown on P. hysterophorus and L. camara. Lowest crude protein content (30.11%) was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on wheat straw. The crude fiber content (12.73%) of P. sajor-caju grown on wheat straw was the highest. The lowest crude fiber (5.19%) was recorded for P. ostreatus on P. juliflora. Total yield had a positive and significant correlation with biological efficiency and production. Utilization of the plant biomass for mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):213-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Water is the most universally used single necessity of life. To attain a safe water quality to various communities, an understanding of water microbiology and chemistry is therefore imperative. In this study, well water at different storage durations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were assessed for bacteriological quality using standard microbiological techniques. Black barrel-shaped plastic containers (300 liter capacity) were used for different storage durations. Water samples at the different storage durations were collected from each corresponding containers. Sterile swabs were used to sample the sides and bottom of the storage containers to determine the prevalence of specific bacteria present in the samples. The results obtained showed that 0 week storage had the highest (100.00 CFU mL(-1)) coliform counts while the lowest (28 CFU mL(-1)) was obtained for 8 weeks of storage. Escherichia coli were not found in 4, 6 and 8 weeks old water. 0 and 2 weeks old water contained E. coli and the mean values were 1.80 x 10(4) +/- 0.03 and 1.43 x 10(4) +/- 0.01 CFU mL(-1), respectively (p < 0.05). Salmonella organisms were found in the 0 week old water but absent in the 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks old water. Shigella count (62.33 x 10(2) +/- 45.30 CFU mL(-1)) was highest in 4 week old water while the lowest (11.0 x 10(3) +/- 1.00 CFU mL(-1)) was found in 6 week old water (p < 0.05). Zero week old water had the lowest significant (p < 0.05) value of 0.35 x 10(4) +/- 0.05 CFU mL(-1) for mesophilic bacteria and the highest value of 50.00 x 10(4) +/- 10.0 CFU mL(-1) was recorded in the 8 weeks old water. Sides and bottom samples were contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella organisms. It was concluded that the variously stored well water samples were contaminated with bacteria and the values obtained were above the recommended standards by the World Health Organization (WHO).
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):198-205.
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    ABSTRACT: Pleurotus fossulatus (Cooke) Sace is member of oyster mushroom can produced extracellular laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC in submerged fermentation. To analyze the optimum production for laccase P. fossulatus was cultured both in stationary and shaking condition in different media. Partial purification of laccase was done after 0-80% ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) Sephadex (A-50) anion exchange chromatography. Potato-sucrose peptone (PSP) medium and Potato-dextrose (PD) medium showed highest laccase production in shaking and stationary conditions, respectively. Though the time required for optimum laccase production in stationary condition was much more than the shaking condition but the amount of laccase was about 2.75t greater in former condition. The laccase produced in stationary condition was more stable than the enzyme produced in shaking condition. The partially purified enzyme showed highest affinity towards o-dianisidine than guaiacol and ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as evidenced by their K(m). The physico-chemical properties of the laccase suggested the significance of this enzyme in industrial applications.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):173-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Digital mammogram is the only effective screening method to detect the breast cancer. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textural features are extracted from the mammogram. All the features are not essential to detect the mammogram. Therefore identifying the relevant feature is the aim of this work. Feature selection improves the classification rate and accuracy of any classifier. In this study, a new hybrid metaheuristic named Ant-Cuckoo Colony Optimization a hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Cuckoo Search (CS) is proposed for feature selection in Digital Mammogram. ACO is a good metaheuristic optimization technique but the drawback of this algorithm is that the ant will walk through the path where the pheromone density is high which makes the whole process slow hence CS is employed to carry out the local search of ACO. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with Radial Basis Kernal Function (RBF) is done along with the ACO to classify the normal mammogram from the abnormal mammogram. Experiments are conducted in miniMIAS database. The performance of the new hybrid algorithm is compared with the ACO and PSO algorithm. The results show that the hybrid Ant-Cuckoo Colony Optimization algorithm is more accurate than the other techniques.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):266-71.

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