Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan J Biol Sci )

Publisher: Asian Network for Scientific Information


Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences is an international official journal of Asian Network for Scientific Information publishing original articles, reviews and short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in biological sciences. Subjects covered include: animal science, bacteriology, biological chemistry, forestry, genetics and molecular, biology, immunology and microbiology, plant and soil science, pharmacology and toxicology, virology, zoology and fisheries.

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    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences website
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to measure the monthly and seasonal variation in the lipid and carbohydrate content of Schizothorax esocinus. Total lipid content of the fish was measured by Folch's method and the carbohydrate content was evaluated by Dubois method. The lipid content of Schizothorax esocinus varied seasonally, with maxima and minima in a year. The highest lipid content (0.45 g g(-1)) was measured in the July and the lowest lipid content (0.25 g g(-1)) in November. Evaluating the proximate composition of fish is important aspect in fish nutrition. The carbohydrate does not vary so much with a slight increase in spring (0.18%) and a slight decrease in autumn season (0.10%) with an average value of 0.14%. Total protein profile was also carried out in different organs of the fish by using SDS PAGE. The fish is a good source of lipid, carbohydrate and proteins, required for the balanced diet of human consumption.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):447-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Wood Specific Gravity (SG) is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In the present study, specific gravity varied among the five different woods at three different sites from 0.40 in Populus nigra at site III (Shopian) to 0.80 in Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana at site II (Surasyar). Among the three different sites, specific gravity varied from 0.73 to 0.80 in Parroptiosis jacquemontiana; in Robinia pseudoacacia it varied from 0.71 to 0.79; in Salix alba, it varied from 0.42 to 0.48; In Populus nigra it varied from 0.40 to 0.48 and in Juglans regia it varied from 0.59 to 0.66. On the basis of the specific gravity variation patterns these woods were categorized as light (Salix alba, Populus nigra) moderately heavy (Juglans regia) and moderately heavy to heavy (Robinia pseudoacacia, Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana) which predicts their properties like strength, dimensional stability with moisture content change, ability to retain paint, fiber yield per unit volume, suitability for making particleboard and related wood composite materials and suitability as a raw material for making paper.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):395-401.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to throw lights on dieback and canker disease on urban trees of Ficus sp. in Egypt, its causal pathogens and disease control. Diseased samples were collected from five locations. Pathogenicity test was done on one year old of three different healthy seedlings of Ficus trees (Ficus benghalensis, Ficu snitida and Ficus hawaii). Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis sp. were consistently isolated from infected tissues and were pathogenic. The fungicides Antracol Combi and Topsin M 70 provided effective control of the infection. Accordingly, protecting ficus trees from diseases threating is considered a major goal to attain their benefits.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):364-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):414-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Gambier liquid waste containing tannin compounds were quite high and serves as an antimicrobial agent that will tanning salted eggs so that closed the pores of the egg shell and egg to be durable. This study aims to see the effect of soaking salted eggs in gambier liquid waste remaining effective in improving the quality of salted eggs. This study used a randomized block design with three replicates and ten treatments. The treatment were, A: control (no soaking), B: Immersion 49 h with a gambier liquid waste : distilled water (1:2), C: 25 h (1:2), D: 1 h (1:2), E: 49 h (1:1), F:25 h (1:1), G: 1 h (1:1), H: 49 h (1:0), I: 25 h (1:0), J: 1 h (1:0). The variables used were water content, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. Results of this study showed a significant (p < 0.05) on water content, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. The best treatment inhibiting bacterial growth for longer was salted eggs soaking in gambier liquid waste : water (1:0) 1 h and 25 h with a water content of 62.67%, bacterial colony forming 0.99 x 1 (0)5 CFU (g-1) and a shelf life 63 days.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):424-8.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to assess the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts derived from aerial parts of four Jordanian medicinal plants (Artemisia sieberi, Peganum harmala, Rosmarinus officinalis (Green-Flowered) and Sarcopterium spinosium). The possible relationship between these biological properties and the total phenolic concentrations of these extracts were also be determined. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic concentrations were assessed by the ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The amount of the extract required to scavenge 50% of ABTS (IC50) was also measured. Broth dilution and disc diffusion assays were performed to measure the antibacterial activity of these extracts against available bacterial strains. Variations were observed among the examined plants in antioxidant and antibacterial activities as well as in their phenol contents. According to ABTS assay and IC50 value, the highest free radical scavenging potential was found in Sarcopterium spinosium, followed by Rosmarinus officinalis, Peganum harmala and Artemisia sieberi, respectively. Similarly, the results of antibacterial assays showed that Sarcopterium spinosium exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains as compared to Rosmarinus officinalis, Peganum harmala and Artemisia sieberi. Moreover, Sarcopterium spinosium contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds followed by, Rosmarinus officinalis, Artemisia sieberi and Peganum harmala, respectively. In conclusion, these plants are not only interesting sources for antimicrobial agents but also have a considerable amount of antioxidants. In addition, these findings revealed that the antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of these plant extracts do not necessary be attributed to their total phenolic concentrations.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):372-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the point prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts infection in calves grazing along the bank of Rima River Sokoto in October 2011. The river bank is a converging zone for domestic animals reared in different quarters of the town and the surrounding settlements. A total number of 2,959 cattle were enumerated out of which 147 (4.97%) were calves. Faecal samples were collected from 100 (68.02%) calves by convenient sampling technique. Formol-Ether sedimentation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques were used to identify the Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal samples. Faecal consistency was also used to identify diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic calves. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 33 (33.0%) of the calves examined. The detection rate was higher among the male calves (38.46%) than females while the Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of 62.5%. A total of 6 (18.18%) among the positive cases were diarrhoeic. The differences in prevalence based on sex, breeds and presence of diarrhoea were not statistically significant. Calves may become sources of Cryptosporidia infection to man and other animals in the study area through unrestricted movements and interactions with the environment.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 02/2014; 17(3):443-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):272-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p < 0.01) total yield of 840 g kg(-1) on P. hysterophorus, Significantly (p < 0.01) biological efficiency (83.87%) and production rate of 3.13 was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on P. hysterophorus. The highest total ash content (13.90%) was recorded for P. florida grown on L. camara. while the lowest (6.92%) was for P. sajor-caju grown on the P. juliflora. Crude protein ranged from 40.51-41.48% for P. florida grown on P. hysterophorus and L. camara. Lowest crude protein content (30.11%) was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on wheat straw. The crude fiber content (12.73%) of P. sajor-caju grown on wheat straw was the highest. The lowest crude fiber (5.19%) was recorded for P. ostreatus on P. juliflora. Total yield had a positive and significant correlation with biological efficiency and production. Utilization of the plant biomass for mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 17(2):213-9.