Advanced Materials Research Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Trans Tech Publications

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ISSN 1022-6680

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Trans Tech Publications

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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • Publisher last contacted on 27/04/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • Advanced Materials Research 11/2015; 1130:392-325.
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    ABSTRACT: Surface migration of additives in a surfactant-loaded natural rubber vulcanizate is investigated as function of ingredient loading. Rubber sheets are compounded according to an L12 orthogonal array using Taguchi design of experiment, where ingredients are treated as factors varied at low and high loadings. Migration experiments are performed by placing the rubber sheets in a natural convection oven at 50°C for 32 days. Weight loss due to removal of migrated additives from surface of rubber sheets is monitored with time. The maximum amount and estimated rate of additive migration are determined from weight loss curves. Attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and optical microscopy are used to characterize the chemical structure and surface morphology of rubber sheets during additive migration. Mean effects and analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that high loadings of used oil, paraffin wax, stearic acid, glycerol monostearate (GMS), and cocamide diethanolamide (Coca DEA) increase the amount of maximum migration and migration rate of additives. On the other hand, high loadings of mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), diphenylguanidine (DPG), mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), sulfur, and zinc oxide (ZnO) decrease the maximum amount of additive migration and migration rate. Used oil has the highest effect on these responses, while sulfur and the accelerators have the least effect. By comparing the of ATR-FTIR spectra of cleaned and migrated rubber surfaces, almost all soluble additives are identified to have migrated to the rubber surface.
    Advanced Materials Research 10/2015; 1125:64-68. DOI:10.4028/
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    ABSTRACT: The intensive usage of polyethylene (PE) films on packaging applications has created major problems in terms of plastic waste treatment and disposal. To reduce its environmental impact, PE containing pro-oxidants (oxo-biodegradable PE) has been developed which generates carbonyl-containing degradation products when subjected to thermal and/or UV treatment. In this study, low-density PE films with varying colorants as well as thickness and pro-oxidant loading were thermally aged at 50 °C under extended time periods. Degradation responses such as tensile strength and carbonyl index (CI) were monitored with thermal aging time. After 1008 h of thermal exposure, presence of white colorant containing titanium dioxide enhanced the degradation of films as manifested by reduction in tensile strength and increase in CI. It was also found out that yellow colorant containing aromatic amine stabilizer retarded the degradation of films during thermal aging.
    Advanced Materials Research 10/2015; 1125:235-239. DOI:10.4028/
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    ABSTRACT: Sorption studies in aqueous media of pro-oxidant-loaded polyethylene (PE) films from commercial plastic bags are conducted. A total of 6 types of plastic bags are tested at three levels of thickness and two levels of color (transparent and opaque white). PE films are immersed in deionized water, acidic, and alkaline solutions at 60 °C. Sorption curves show that once the maximum uptake is reached, the weight change of PE films started to decline. The films showing the highest weight uptake and loss are observed in opaque films in alkaline solution. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that during water immersion, both maximum weight uptake and loss are affected by colorant additive, with opaque films yielding the highest weight uptake and loss. During acid immersion, transparent films have significantly higher weight uptake than opaque films. The weight uptake during acid immersion is only affected by film thickness, with the thickest films showing the lowest weight uptake. Similar to results in water immersion, thickness is found to be insignificant to weight uptake and loss of PE films during alkali immersion. Meanwhile, colorant additive is significant to both weight uptake and loss for all films immersed in different solutions.
    Advanced Materials Research 10/2015; 1125:240-244. DOI:10.4028/
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    ABSTRACT: Rheometric properties of rubber compounds are usually monitored with time during the course of vulcanization at constant temperature. The measured vulcanization characteristics of rubber compound are used for quality control and evaluation of raw materials and product formulations. With the high number of ingredients used in typical formulations, it is important to identify ingredients which significantly affect the vulcanization characteristics of a rubber compound. This study reports the vulcanization characteristics of a natural rubber compound at 60 °C as function of ingredient loading. Rubber sheets are compounded according to a 212-8 fractional factorial design of experiment, where ingredients are treated as factors varied at low and high loadings. Vulcanization curves, which are time plots of elastic torque S’, viscous torque S”, and tan δ = S”/S’, are measured for each rubber sheet using a moving die rheometer. The following responses are then determined from the vulcanization curves for data analysis: minimum elastic torque ML, maximum elastic torque MH, torque difference ∆S = MH – ML, scorch time ts1, cure time t’90, cure rate index CRI = 100/ (t’90 – ts1), S” and tan δ values at ML and MH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows used oil to be the main ingredient affecting vulcanization of the natural rubber compound (ML, MH, ∆S, ts1, S” at ML and MH), followed by sulfur (MH, ∆S, CRI), calcium carbonate CaCO3 (S” at ML, tan δ at MH) and diphenylguanidine DPG (ts1). High loading of used oil lowers the elastic and viscous response of the rubber compound, while increases the time for scorch. Increased loading of sulfur significantly enhances the elastic torque and cure rate of the compound. High loading of CaCO3 improves the viscous response, while DPG significantly shortens the scorch time of the rubber compound.
    Advanced Materials Research 10/2015; 1125:50-54. DOI:10.4028/
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    ABSTRACT: Mould risk is an increasing problem in current housing branch. Mould is considered to be one of the most important features of Sick Building Syndrome. In most cases it is caused by the increased moisture of building barriers and improper humidity of indoor air. In old buildings it is caused by improper raising techniques, lack of isolation against moisture and insufficient building materials applied for construction. Modern housing also suffers problem of mould risk which is connected to introducing of the new materials and technologies for external envelopes of the buildings. These often increase the tightness of the buildings and cause improper performance of natural ventilation systems, which makes suitable conditions for mould to grow.In the paper there is proposed an attempt to evaluate mould risk in the buildings using e-nose, being a gas sensors array which consists of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors. This device is commonly applied for air quality assessment in environmental research. First part of the article is a description of e-nose technology and its possible applications in constructions. The second part shows the exemplary e-nose readouts of indoor air sampled in clean reference rooms and threatened with mould development. Obtained multivariate data are processed and visualized using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA).
    Advanced Materials Research 10/2015; 1126:161-168. DOI:10.4028/