European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (EUR CHILD ADOLES PSY )

Publisher: European Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Springer Verlag

Description

European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is Europe's only peer-reviewed journal entirely devoted to child and adolescent psychiatry. It aims to further a broad understanding of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Empirical research is its foundation and clinical relevance is its hallmark. Contributions are encouraged from around the world. All papers will be reviewed by at least three expert referees. Indexing and Abstract Services - Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts (ASSIA) - Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) - Excerpta Medica Embase - Index Medicus - Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) - Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences - Research Alert - Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) - Social SciSearch - Medline Database - Mental Health Abstracts - PsycINFO and PsycLIT (APA - American Psychological Association) - Sociological Abstracts

  • Impact factor
    3.70
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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    3.07
  • Cited half-life
    6.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.54
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    1.03
  • Website
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry website
  • Other titles
    European child & adolescent psychiatry (Online), European child and adolescent psychiatry
  • ISSN
    1018-8827
  • OCLC
    42809473
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Must link to publisher version
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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Bernhard Weidle, Tord Ivarsson, Per Hove Thomsen, Stian Lydersen, Thomas Jozefiak
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    ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QoL) is a well-established outcome measure. In contrast to adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), little is known about the effects of treatment on QoL in children with OCD. This study aimed to assess QoL after cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with OCD compared with the general population and to explore factors associated with potential changes in QoL after treatment. QoL was assessed in 135 children and adolescents (ages 7-17; mean 13 [SD 2.7] years; 48.1 % female) before and after 14 CBT sessions, using self-report and a caregivers proxy report of the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). QoL was compared with an age- and gender-matched sample from the general population. Before treatment, QoL was markedly lower in children with OCD compared with the general population. QoL improved significantly in CBT responders (mean score change 7.4), to the same range as QoL in the general population. Non-responders reported no QoL changes after treatment, except for one patient. Comorbidity, family accommodation and psychosocial functioning were not associated with changes in QoL after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the changes in QoL after treatment of paediatric OCD. The assessment of QoL beyond symptoms and function in children with OCD has been shown to be reliable and informative. The results of this study support the application of QoL assessment as an additional measure of treatment outcome in children and adolescents with OCD.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Successful treatment of parental depression may have a positive effect on the functioning and psychopathology of their children. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychotherapy for depressed mothers on their children and parental functioning. We used a database of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of psychotherapy for adult depression and selected trials comparing psychotherapy and control conditions in depressed mothers and reporting outcomes in their children and parental functioning. Nine studies were included. The quality of these studies was not optimal and the outcome instruments differed considerably from each other. The therapies resulted in significantly decreased levels of depression (g = 0.66) in the mothers. In the seven studies that reported outcomes on the mental health of children, a significant effect size was also found (g = 0.40). The eight studies examining mother–child interactions resulted in a significant effect size of g = 0.35, and the five studies examining parenting/marital distress had a pooled effect size of g = 0.67. We found that psychotherapy leads to decreased levels of depression in depressed mothers and also found indications that psychotherapy may have a positive effect on the mental health of their children and parenting/marital distress. However, more high-quality research is needed before a definite answer can be given.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Information on behavior of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment is scarce. Parents report less problem behavior during GH treatment. Forty-two pre-pubertal children, aged 3.5-14 years were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial (RCT) during 2 years, followed by a longitudinal study during 8 years of GH treatment. Behavior was measured annually by the Developmental Behavior Checklist for children with intellectual disability (DBC) and a Dutch questionnaire to evaluate social behavioral problems in children, the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ). Problem behavior measured by the DBC in children with PWS was similar compared to peers with comparable intellectual disability. Scores on 'Social disabilities' subscale were however significantly higher compared to the DBC total score (p < 0.01). A lower IQ was associated with more self-absorbed behavior, more communication problems and more problem behavior in general. Problem behavior measured by the CSBQ was similar compared to peers with a comparable intellectual disability, but children with PWS scored significantly higher on the 'Not tuned', 'Understanding', and 'Stereotyped' subscales than the CSBQ total score (p < 0.05 for all subscales and p = 0.001 for the 'Not tuned'-subscale). There were no significant effects of GH treatment during the RCT and 8 years of GH treatment. Children with PWS showed similar problem behavior as a reference population with a comparable intellectual disability. Social problems were the most pronounced within-problem behavior in PWS. In contrast to our expectations and parents reports, our study shows no improvement but also no deterioration of behavioral problems in children with PWS during long-term GH treatment.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Children with conduct disorder (CD) are at increased risk of developing antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in adulthood. Neuroimaging research has identified abnormal cortical volume (CV) in CD. However, CV comprises two genetically and developmentally separable components: cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA). Aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the cortical constituents of CV in boys with CD. We applied FreeSurfer software to structural MRI data to derive measures of CV, CT, and SA in 21 boys with CD and 19 controls. Relationships between these cortical measures were investigated. Boys with CD had significantly reduced CV and SA compared to non-CD boys in ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We found no significant between-group differences in CT. Reduced prefrontal CV in boys with CD is associated with significantly reduced SA in the same regions. This finding may help to identify specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying cortical deficits observed in CD.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The United Nations and World Health Organisation have identified autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as an important public health issue across global mental health services. Although a range of tools exist to identify and quantify ASD symptoms, there is a lack of information about which ASD measures are used in different services worldwide. This paper presents data from a large survey of measures used for patient characterisation in major ASD research and clinical centres across Europe collected between June 2013 and January 2014. The objective was to map the use of different instruments used to characterise ASD, comorbid psychopathology and cognitive and adaptive ability for patient diagnostic and characterisation purposes across Europe. Sixty-six clinical research sites diagnosing 14,844 patients per year contributed data. The majority of sites use the well-established Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) instruments, though the proportion of sites in Western Europe using the ADI was almost double the rate in Eastern Europe. Approximately half the sites also used the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), although use of the SRS was over three times higher in Western Europe compared with Eastern Europe. The use of free/open access measures was lower than commercially available tools across all regions. There are clinical and scientific benefits in encouraging further convergence of clinical characterisation measures across ASD research and clinical centres in Europe to facilitate large-scale data sharing and collaboration, including clinical trials of novel medications and psychological interventions.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Scientifically sound and valid information concerning course and prediction of mental health problems in children and adolescents in the general population is scarce, although needed for public mental health issues and daily clinical practice. The psychopathological profiles of children and adolescents were analysed using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P) in a longitudinal setting, also investigating the predictive value of the SDQ-scores. SDQ's total psychopathological difficulties, emotional symptoms and hyperactivity-inattention scores of n = 630 children and adolescents (age 6-18;11 years) were examined along four assessment measurement points (T0-T3) over 6 years, using data from the BELLA study. According to the English normative data, the participants were categorized as "normal", "borderline" or "abnormal" based on their SDQ-scores. Groups remaining within categories were descriptively determined by means of frequency analysis, a subsequent graphical evaluation displayed the transitions from T0 to T3 concerning the different categorical classifications. Finally, ordered probit regression was used to examine whether age, gender, socio-economic status (SES) and baseline impact-score (IS) correspond to the SDQ-predicted classification. As expected, low SES and high SDQ-IS were associated with significantly increased scores on all examined SDQ-scales. Regarding the long-term aspect of SDQ-scores it could be shown that most children and adolescents remained "normal" over a measurement period of 6 years, while only a small number of children and adolescents steadily remained "abnormal" or newly developed mental health problems, respectively. For example, on the "hyperactivity-inattention"-scale, only 1 % of the children and adolescents changed from "normal" to "abnormal" (T0-T3), whereas on the "emotional symptoms"-scale, 7 % changed from "normal" to "abnormal" (T0-T3). In general, the SDQ-category "borderline" and specifically the subscale "emotional symptoms" change in both directions. Abnormal SDQ-scores at baseline, SES, gender and IS were related to the prediction of the SDQ-sores at T3. An SDQ-screening of children and adolescents may help for early detection, prediction and treatment planning. Also, these results may contribute to a better understanding of the course of mental health problems in childhood and concurrently may allow a better psychoeducation and prevention.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health problems in children and adolescents are frequent, with a high risk of persistence into adulthood. Therefore, the investigation of determinants of onset and course of mental health problems is of high importance. The present paper investigates the impact of protective and risk factors on the development of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KIGGS). Based on the first three measurement points of the BELLA study (covering a period of 2 years), the present analysis focused on children and adolescents aged 11-17 years at baseline (n = 1,643; 50.6 % female). A longitudinal growth modelling approach was used. Mental health problems in parents (parent-reports) predicted depressive symptoms in children and adolescents (self-reports) as well as the development of these symptoms over time. Further, child-reported protective factors of self-efficacy, positive family climate and social support were associated with less depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, positive changes in protective factors were associated with the development of less depressive symptoms over time. Finally, family climate and social support moderated the detrimental influence of parental psychopathology on child's depressive symptoms. The addressed determinants for the development of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents are highly relevant for prevention and intervention strategies. Future research should investigate specific risk and protective factors focusing in detail on further mental health disorders and their development in children and adolescents.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The prenatal period is recognised as a critical period for later behavioural development. This study aimed to elucidate how an adverse prenatal environment, as defined by the presence of a number of known prenatal risk factors, would influence mental health trajectories in children to 14 years of age. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies. Offspring were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, 10, and 14 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). We used linear mixed regression models with random intercept and slope (random effects models) to examine the extent to which the predictor variables considered influenced changes in continuous CBCL total, internalising, and externalising T scores from ages 2 to 14. In the final multivariate models, increased offspring CBCL T scores were significantly predicted by the mother not finishing high school, smoking during pregnancy, having a total family income below the poverty line, being diagnosed with gestational hypertension and experiencing stressful life events during pregnancy. Conversely, as maternal age increased, CBCL T scores were significantly decreased. Child age also significantly interacted with maternal education, total family income, and maternal stressful life events, such that these variables predicted increases in CBCL scores from age 2 to age 10, and from age 2 to age 14 years. In the Raine Study sample, children who experienced adverse prenatal environments experienced increased levels of problem behaviours in childhood, and more problematic mental health trajectories. Maternal health risk behaviours and other psychosocial variables more commonly affected child behaviour than obstetric complications.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetically defined neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with intellectual disability associated with a specific neurocognitive profile characterized by anxiety, hypersociability, poor visuospatial skills and relatively preserved language. We have defined the lateral preference in 69 individuals (40 males and 29 females, age range 5-47 years) with WBS confirmed by molecular testing, and explored its correlation with cognition, behavior problems, the main aspects of the behavioral phenotype, and specific molecular variants (parental origin and size of the 7q11.23 deletion). Lateral preference (hand, foot, eye and ear) and neurobehavioral features [intelligence quotient (IQ), sociability, visuospatial construction, narrative skills and behavior] were assessed by a battery of tests and parental interviews. A large proportion of WBS individuals showed either left or mixed handedness (26 and 19 %, respectively). Hand, foot and ear lateral preference showed significant association with IQ, with individuals with mixed lateral preference presenting lower general IQ, especially verbal IQ, with respect to subjects with well-defined laterality. Approachability, visuospatial ability, behavior problems or molecular variants were not associated with lateral preference. Our results indicate that, as in other neurodevelopmental disorders, laterality is poorly defined in a significant proportion of WBS individuals, and reinforces the idea that a correct definition of lateral preference is important for cognition and language.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in childhood and adolescence is a global health challenge of the 21st century. Information about age of onset, persistence and development of MHP in young people is necessary to implement effective prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the design and methods of the longitudinal BELLA study, which investigates developmental trajectories of MHP from childhood into adulthood, their determinants, and the utilisation of mental health services. First results on the developmental course of MHP in children and adolescents are reported over a 6-year period. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). BELLA examines the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents aged 7-17 years (a representative subsample of KiGGS, n = 2,863 at baseline). Standardised screening measures served to identify MHP at baseline and at follow-ups (1, 2, and 6 years later). Among children and adolescents participating at all measurement points (n = 1,255), 10 % showed clinically significant MHP at baseline (n = 130). Over the 6-year period, 74.3 % showed no signs of MHP (n = 933), 15.5 % had remitted (n = 194), 2.9 % showed persistent (n = 36) and 7.3 % acute or recurrent MHP (n = 92). Overall, MHP were more likely to occur between the age of 7 and 12 and after the age of 19 years. Regarding mental health service use, 33 % of the participants with acute or recurrent MHP (n = 30) and 63.9 % with persistent MHP used mental health services (n = 23). Mental health problems in children and adolescents have a high risk to persist into adulthood. In children and adolescents a low rate of mental health service use was observed, even among those with mental health problems.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
  • European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In utero exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes; the association with later childhood mental health outcomes remains controversial. We used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a sample pooling data from six diverse European countries. Data were drawn from mother (N = 4,517) and teacher (N = 4,611) reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school children aged 6-11 in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Germany, and the Netherlands, surveyed in 2010. Mothers report on self and husband's smoking patterns during the pregnancy period. Logistic regression used with control covariates including demographics, maternal distress, live births, region, and post-pregnancy smoking. In unadjusted models, maternal prenatal smoking was associated with probable ADHD based on mother [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45-2.29], teacher (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.33-2.14) and mother plus teacher (OR = 1.49, 95 % CI 1.03-2.17) report. Paternal prenatal smoking was similarly associated with probable ADHD in unadjusted models. When controlled for relevant confounders, maternal prenatal smoking remained a risk factor for offspring probable ADHD based on mother report (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.06-1.96), whereas the effect of paternal prenatal smoking diminished (e.g., mother report: OR = 1.17, 95 % CI 0.92-1.49). Drawing on data from a diverse set of countries across Europe, we document that the association between maternal smoking and offspring ADHD is stronger than that of paternal smoking during the pregnancy period and offspring ADHD. To the extent that confounding is shared between parents, these results reflect a potential intrauterine influence of smoking on ADHD in children.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD-broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Research into Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA), which has been suggested to be a subgroup within the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is almost nonexistent in spite of the frequent reference to the condition in clinical practice. The total population of 15 to 24-year-olds in the Faroe Islands was screened for ASD, and 67 individuals were identified who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (corresponding to a general population prevalence of ASD of almost 1 %). Of these 67, 50 had parents who were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11) which contains 15 "PDA-specific" items. Nine individuals met criteria for "possible clinical diagnosis of PDA", meaning that almost one in five of all with ASD also had indications of having had PDA in childhood, and that 0.18 % of the total population had had the combination of ASD and PDA. However, at the time of assessment, only one of the 9 individuals with possible PDA still met "full criteria". PDA possibly constitutes a considerable minority of all cases with ASD diagnosed in childhood, but criteria for the condition are unlikely to be still met in later adolescence and early adult life.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive therapy is recommended for children with psychotic-like, or unusual, experiences associated with distress or impairment (UEDs; UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2013 [1]). Accurate models of the psychological underpinnings of childhood UEDs are required to effectively target therapies. Cognitive biases, such as the jumping to conclusions data-gathering bias (JTC), are implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis in adults. In this study, we aimed to establish the suitability for children of a task developed to assess JTC in adults. Eighty-six participants (aged 5-14 years) were recruited from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and community (school) settings, and completed the probabilistic reasoning ('Beads') task, alongside measures of intellectual functioning, general psychopathology, and UEDs. Self-reported reasoning strategy was coded as 'probabilistic' or 'other'. Younger children (5-10 years) were more likely than older children (11-14 years) to JTC (OR = 2.7, 95 % CI = 1.1-6.5, p = 0.03); and to use non-probabilistic reasoning strategies (OR = 9.4, 95 % CI = 1.7-48.8, p = 0.008). Both UED presence (OR = 5.1, 95 % CI = 1.2-21.9, p = 0.03) and lower IQ (OR = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.9-1.0, p = 0.02) were significantly and independently associated with JTC, irrespective of age and task comprehension. Findings replicate research in adults, indicating that the 'Beads' task can be reliably employed in children to assess cognitive biases. Psychological treatments for children with distressing unusual experiences might usefully incorporate reasoning interventions.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Comparatively little information is available from population-based studies on subgroup trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (particularly as defined by DSM-IV and ICD-10). Recent report of a subgroup with high and increasing inattention symptoms across development requires replication. To identify the different trajectory subgroups for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and total symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents aged 7-19 years. Eleven birth cohorts from 2,593 families with children and adolescents who had parent ratings for the outcome measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity or total symptoms were considered. Data were analysed using an accelerated longitudinal design and growth mixture modelling was applied to detect subgroups. For all three outcome measures, three trajectories with low (78.3-83.3 %), moderate (13.4-18.8 %) and high (2.8-3.2 %) symptom levels were detected. Course within these subgroups was largely comparable across outcome domains. In general, a decrease in symptoms with age was observed in all severity subgroups, although the developmental course was stable for the high subgroups of inattention and total symptoms. About 3 % of children in a community-based sample follow a course with a high level of ADHD symptoms. In this high trajectory group, hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms decrease with age from 7 to 19 years, whilst inattention and total symptoms are stable. There was no evidence for an increase in symptoms across childhood/adolescence in any of the severity groups.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Children affected by mental disorders are largely unrecognised and untreated across the world. Community resources, including the school system and teachers, are important elements in actions directed to promoting child mental health and preventing and treating mental disorders, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We developed a web-based program to educate primary school teachers on mental disorders in childhood and conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of the web-based program intervention in comparison with the same program based on text and video materials only and to a waiting-list control group. All nine schools of a single city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were randomised to the three groups, and teachers completed the educational programs during 3 weeks. Data were analysed according to complete cases and intention-to-treat approaches. In terms of gains of knowledge about mental disorders, the web-based program intervention was superior to the intervention with text and video materials, and to the waiting-list control group. In terms of beliefs and attitudes about mental disorders, the web-based program intervention group presented less stigmatised concepts than the text and video group and more non-stigmatised concepts than the waiting-list group. No differences were detected in terms of teachers' attitudes. This study demonstrated initial data on the effectiveness of a web-based program in educating schoolteachers on child mental disorders. Future studies are necessary to replicate and extend the findings.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses suggest normalizing effects of methylphenidate on structural fronto-striatal abnormalities in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A subgroup of patients receives atypical antipsychotics concurrent with methylphenidate. Long-term safety and efficacy of combined treatment are unknown. The current study provides an initial investigation of structural brain correlates of combined methylphenidate and antipsychotic treatment in patients with ADHD. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 31 patients who had received combined methylphenidate and antipsychotic treatment, 31 matched patients who had received methylphenidate but not antipsychotics, and 31 healthy controls (M age 16.7 years). We analyzed between-group effects in total cortical and subcortical volume, and in seven frontal cortical and eight subcortical-limbic volumes of interest, each involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Patients in the combined treatment group, but not those in the methylphenidate only group, showed a reduction in total cortical volume compared to healthy controls (Cohen's d = 0.69, p < 0.004), which was apparent in most frontal volumes of interest. Further, the combined treatment group, but not the methylphenidate group, showed volume reduction in bilateral ventral diencephalon (Left Cohen's d = 0.48, p < 0.04; Right Cohen's d = 0.46, p < 0.05) and the left thalamus (Cohen's d = 0.47, p < 0.04). These findings may indicate antipsychotic treatment counteracting the normalizing effects of methylphenidate on brain structure. However, it cannot be ruled out that pre-existing clinical differences between both patient groups may have resulted in anatomical differences at the time of scanning. The absence of an untreated ADHD group hinders unequivocal interpretation and implications of our findings.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Prescriptions of psychotropic medications have become an important intervention for many children and adolescents with mental disorders, and the rise of these prescriptions is debated intensively both among experts and the public. This review reports some recent international findings on point prevalence rates, cross-country comparisons, and time trends in psychotropic medication prescriptions for children and adolescents. Besides the total prescription rates, figures for antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and anxiolytics prescriptions are provided. The overall prescription rates of psychotropics in general and the major medication subgroups prescribed to children and adolescents vary substantially between countries with the US consumption being markedly higher than the use in European countries. However, even among the latter there are marked variations in findings. Studies reporting on time trends clearly indicate that there was a marked increase in the use of psychotropics for children and adolescents in the recent past. However, only a single study adjusted prevalence rates for the increasing number of children and adolescents assessed and treated in institutions providing mental health care. Considering the increasing numbers of children and adolescents seen in psychiatric services, the increase of psychotropic medications is less strong though still pronounced enough to stimulate further reflections on the use of these interventions.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2014;