Fresenius Environmental Bulletin (FRESEN ENVIRON BULL )


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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen on total hemocyte count and hemocyte morphology of Galleria mellonella pupae were investigated. Pyriproxyfen was applied to last instar larvae of G. mellonella topically on the dorsal thorax. Five hemocyte types; prohemocytes, plasmotocyte, granulocyte, spherule cells and oenocytoids were identified in pupae hemolymph based on morphological criteria. A significant decrease was observed in total hemocyte count exposed to 1, 5 and 10 µg/ml of pyriproxyfen. Pyriproxyfen treatment caused different levels of deformations on almost all hemocyte types. Vacuolization in granulocytes, loss of pseudopod in plasmatocytes becoming round shaped, rarefaction in cytoplasm, forcing nucleus through the cell membrane were identified. Mitotic division and some cells lost their smooth cell boundary to become irregular were also determined as a result of toxic effects of pyriproxyfen. Our data demonstrated that pyriproxyfen influenced hemocyte count and morphology by deteriorating hormonal pathways even at low doses and it also indicates endocrine-immune system associations in insects.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 01/2015; 24(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Waste to Energy (WTE) is a proven method for waste treatment. A significant number of studies and reports presenting the positive impact of WTE facilities in the waste management have proven the complementary character with recycling, while the greener cities of the world consider WTE to be an important parameter in achieving this distinguishes. There are also economic studies investigating the investment and operational costs, while they examine also the gate fee always as a basic parameter, for the economic viability and public acceptance. This work examines the contribution of WTE to economic growth, through the contribution to the trade balance deficit decrease of Greece. A potential investment in such a sector will lead to a decrease in the trade balance and, hence, a significantly positive impact will occur on the GDP. Given that Greece suffers from multiple deficits (fiscal, external, etc), it becomes clear that the devotion in waste management is likely to offer considerable effects in the growth rate, especially through the reduction of energy imports.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 11/2014; 23(11):2735-2741.
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    ABSTRACT: Jatropha curcas is a perennial crop originating from Central America that has become a promising candidate crop for production of bio oil which has the potential to replace or complement fossil diesel. This crop shows favourable attributes and considerable potential, such as hardiness, drought resistance, rapid growth, high oil content, and multiple uses. It is claimed to enhance socio-economic development, especially of poor rural areas in developing countries. Moreover, it can reclaim marginal and degraded lands in (semi-)arid regions, without competing with food production and without depleting natural carbon stocks and ecosystem services. Nevertheless, the full potential of this crop has not been realized yet, and there are several gaps in knowledge of its growth and agronomic management.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 11/2014; 23.
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    ABSTRACT: Phenols are among the most common organic pollutants because of their toxicity even at low concentrations. The effects of the retention time and the phenol concentration on the stabilization pond efficiency in the treatment of oil refinery wastewater were the purpose of this study, and hence the input of a pilot unit was varied in terms of phenol concentrations and retention time. The following parameters have been examined, NH4+, PO43-, phenol, TCOD, SCOD, TBOD, SBOD and pH. The results showed that the average efficiency in the stabilization ponds varied in the ranges 71.9 – 91.2%, 76.4 – 93.3%, 68.4 – 91.7%, 75.9 – 93.7% and 77.6 – 98.0% for the removal of SCOD, TCOD, SBOD, TBOD and phenol, respectively. These results indicated that the phenol concentration and the retention time affected dramatically the anaerobic and facultative ponds performance, so that the system performance was significantly increased by decreasing the phenol concentration and increasing the retention time. It can be concluded that stabilization ponds show favorable performance in removing organic compounds at various phenol concentrations and high retention times; this system can be therefore used to replace rather expensive and complex systems such as active sludge.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In Mediterranean climate, unforeseen late drought stress is one of the factors causing important yield losses in wheat production. In this study, in order to determine drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes and appropriate stress tolerance index under drought stress condition, two separate experiments were conducted with twenty four spring wheat cultivars/line in Bornova (rainfed) and Aydin (irrigated) during 2004-2005 growing season. Using grain yield of each genotype grown in irrigated and non-irrigated (drought) condition, drought tolerance (TOL), relative yield loss in drought environmental (RDY), geometric mean of yield (GM), stress susceptibilities index (SSI) and stress tolerant index (STI) were calculated, which are considered as drought stress predicting indices. It was observed that genotypes with high yield in irrigated condition had generally lower stress tolerances in drought condition, due to yield loss. A high positive correlation was determined between geometric yield mean and yields in drought and irrigated conditions. Also, a high positive correlation was observed between yields in both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions and STI value. It was concluded that the genotypes selected based on these two indices could be used as genetic resources in future droughttolerance breeding programs. The selection firstly based on the geometric mean and by following that, taking into account the grain yield in drought conditions would be suggested for efficient selection for resistance to drought in wheat.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014; 23(9a):2289-2293.
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    ABSTRACT: The wastewater (municipal and industrial) discharged directly into the Danube in the vicinity of Novi Sad. Danube surface water, wastewater and raw water used for drinking water production were analyzed. Sampling campaigns during summer and autumn in 2012 were conducted. The research activities were planned within NATO International Project in order to gain more insight into occurrence, concentration levels and sources of emerging and priority pollutants sources in this area. According to screening analysis in sampling campaigns in 2011, sixty nine organic compounds were selected for target analysis. In the first sampling campaign in 2012, twenty nine organic compounds were detected in water samples among sixty nine selected compounds. The second target campaign was broadening to inorganic emerging and priority pollutants. In comparison to the first target campaign, thirteen organic compounds were detected only at wastewater discharges, indicating pollution of the Danube by municipal wastewater from the city of Novi Sad and its surrounding. The special attention should be focused to some priority pollutants such as octylphenols, di-(ethylhexyl)-phthalate, DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin and some heavy toxic metal ions which concentrations in the Danube surface water samples exceeded proposed annual average environmental quality standard (AA EQS) values for inland surface waters. These target analysis are the basis for selection of the most adequate early warning system (EWS) for monitoring of the quality of raw water used for drinking water production in the city of Novi Sad.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014; 23(9):2137-2145.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to find out if new perspective antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors, ortho-/meta-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing fluorinated N-phenylpiperazine fragment (labelled as 6a–6f and 8a–8e), might also act as the antioxidants, the aim of current study was to investigate their antioxidant profile by applying two in vitro methods. Following mentioned, the capability of these compounds to reduce relatively stable reference 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in performed spectrophotometric analyses and to protect tyrosine from the peroxynitrite mediated nitration by applying the HPLC method was inspected. The position of alkoxy side chain bonded to lipophilic aromatic moiety as well as the ability of hydrogen bond formation and electrostatic effects, which have been induced by fluoro or trifluoromethyl substitution within the aromatic fragment of 4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl, have been considered the essential factors, which have influenced an antioxidant potential of investigated molecules. It could be hypothesized that isosteric replacement of etheric bridge for carbamoyloxy moiety has not probably been favorable structural modification in terms of an antioxidant effect. Relatively high lipophilicity of all tested compounds might be important, however, it was not an essential aspect which has affected such potency. From the entire investigated set, ortho-methoxy substituted compound 6a involving 4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl moiety has been able to reduce the DPPH radicals most markedly. The in vitro studies have also pointed to the most pronounced peroxynitrite ions scavenging potential of the substance 8c, a meta-propoxy substituted compound which has contained 4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl group.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014; 23(9A):2361-2368.
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014;
  • Etem Osma
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014; 23.
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014; 23.
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    ABSTRACT: Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), catfish (Silurus glanis) and pike (Esox lucius) were collected from the Bovan Reservoir (Southeast Serbia), and samples of muscle, liver and gills were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr and Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to highlight the importance of predatory species and tissue selection in monitoring research, and studies of potential impact of contaminated fish consumption on human health. The element levels in fish varied considerably among tissues in all three species (p <0.05), except Pb in catfish and Cd in pike. However, element levels in muscle tissue were generally lower than in the liver and gills. In the present study, the highest levels of Pb (145.35 mg kg-1) and Cd (0.031 mg kg-1) were observed in pikeperch liver, and that of Cr (0.069 mg kg-1) was observed in gills of pikeperch, while the highest levels of Zn and Mn were in gills of pike (110.29 and 1.86 mg kg-1, respectively) and that of Cu was in liver of pike (6.29 mg kg-1). Mercury was the only element that was accumulated in highest levels in muscle tissue in all three species (0.341, 0.253 and 0.234 mg kg-1 for pike, pikeperch and catfish, respectively). The BCF showed that Pb and Zn were the most readily absorbed ones by fish. Liver had the highest affinity for bioconcentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn, gills for Cr, Mn, and Pb, whereas muscle had the highest affinity for the bioconcentration of Hg. According to results in this study, all three predatory fish species can equally be used in monitoring of metal-polluted waters. None of the elements in fish muscle exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC) established by national legislation and the European Union. However, since Zn levels were above MPC in gills of pike, and Pb levels were above MPC in gills and liver of pike and pikeperch, the consumption of these parts of these fishes can be potentially hazardous for humans and should be excluded from the diet.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effects of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) extracts on serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), blood serum glucose (Glu) and total protein (TP) levels of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were determined in different dosage (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and duration (acute phase as 4 days and sub-chronic phase as 30 days). Serum GH levels significantly (p<0.05) increased in both acute and sub-chronic phases when compared to control group. IGF-1 levels significantly decreased in acute phase whereas increased in sub-chronic phase when compared to control group (p<0.05). Serum glucose levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all groups of acute duration, but significantly (p<0.05) increased in 20 ppm terebinth treated of sub-chronic duration. Moreover, total protein levels significantly (p<0.05) increased in 20 ppm group of acute and sub-chronic duration. When the results are taken together, it can be concluded that terebinth extracts have no effect on common carp growth in acute phase but may have a positive effect in sub-chronic phase.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 08/2014; 23(8):1997-2001.
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    ABSTRACT: The water utilities in Greece, that are responsible for the development of domestic water pricing policies, are municipal enterprises (called DEYA). They are public agencies that are autonomous and have almost identical management framework and applied pricing policies in terms of water tariff structure, which mainly are inclining block rates; however, they differ significantly from region to region regarding the tariff levels. The main objective of this country-wide study/research is to form an appropriate methodology, with the aim to reach comparable results regarding the pricing policies applied by most DEYA in Greece, at regional and local level. For this, a sample of 84 DEYA were selected out of the 227 existing in 2010 (period of the study). A 5m3 step (from 5 to 150m3 monthly consumption) was used in the analysis, per water utility population served (5 groups) and per administrative region each water utility belongs to (13 regions in Greece). The mean net consumption cost and the mean payable amount both calculated, per month, as water utilities do not share the same billing period. Charges, such as fee of construction and sewer use were excluded from the research. On the other hand, fixed charges such as water meter maintenance cost and standard maintenance costs were included. The overall conclusion is that there is a considerable spatial differentiation in pricing policies at a regional level, probably depending on other factors, (that need to be further analysed) than on the actual water supply and demand in each region.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 08/2014;