Fresenius Environmental Bulletin (FRESEN ENVIRON BULL )


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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ecological requirements and distribution of the native and non-native freshwater fish species of the Muğla Province were studied between 2009 and 2011. In total, 19 fish species including 5432 specimens were collected from 17 water bodies. Almost 40% of the fish were from non-native species, which were encountered frequently only from four water bodies. Squalius fellowesii was by far the most abundant species followed by Lepomis gibbosus and Ladigesocypris ghigii. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) explained 76% of the variation (first axis) between species and environmental variables, amongst which altitude, electrical conductivity and water temperature were the most influential. Based on habitat similarities, unweighted pair group means analysis (UPGMA) separated species into four clusters. Results revealed that species’ optimum levels and ecological tolerances can be species-specific, even though non-native and widespread endemic species across the basin tended to have higher tolerance ranges for different environmental variables.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen on total hemocyte count and hemocyte morphology of Galleria mellonella pupae were investigated. Pyriproxyfen was applied to last instar larvae of G. mellonella topically on the dorsal thorax. Five hemocyte types; prohemocytes, plasmotocyte, granulocyte, spherule cells and oenocytoids were identified in pupae hemolymph based on morphological criteria. A significant decrease was observed in total hemocyte count exposed to 1, 5 and 10 µg/ml of pyriproxyfen. Pyriproxyfen treatment caused different levels of deformations on almost all hemocyte types. Vacuolization in granulocytes, loss of pseudopod in plasmatocytes becoming round shaped, rarefaction in cytoplasm, forcing nucleus through the cell membrane were identified. Mitotic division and some cells lost their smooth cell boundary to become irregular were also determined as a result of toxic effects of pyriproxyfen. Our data demonstrated that pyriproxyfen influenced hemocyte count and morphology by deteriorating hormonal pathways even at low doses and it also indicates endocrine-immune system associations in insects.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 01/2015; 24(2).
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 09/2014; 23.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effects of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) extracts on serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), blood serum glucose (Glu) and total protein (TP) levels of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were determined in different dosage (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and duration (acute phase as 4 days and sub-chronic phase as 30 days). Serum GH levels significantly (p<0.05) increased in both acute and sub-chronic phases when compared to control group. IGF-1 levels significantly decreased in acute phase whereas increased in sub-chronic phase when compared to control group (p<0.05). Serum glucose levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all groups of acute duration, but significantly (p<0.05) increased in 20 ppm terebinth treated of sub-chronic duration. Moreover, total protein levels significantly (p<0.05) increased in 20 ppm group of acute and sub-chronic duration. When the results are taken together, it can be concluded that terebinth extracts have no effect on common carp growth in acute phase but may have a positive effect in sub-chronic phase.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 08/2014; 23(8):1997-2001.
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    ABSTRACT: The water utilities in Greece, that are responsible for the development of domestic water pricing policies, are municipal enterprises (called DEYA). They are public agencies that are autonomous and have almost identical management framework and applied pricing policies in terms of water tariff structure, which mainly are inclining block rates; however, they differ significantly from region to region regarding the tariff levels. The main objective of this country-wide study/research is to form an appropriate methodology, with the aim to reach comparable results regarding the pricing policies applied by most DEYA in Greece, at regional and local level. For this, a sample of 84 DEYA were selected out of the 227 existing in 2010 (period of the study). A 5m3 step (from 5 to 150m3 monthly consumption) was used in the analysis, per water utility population served (5 groups) and per administrative region each water utility belongs to (13 regions in Greece). The mean net consumption cost and the mean payable amount both calculated, per month, as water utilities do not share the same billing period. Charges, such as fee of construction and sewer use were excluded from the research. On the other hand, fixed charges such as water meter maintenance cost and standard maintenance costs were included. The overall conclusion is that there is a considerable spatial differentiation in pricing policies at a regional level, probably depending on other factors, (that need to be further analysed) than on the actual water supply and demand in each region.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 08/2014;
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 07/2014; 23(7):1443-1454.
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    ABSTRACT: Ethylene Dichloride (EDC) is the most abundant chlorinated groundwater pollutant. New environment-friendly approaches for the removal of EDC that do not bring about volatilization of the compound are required. In this study, different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were shown to effectively remove EDC from petro-chemical wastewater. The results of experiments showed that catalyst loading of 0.1 g/l TiO2 was the optimum and further increase in the TiO2 loading reduced the removal efficiency. Hence, this amount was used as the catalyst dosage for the photocatalytic reactions. In the present study, the influences of hydrogen peroxide on the photocatalytic degradation of EDC under UV light irradiation was investigated. Optimum H2O2 value was 1.0 mM. The UV/ H2O2 / Fe(III) process completely removed EDC after 60 min. Processes comparison showed that radiation and H2O2 are not sufficient for EDC oxidation and complete oxidation increased in the presence of Fe(III) with UV radiation. The experimental data showed that the photocatalytic degradation of EDC can be simulated by using pseudo-first-order reaction rate expression.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 07/2014; 23(7):1479-1484.
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 07/2014;
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014; 23(7):1560-1563.
  • Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: P. tricornutum was cultured in a panel PBR system, with different light path (1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 cm), 50% nitrogen reduction and with 20% inoculation densities. Lipid, protein and biomass rate were determined. The highest lipid content (34.6%) for P. tricornutum in the study was obtained from the culture with 1.064gl-1 biomass rate, 8.50% protein it the panel PBR system with 50% nitrogen reduction and 7 cm light path. The lowest lipid content and highest protein were found as 29.76%, 10.12% respectively, at 1 cm light path PBR system with 50% nitrogen reduction. The highest OD and lowest chl a were found in the 7 cm light path PBR system with a 50% nitrogen reduction.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014; 23(6):1309-1313.
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    ABSTRACT: The applicability of agricultural waste by-products for the removal of copper ions from contaminated groundwater has been examined in batch kinetic systems. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of time and the initial pH value on copper uptake rates and contact times needed to achieve equilibrium. The experimental results have indicated that apple and tomato peels have better sorption properties than plum stones. For these objects, the adsorption capacities of copper at equilibrium and at pH of 6 are 1.5451 mg Cu(II)/g, 1.2471 mg Cu(II)/g, and 0.7664 mg Cu(II)/g, respectively. The test results were best fitted by the pseudo-second order kinetic model (R2≥0.9987), which indicates the chemical nature of the process. The removal ratio R (%) of copper from aqueous solutions was: 1) 48.68% for plum stones; (2) 78.67% for tomato peels; and (3) 97.92% for apple peels. Equilibrium in the solutions was established after 30, 300 and 420 minutes, respectively. Additionally, it has been discovered that the initial pH level affected the efficiency of the adsorption processes. According to the test results, apple peels and tomato peels have relatively good adsorption properties for copper ions removal from aqueous solutions.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Plants grown in contaminated areas may accumulate toxic levels of trace elements in their biomass. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of increasing nickel contamination on the accumulation of selected trace elements in maize (Zea mays L.) after the application of zeolite, raw and modified halloysite. In a vegetative-pot experiment, five different level of Ni contamination, i.e., 0 (control), 80, 160, 240, 320 mg•kg–1 were applied in an analytical grade NiSO4 . 7H2O solution mixed thoroughly with the soil. The content of nickel, lead, zinc, chromium, copper and manganese in maize depended on the dose of nickel and type of neutralizing substance. The average accumulation of trace elements in maize grown in nickel contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order nickel>zinc>manganese>copper>lead>chromium, respectively. The highest reduction in nickel content was observed in the above-ground parts of maize at sites where 240 mg of Ni was used per 1 kg of soil following the addition of zeolite and modified halloysite. The highest increase in chromium content was observed in the above-ground parts of maize after row halloysite was applied.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A model based in an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed in order to forecast the Olea airborne pollen concentration due to the allergenic power of its pollen grains. There were used daily data from Olea pollen and the main meteorological variables documented in the period 1993-2008. The model was carried out in the Spanish city of Ourense. The model was tested with data from 2009 and 2010, obtaining data with one day of anticipation. Obtained results could be employed in allergology and health sciences in order to prevent effect of pollinosis.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the evaluation of raw mineral application (diatomite and chalcedonite) in groundwater protection in the vicinity of roads. Analyses of the reaction properties of the tested materials have been carried out using batch tests for heavy metals in low-concentration multi-component solutions (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The obtained experimental data were fitted to the Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Henry adsorption isotherms. The sequence of ion exchange selectivity (determined on the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity) is: Cd(II)>≈Zn(II)>≈Ni(II)>≈Pb(II) for diatomite, and Pb(II)> Cu(II)>> Zn(II)>≈Cd(II)>≈Ni(II) for chalcedonite. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for cadmium and lead for diatomite are 0.1486 mg/g and 0.1353 mg/g, respectively. Chalcedonite is characterized by equilibrium adsorption capacities of 0.1203 mg Pb/g and 0.0553 mg Ni/g. The present work demonstrates that diatomite is characterized by better sorption capacities of heavy metals from multi-component solutions than chalcedonite, and therefore may be further considered as a reactive material for the filter layer protecting groundwater along the road infrastructure.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: This study was carried out in Vlora Bay, Adriatic Sea, to evaluate the environmental status and estimate though the pollution of different contamination sources in this area. Vlora Bay is a half-closed bay, positioned from the mouth of the delta of the Vjosa River to Karaburuni Peninsula. Total dissolved metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of seawater samples were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS after the pre-concentration with CHELEX-100. The samples from eight stations of Vlora Bay coastal areas, Albania, were collected during February 2012. There is little information available regarding the nutrients and heavy metal contamination level of Vlora Bay. Our analytical data were subject to statistical analysis. Good correlations between Ni and Pb; Mn and Zn; Fe and Zn; Hg and Zn were found. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using EXCEL and MINITAB-15 Package Programs. Based on heavy metals concentrations and UK standards for the protection of saltwater life (SACs Project 2001) [32] and Sweden Environmental Quality Criteria, (2002) [33], the seawater quality of Vlora Bay is quite good. The levels of trace metals were found lower than the Swedish guidelines (Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn) for coastal water. The seasonal weather conditions of February are characterized by heavy rains, strong wind and high seawater waves. These are distinguished as the main factors that affect the concentration of trace elements in coastal water of Vlora Bay during our monitoring period.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014; 23(No 6a.).
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigates the performance of natural and engineered limestone sand (thermally and chemically modified) with respect to copper removal from groundwater protected by permeable reactive barriers. The engineered sorbents (particle size 0.25 – 0.50 mm) were prepared using high temperature at 850ºC and solutions of 0.25M Fe(III), 1M NaOH and 1M HNO3. Batch tests were carried out using a constant mass of the sorbent (0.5 g) and 50 mL of numerous copper ion solutions at different pH values at a desired shaking time in order to analyze the mechanism of copper removal. At a final pH value above 6.3, natural and engineered limestone sand removed over 94% of Cu(II). Test data indicated that the mechanism of copper removal is significantly affected by the contact time and the final pH level. The main processes leading to the removal of copper ions included precipitation with calcite or carbonate solids, chemisorption and physisorption. The test data fitted well with the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models (excluding data for Fe(III)-modified limestone) as well as the linear Henry’s isotherm. The most suitable for further application as a reactive material in PRBs technology is NaOH-modified limestone, followed by thermally-modified, HNO3-modified, Fe(III)-modified limestone, and limestone.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 05/2014; 23.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the contamination of the environment within the city of Olsztyn (northeastern Poland) by determining the level of lead, cadmium and zinc in Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) needles, the roots and leaves of broadleaf plantain (Plantago major L.), and the caps of fly agaric mushrooms (Amanita muscaria). The total content of: Zn, Pb, and Cd was assessed by means of the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method. Plant samples for analysis were taken one month prior to the beginning of the heating season at ten different locations, including along busy transportation routes and residential neighborhoods. Significant differences in the content of cadmium, lead and zinc were found based on the place from which samples were collected as well as the plant species. The highest concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc were noted in broadleaf plantain leaves, broadleaf plantain roots and fly agaric mushrooms, respectively, near a large subdivision of single-family houses. Low heavy metal contents in plants were noted in the City Forest, which is located far from sources of contamination. A significant correlation was confirmed between the amount of Pb in the leaves and roots of broadleaf plantain, whereas the correlation between the content of this element in the cap of the fly agaric mushroom and leaves as well as roots of broadleaf plantain was found to be high.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 05/2014; 23.

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