Magnesium and trace elements (Magnes Trace Elem )

Publisher: American Society for Magnesium Research


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    Magnesium and trace elements
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    ABSTRACT: Red blood (RBC) ionized magnesium (Mg2+) was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to assess the usefulness of this technique as an index of magnesium depletion. Twenty-four normal subjects underwent a 3-week low-Mg diet. The RBC Mg2+ fell from 209 +/- 9.8 microM before diet to 162 +/- 9.3 microM at the end of the 3 weeks (p < 0.001). In patient populations, 22 hypomagnesemic hospitalized patients had a significantly lower RBC Mg than normal (146 +/- 7.1 microM, p < 0.002), and 37 outpatients with diabetes mellitus had a mean RBC Mg2+ of 172 +/- 7.1 microM which was also significantly lower than normal (p < 0.001). These data suggest that determination of RBC Mg2+ may be used to reflect intracellular Mg status.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1993; 10(2-4):117-21.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of acute ethanol perfusion on the intracellular free magnesium level, intracellular pH, and high energy phosphate levels of isolated adult rat hearts (n = 13) were studied using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Perfusion with 1% ethanol solution resulted in a 43% decrease in the intracellular free magnesium level in Langendorff perfused rat hearts while intracellular pH was not significantly altered. In most hearts ethanol perfusion also resulted in increased intracellular inorganic phosphate and reduced phosphocreatine and ATP levels, corresponding to a significant reduction in phosphorylation potential. The implications of these results in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hypertension are discussed in light of our previous studies on spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats which demonstrated a correlation between cardiac free magnesium levels and blood pressure.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1993; 10(2-4):136-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular bioenergetic responses of isolated perfused working rat hearts to alterations in hemodynamic function caused by acute exposure to elevated levels of extracellular magnesium ions ([Mg2+]o) were examined using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy. Results showed that in hearts working against 90 cm H2O afterload, an increase in [Mg2+]o from 1.2 to 4.8 mM reduced the heart rate by 35%, while coronary flow was increased by 38%. Unexpectedly, despite the pronounced bradycardia, the rate-pressure product was reduced only slightly (from 2.36 x 10(4) to 2.08 x 10(4) mm Hg/min) due to a significant increase (36%) in systolic pressure. In addition, cardiac output actually increased by 23%, owing to a > 100% increase in stroke volume, indicating that the performance of the heart was improved and suggesting that the efficiency of the heart was improved as well. In a separate series of experiments, 31P NMR measurements performed on hearts perfused in the Langendorff mode revealed that elevated levels of [Mg2+]o increase phosphocreatine (PCr) levels by 23% (from 9.2 to 11.3 mM), while Pi levels declined by a corresponding amount. Perfusion of hearts in the working mode with elevated [Mg2+]o was also observed to increase PCr levels from 6.3 to 9.0 mM, while ATP levels declined by 17%. Measurement of the chemical shift difference between Pi and PCr and that between the alpha and beta phosphate resonances of ATP were used to determine intracellular pH and the cytosolic levels of free Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i), respectively. These results showed that acute exposure of hearts, perfused in either the working or Langendorff mode, to increased levels of [Mg2+]o increased intracellular pH by 0.12-0.13 units, while free Mg2+ nearly doubled to a level of 1.1-1.2 mM. The latter observation may suggest that acute variations in the level of [Mg2+]o can influence a multitude of cellular processes requiring Mg2+ as an essential cofactor. Using the above data and assuming equilibrium of the creatine kinase reaction, the levels of ADP, cytosolic phosphorylation potential ([ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) and free energy change from ATP hydrolysis (-delta G/delta E) were also calculated. Results obtained illustrate that in the presence of elevated [Mg2+]o, ADP levels declined by 33-48%, the cytosolic phosphorylation potential increased from 41 to 112 mM-1 and -delta G/delta E increased from 56.7 to 59.3 kJ/mol. These changes are not completely accountable by the known bradycardia and vasodilatory effects of elevated [Mg2+]o and strongly argue for a direct action of [Mg2+]o on the myocyte as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1993; 10(2-4):99-116.
  • Magnesium and trace elements 01/1992; 10:182-192.
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    ABSTRACT: The urinary excretion of magnesium was studied in two groups of healthy women just after menopause. The women in group I were randomly allocated to receive either placebo or 4, 2 or 1 mg 17 beta-oestradiol in cyclical combination with 1 mg norethisterone acetate (a progestational agent). Oestradiol was given, in the above-mentioned doses, from days 1 to 22, and 1, 1 or 0 mg oestradiol was given from days 23 to 28, in combination with norethisterone acetate from days 13 to 22 and oestriol 2, 1 or 0.5 mg from days 1 to 23 and 0.5, 0.5 or 0 mg from days 23 to 28. The women in group II were allocated to receive either placebo, 2 mg oestradiol valerate in cyclical combination with 1 mg cyproterone acetate (oestradiol valerate from days 1 to 21 and cyproterone acetate from days 12 to 21) with 1,000 mg of calcium per day or oestradiol valerate + cyproterone acetate without calcium. Oestrogen and progesterone therapy decreased the urinary magnesium excretion significantly when compared to the placebo group. The effect was related to the dose of oestrogen. Furthermore, our results indicate that calcium supplementation influences the urinary excretion of magnesium in a two-phase paradoxical manner.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(1):34-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Brief hypoxia or hyperoxia has been shown to affect growth and metabolism of chick embryos during the late stages of development. The objective of this study was to alter the availability of oxygen to chick embryos developing in ovo and to determine the effects on tissue zinc, copper, iron and manganese levels. On day 15 of incubation fertile chicken eggs were divided into three groups: 15% O2 (hypoxic), 60% O2 (hyperoxic) and 21% O2 (normoxic) and incubated under these conditions for 72 h to day 18. Hypoxia reduced embryo, heart, brain and liver wet weights, whereas hyperoxia increased embryo, heart, lung and liver wet weights compared to normoxic controls. Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) wet weight was increased by hypoxia and reduced by hyperoxia. Livers from hyperoxic embryos contained more zinc, iron and manganese and less copper than livers from hypoxic or normoxic embryos. Tissue concentrations of zinc, copper, iron and manganese were reduced in brains from hyperoxic compared to hypoxic or normoxic embryos. Hyperoxia increased the zinc and copper concentrations in CAM, whereas hypoxia reduced zinc and iron levels. The contents of zinc and copper were increased in hyperoxic compared to normoxic or hypoxic lungs. Hearts from hyperoxic embryos had more zinc, copper and manganese than hypoxic or normoxic hearts. Hypoxic yolk sac contained more zinc and manganese than hyperoxic or normoxic yolk sac. Except for yolk sac, the trace element content of tissues from normoxic embryos increased from day 15 to day 18 of incubation in concert with tissue growth. We conclude that the availability of oxygen to the developing chick embryo affects tissue trace element levels through its effects on tissue growth, as a result of adaptation by specific tissues to different oxygen tensions, or via effects on the regulation of trace element uptake and assimilation by the tissues.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(5-6):305-20.
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    ABSTRACT: The concentration of molybdenum was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in the urines of two groups of healthy people living in two areas of France, Brest and Paris, about 500 km away. The concentration of Mo in the 24-hour urines of 10 healthy subjects from the Brest region was 25 +/- 10 micrograms/l, 38 +/- 20 micrograms/24 h and 21 +/- 9 micrograms/g creatinine. The concentration of Mo in the morning urines of 23 healthy men of the Paris region was 41 +/- 34 micrograms/l and 21 +/- 15 micrograms/g creatinine. Thus the mean elimination of Mo per gram of creatinine was the same in the two groups (21 +/- 9 and 21 +/- 15). Since the three main isotopes of Mo m/z = 95, 96 and 98, corresponding to an abundance percentage of 16, 17 and 24.5, respectively, were simultaneously analyzed in each sample and led to similar results, the ICPMS method seems reliable.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(1):47-50.
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    ABSTRACT: In 25 full-term infants at birth and in their mothers, we determined plasma and mononuclear blood cell (MBC) Mg levels in order to investigate the relationship between maternal and fetal Mg status. MBC isolation for Mg analysis was carried out with a Ficoll-Isopaque gradient which is commercially available in disposable tubes. There was no difference in the plasma and MBC Mg levels between infants and their mothers. Neonatal MBC Mg content was significantly correlated with maternal plasma Mg concentration. The data demonstrate that MBC Mg content does not present any difference on the basis of age and emphasize that the constitution of fetal Mg reserve depends on maternal plasma Mg concentration.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(1):30-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Although alcohol has long been known to induce cardiac depression and cardiomyopathy, it is not known whether drug therapy or pharmacologic manipulation can be used to prevent or reverse these toxicities. With this in mind, high levels (15 mM) of magnesium (Mg) were investigated for their potential antialcohol effects on perfused rat hearts. A high concentration of ethanol (135 mM) was used to induce rapid cardiac failure as assessed by hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. During ethanol perfusion in normal 1.2 mM [Mg2+]o physiologic salt solution, coronary flow decreased immediately, and all of the hemodynamic parameters studied (except for heart rate) were depressed significantly. After 10 min of 135 mM ethanol perfusion, only 60% of the hearts kept beating; at 15 min, only 42% of the hearts continued to beat. Myocardial metabolism under such conditions as assessed by examination of coronary effluent concentrations of lactic acid (LA), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was rapidly and severely compromised. Although 15 mM MgSO4 alone did not alter coronary flow and systolic pressure under the conditions studied, it did decrease cardiac output, heart rate and total pressure developed. However, when 15 mM MgSO4 was given 10 min before ethanol, and continued during ethanol perfusion, the usual depression in all assessed cardiac hemodynamic parameters (except heart rate) caused by ethanol was not observed. During 15 min of high [Mg2+]o perfusion, coronary flow recovered from 19.1 +/- 6.8% (ethanol alone) to 68.1 +/- 9.9% of control values (p < 0.01); cardiac output recovered from 10.4 +/- 4.6% (ethanol alone) to 43.6 +/- 7.5% of control (p < 0.01); stroke volume went from 12.9 +/- 5.8% (ethanol alone) to 97.1 +/- 14.5% of control (p < 0.01); systolic pressure from 55.3 +/- 3.6% (ethanol alone) to 88.8 +/- 4.0% of control (p < 0.01), and total pressure developed from 23.9 +/- 7.8% (ethanol alone) to 35.0 +/- 4.5% of control (p < 0.05). Assessment of the metabolic biochemical parameters supported these changes in hemodynamic improvement. For example, LA, LDH and CPK all went from elevated values towards normal levels. There were similar hemodynamic and metabolic responses to high [Mg2+]o given during ethanol perfusion to that given before ethanol perfusion. The hemodynamic and metabolic beneficial effects between groups pretreated or treated with high [Mg2+]o exhibited no significant differences. These results suggest that high [Mg2+]o (15 mM) given either before or during ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity is effective in attenuating both functional and metabolic damage caused by high ethanol perfusion in the rat heart.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(5-6):409-19.
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy and ion-selective electrode measurements were undertaken to determine if administration of acute doses of alcohol (ALC, 0.2-6.6 g/kg), and lethal doses of barbiturate anesthesia, exert any influence on: (1) brain cellular bioenergetics, intracellular free Mg ([Mg2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi), and (2) serum levels of ionized Mg (IMg2+), ionized calcium (ICa2+) and K+. Approximately 20-30 min after intraperitoneal administration of ALC to anesthetized rats, brain phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP and PCr/inorganic phosphate (P(i)) ratios dropped from 2.5 to 1.7 and from 6.6 to 2.2, respectively, P(i) rose 20-200% (depending upon ALC dose), and free ADP and creatine rose significantly. ALC induced rapid decreases in the cytosolic phosphorylation potential (CPP) and free energy of ATP hydrolysis (-delta G/delta E). Following ALC administration, brain [Mg2+]i dropped rapidly (within 4-30 min) and significantly; the greater the dose of ALC, the greater the loss in brain [Mg2+]. Correlations were found between [Mg2+]i, PCr/ATP, CPP and delta G/delta E after ALC but not in control brains. Rats that exhibited ALC-induced strokes and death (unlike barbiturate death) exhibited huge elevations in [Mg2+]i. Although ALC administration does not alter brain pHi at least (up to 70 min), ALC- and barbiturate-induced death produces rapid brain intracellular acidosis. Concomitant with ALC-induced alterations in [Mg2+]i and brain cellular bioenergetics, we noted that ALC administration results in rapid elevations in serum IMg2+ and K+ but not ICa2+. These results suggest that ALC administration and heavy or binge-drinking of ALC (1) can result in rapid alterations in brain bioenergetics, [Mg2+]i and pHi, and (2) result in rapid elevations in serum IMg2+ and K+ in rats. In addition, ALC- and barbiturate-induced deaths do not appear to produce identical alterations in brain bioenergetics and [Mg2+]i, and lastly binge or heavy drinking of ALC may result in stroke-like events and sudden death via rapid alterations in brain cellular bioenergetics.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(2-4):122-35.
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    ABSTRACT: A study was performed to determine whether dietary pyridoxine affects the response of rats to arsenic deprivation. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment utilized groups of 6 male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats. They were fed a 14% amino acid/76% acid-washed corn diet for 10 weeks. The dietary variables were arsenic, 0 or 1 microgram/g; pyridoxine.HCl, 0 or 10 mg/kg, and L-methionine, 0 or 3 g/kg. The basal diet contained 0.24% methionine (calculated) and about 10 ng arsenic/g. Growth was reduced by arsenic, pyridoxine or methionine deprivation. Other parameters including blood indices, erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase and the concentration of tissue iron and plasma amino acids were affected by dietary arsenic, pyridoxine, methionine or their interaction. The data demonstrate that dietary pyridoxine and arsenic interact and that the methionine status of the animal can affect this interaction.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(5-6):339-47.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in correcting magnesium deficiency was examined in a group of 40 elderly patients with suspected magnesium deficiency. The patients were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion to oral magnesium-lactate-citrate for 6 weeks. Magnesium status was assessed by an intravenous magnesium-loading test at baseline and after treatment. For comparison, another group of 23 patients received 30 mmol magnesium sulfate intravenously daily for 7 days. A group of 30 patients without known predisposition to magnesium deficiency and a group of 27 young healthy subjects served as controls. The initial magnesium-loading test in the placebo group reduced magnesium retention from a mean 41% (95% confidence intervals 34-49) to 22% (15-29) (p less than 0.01). In the group receiving oral magnesium supplementation for 6 weeks, magnesium retention decreased from 39% (31-47) to 10% (2-18) (p less than 0.01), which was significantly better than with placebo treatment (p less than 0.01). The magnesium retention after oral magnesium supplementation was comparable to that observed after parenteral administration of magnesium for 7 days, 6% (-4 to 16), and to that in the reference groups of patients 4% (-2 to 10) and healthy control subjects 3% (-2 to 8). The study suggests that the bioavailability of orally given magnesium-lactate-citrate is satisfactory, and that oral administration of magnesium for 6 weeks may restore magnesium depots in patients with magnesium deficiency.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(1):11-6.
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously established a link between magnesium-deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy and free radical injury. In the present study, golden Syrian male hamsters were placed on either magnesium-deficient or magnesium-supplemented diets. Animals from each group received either d,l-propranolol or d-propranolol (the non-beta-blocking form). After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed and their hearts isolated for morphological and morphometric analyses. Hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections were examined by a computer image analysis system for a morphometric determination of the severity of myocardial injury. Propranolol reduced both the density of lesions, from 0.32 to 0.06 lesions/mm2 (p < 0.01), and the area fraction of lesions, from 9.8 x 10(-4) to 2.5 x 10(-4) lesion area/mm2 (p < 0.01). In addition, d-propranolol was virtually equipotent to d,l-propranolol, indicating that part of the protective effect of propranolol, in this model, was attributable to its antioxidant properties.
    Magnesium and trace elements 01/1991; 10(5-6):348-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Seven patients (3 females, 4 males) developed symptomatic hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia following gentamicin therapy. The excessive and inappropriate urinary excretion of magnesium and potassium in the presence of subnormal serum concentrations was noted. A significant correlation was found between the total cumulative dose of gentamicin and serum Mg concentration (r = 0.76, p less than 0.05), as well as between the renal wasting of Mg and the total cumulative dose of gentamicin administered (r = 0.89, p less than 0.01). The gentamicin-induced Mg depletion is a very rare but important complication which is most likely to occur when the drug is given to older patients in large doses over extended periods of time.
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(1):54-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The actions of magnesium on intracellular sodium activity (aiNa), transmembrane potentials and contractile force were studied in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers perfused in vitro. Increasing [Mg]o from 1.05 to 2-8 mM shortens the action potential, decreases force and increases aiNa in active (and quiescent) fibers. High Ca (8.1 mM) increases force and decreases aiNa: in its presence, 8 mM Mg ('high Mg') decreases force as well as the action potential duration and still increases aiNa. Manganese decreases force and aiNa: the effects of high Mg are not changed by Mn-induced blockade of the slow channel. Even in the presence of 0.25 mM lidocaine (which decreases action potential duration, force and aiNa), high Mg increases aiNa, has little effect on the action potential duration and increases the threshold requirements. In the absence of [Ca]o, 1.35 mM Sr increases the action potential duration as well as aiNa and reduces force: high Mg markedly decreases aiNa, force and action potential duration. Thus, Mg decreases the duration of the action potential (as Ca does) but (in contrast to Ca) decreases contractile force (possibly by acting on intracellular structures) and increases intracellular Na activity. These effects are not dependent on Ca or Na influx and show that the increase in aiNa by Mg is the net result of opposing actions.
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(3):152-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it was found in studies in vitro and in vivo that phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP, 'angel dust') can induce cerebral arterial and arteriolar spasms, in psychotomimetic concentrations, by acting on specific PCP receptors, which is followed by rupture of cerebral and postcapillary venules. We wondered whether a chemical substance which has the ability to block Ca2+ channels, neurotransmitter release, intracellular Ca2+ release and the NMDA-glutamate receptor channel, viz., Mg2+, might block the PCP receptor which subserves cerebral contractile events and thereby prevent rupture of microvessels. In vivo experiments carried out on cerebral microvessels in a rat pial brain preparation revealed that different dose regimens of Mg aspartate HCl administered intravenously attenuated cerebrovasospasms induced by PCP and shifted PCP concentration-effect curves (ED50) rightward to higher concentrations. These data suggest that Mg2+ may alter the binding of PCP for its vascular receptors. Since Mg2+ prevented rupture of the cerebral microvessels, it may prove useful, clinically, in prevention and treatment of PCP-intoxicated victims.
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(1):44-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A recent ecologic study has suggested a relationship between mortality from diabetes mellitus and levels of magnesium in drinking water. However, diabetes mortality rates were from aggregate data for the entire geographic area under study. The state of Iowa has data resources available to determine diabetes mortality rates for individuals on known water supplies in Iowa and magnesium levels for raw drinking water supplies. To determine the presence of this relationship in the state of Iowa, mortality rates from 1976 through 1985 for diabetes as an underlying cause of death and for major cardiovascular disease with diabetes as an ancillary cause of death were compared for individuals from towns in Iowa with populations of 1,000 to 10,000. At the stratification levels of magnesium in municipal drinking water used in this study, no significant differences were found in diabetes mortality rates.
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(2):94-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Mg is being used as a therapeutic agent in different clinical conditions, i.e. preeclampsia or eclampsia, and as a tocolytic agent to prevent premature delivery. For these reasons we decided to systematically investigate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of excess Mg in 25 piglets less than 1 day to 3 months of age, lightly anesthetized with Saffan, tracheotomized, paralyzed with C-10 and artificially ventilated on 100% O2. A 1.0 M infusion of MgCl2 was given for 15-60 min, and arterial plasma samples were drawn before and at the end of the infusion for the determination of plasma Mg and Ca levels. Phrenic nerve activity was recorded monophasically simultaneously with arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, end-tidal CO2 and intratracheal pressure on a dynograph and on analog tape. In a subset of experiments (n = 6), spontaneous ventilation was monitored in piglets of different ages to determine the Mg concentration at which spontaneous ventilation ceased. Blood gases were measured at 45-min intervals, as well as both immediately before and after the MgCl2 infusion, and pCO2 and pH were maintained within normal limits. As a consequence of the high plasma concentration of Mg, mean arterial pressure and heart rate declined, and the inspiratory duration significantly decreased. Our results indicate that young piglets can survive high levels of plasma Mg (greater than 14 mM).
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(3):124-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Seven 24-hour ECG recordings and blood samples were taken within 3 weeks in 42 patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ca, K and Mg concentrations in serum, and K and Mg in the erythrocytes, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One half of the patients were infused with 81 mval/day MgSO4 for 3 days. In patients who exhibited intense electrolyte alterations 10-20 days after AMI, there was a significantly higher rate in the frequency of couplets and/or tachycardia in the 2- to 20-day period after AMI. In patients infused with MgSO4, the fluctuation in serum electrolytes and the rate of arrhythmias were significantly reduced.
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(4):205-11.
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    ABSTRACT: In a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study (430 patients aged 25-63 years, 394 males), 214 subjects were administered a magnesium-rich diet and 216 subjects were administered a usual diet for 12 weeks. Age, sex, body weight, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity, diuretic therapy and hypomagnesemia were comparable between the two groups as were laboratory data at entry to the study. The intervention group A received a significantly higher amount of dietary magnesium (1,142.0 +/- 225 mg/day) compared to group B which received the usual diet (438 +/- 118 mg/day). After 12 weeks, there was a significant decrease in total serum cholesterol (10.7%), low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (10.5%) and triglyceride (10.1%) in group A compared to the values at entry to the study; no such changes were evident in group B subjects. HDL-cholesterol showed a marginal mean decrease of 0.8 mg/dl in group B and 2.0 mg/dl increase in group A. However, in hypomagnesemic patients (26 cases) of the intervention group, there was a 10.9% increase in high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in association with a decrease in other lipids. Although a general blood-lipid-reducing effect of a high-fiber, low-cholesterol diet cannot be excluded, dietary magnesium may have contributed to the reduction of total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride as well as to the marginal rise in HDL-cholesterol. More studies with a longer follow-up are needed in order to confirm the role of magnesium in preventing a decrease in HDL-cholesterol in association with reduction in other lipoproteins.
    Magnesium and trace elements 02/1990; 9(5):255-64.

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