Pharmacognosy Journal

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  • ISSN
    0975-3575

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:Viscum album is a semi-parasitic medicinal plant which has been used for many years as a remedy in traditional medicine. The plant is widely used in folk medicine in Palestine; mainly in the treatment of cancer, diabetes and heart disease. Since no previous reports on bioactivity of this plant in association with host plant specificity in Palestine, the current study aimed at evaluating bioactivity of almond and olive variants of this plant. Method: Methanolic extract of viscum album cultivated from almond and olive host plants were tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial . Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were also used to assess anticoagulant activities of plant extracts. Result: The result demonstrated that Viscum album have an IC50 of 25.34±3.8μg/ml when hosted by olive while the IC50 was 15.37±2.2μg/ml when hosted by almond. Crude extracts of both Viscum album plants showed strong inhibition effects on the growth of the studied Staphylococcus aureus strains (ATCC 25923 and MRSA) with a pronounced effect when extracts of almond host was used. However, the effects of both host extracts were very limited or absent when tested against Gram-negative reference and clinical strains. Plant extracts of both host showed prolonged PT and PTT compared to phosphate buffered saline control solution. Conclusion: In conclusion, variations in the bioactivity of Viscum album is clearly influenced by host type and further studies required to illustrate such variations using other host plants.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 02/2014; 6(2):38-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Iris kashmiriana, a medicinal plant growing under Kashmir conditions, has been found very useful for pulmonary asthma, cancer, inflammation, liver and uterine diseases in traditional medicine. The medicinal importance of the plant prompted isolation of a variety of pharmacologically active compounds including quinones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and stilbene glycosides. Objective To evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of rhizomes of I. kashmiriana. Material & methods The effect of I. kashmiriana was evaluated against human epithelial cancer cell lines A549 and Caco-2 for their possible effect on cell proliferation. Free radical scavenging activity was tested by DPPH assay against known antioxidant Vitamin C. The extract was also analyzed for active components by RP-HPLC. Results The extract showed potent cytotoxic effect on both epithelial cell lines at all the tested concentrations with significant effect at 400 μg/ml (IC50 (A549) = 128.7 μg/ml; IC50 (Caco-2) = 237.76 μg/ml) as evaluated by MTT assay. The effect was, however, less pronounced on mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3 (IC50 (NIH-3T3) = 1182.92 μg/ml), indicative of possible cell specific activity against epithelial cancers. Furthermore the free radical scavenging activity as verified by DPPH assay revealed that the methanolic extract of I. kashmiriana has strong antioxidant potential. HPLC analysis showed respectable amount of Irigenin and Tectorigenin present in the extract. Conclusion The results demonstrate pharmaceutical potential of I. kashmiriana for treatment of epithelial cancers and other inflammatory diseases.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm., Zingiberaceae, is traditionally used in Brazil to treat hypertension, inflammation, anxiety, and hysteria. However, investigations of antioxidant and central effects of A. zerumbet extract are lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a hydroethanolic extract of A. zerumbet (HEA) on tail suspension and light/dark tests to screen for possible antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities, respectively. We also evaluated the in vitro antioxidant effects of HEA. Materials and methods: Swiss male mice were orally treated with saline or HEA (200, 400 or 800 mg/kg) 60 min before testing. The in vitro antioxidant activity of HEA was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant property method and assays involving free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging. Protections against glutathione oxidation and lipid peroxidation were also evaluated. Results: HEA (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly reduced the period of immobility in the tail suspension test, similarly to imipramine. In the tail suspension test, HEA (400 and 800 mg/kg but not 200 mg/kg) and diazepam significantly increased time spent in the light side. The antioxidant activity of HEA was remarkable, as it showed significant ferric-reduction power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and protection against lipid peroxidation. Conclusion: This study showed the antioxidant, antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of HEA in mice. More studies and the identification of active components of the extract are necessary to further assess the therapeutic potential of this species in the treatment of psychiatric diseases.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 06/2013; 5:113-118.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Plants offer a wide range of natural compounds of medicinal values to humans and domestic animals. Objective: The ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium, Aloe perryi, Viscum album (leaves) and Allium sativum (bulb) were investigated for their phytochemical/biochemical constituents and hypoglycemic properties. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycemia was induced in rats by a single dose (140 mg/kg) of intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Suspensions of the ethanolic extracts were administered by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 2 mg/kg every 16 h for 54 h. Collection of blood samples for estimation of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was carried out at regular time intervals of 0, 16, 32, 48 and 54 h, using the glucose oxidase method. Results: Phytochemical and biochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, proteins and carbohydrates in the four plant tissues under investigation. A. sativum and G. latifolium also tested positive for the presence of alkaloids. The capacities of the four ethanolic extracts to reduce FBG concentrations in treated rats at the 54 h were in the order: A. perryi > G. latifolium > A. sativum > V. album. Comparatively, at t = 16 h, FBG concentration of V. album treated rats was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those of G. latifolium treated group. Likewise, FBG concentration of rats treated with V. album extract did not show a significant difference (p > 0.05) compared to the group administered with extract of A. sativum. Conclusion: The four plant extracts used in the present study exhibited approximately the same capacity to act as hypoglycemic agents in the treated rats and correlate with the therapeutic capacity of the standard drug, glimepiride.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 04/2013; 3(2):12-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is one of insect toxicity mechanisms found in many plants. Stemona collinsiae Craib, a traditional insecticidal plant, has been of interest for its AChE inhibitory activity. Methods: Powdered roots of S. collinsiae were successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. The contents of major active insecticidal components, didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline alkaloids, were analyzed by HPLC. Anti-AChE activity was evaluated using Ellman’s colorimetric method and TLC-bioautography. Results: The contents of didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline alkaloids in the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts were 3.59 and 0.18, 40.78 and 0.74, and 1.43 and 0.09% w/w, respectively. TLC fingerprints of each extract showed major spots of didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline of which TLC bioassays indicated active AChE inhibitory activity. IC50 values on anti-AChE activities of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were 126.72, 73.78, and >1000 mg/ml, respectively while those of didehydrostemofoline, stemofoline, and standard galanthamine were 131.3, 102.1, and 1.30 mM, respectively. Conclusion: The AChE inhibitory activity of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from S. collinsiae roots and their major alkaloids, didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline, were determined. The data support the traditional utilization of this plant as a natural insecticide.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 02/2013; 5:56-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Anagallis arvensis L. and Anagallis foemina Mill. (Primulaceae) have been used in Navarra (Spain) as wound healing remedies within a context of traditional medicine. The species have previously demonstrated antimicrobial and COX-inhibiting properties. Cytotoxic effects of the plants have never been established though they are popularly known to be toxic at high doses and/or long term oral administration. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in PC12 and DHD/K12PROb cells using spectrophotometric methods such as the MTT and LDH assays. Both plants reduced cell survival and induced cell damage (LDH release) in a dose-dependent manner, PC12 cells being more sensitive to the extracts than DHD/K12PROb cells. Methanol extracts were significantly more cytotoxic and doses over 80 μg/ml reduced cell survival above 50%. Results suggest that these plants may be responsible for the toxic effects that have been described in traditional medicine.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: AimsAnabasis aretioides Coss. & Moq. is one of the endemic medicinal plants from Algerian Sahara. It's used for many traditional therapies of various diseases. In this study, we investigate the content of different organic extracts on phenolics and flavonoids, and also their antioxidant activities.Methods Two conventional methods were used to carried out the antioxidant activity: the DPPH and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities.Conclusion From the obtained results, we found that the ethanolic extract presented the high level of phenolic and flavonoid contents (231.85 ± 20.59 mg GAE/g and 132.8 ± 24.58 mg CEQ/g). The EC50 of different extracts were arranged between 47.71 and 86.73 μg/mL. A highest hydrogen peroxide activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract compared to antioxidants used as positive control (BHA and α-tocopherol).
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013; 5(3):108–112.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ursolic acid was determined in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum and in developed herbal hepatoprotective tablet by HPTLC method. Methods Hepatoprotective polyherbal formulation was prepared using five fractions of three plant extracts namely O. gratissimum, Butea monosperma and Bauhinia variegata. Among these three plants O. gratissimum contains ursolic acid. Chromatographic separation was performed on silica gel HPTLC plates with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate:acetone (8.2:1.8:0.1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. After drying, the plates were sprayed with 10% (v/v) ethanolic solution of sulfuric acid and heated to 120 °C for 3 min. Quantification was performed in absorbance/transmittance mode at a wavelength of 530 nm using a computer-controlled densitometer. Results The presented method was validated for linearity 400–1200 (ng/spot), intraday precision % C.V. (0.58–1.97), and interday precision % C.V. (1.46–2.22). Correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.9960), detection limits as well as recovery values (97.5%–98.22%) were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion A good correlation was obtained among the standard, samples of polyherbal formulation and fractionated extract of O. gratissimum using HPTLC method.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013;
  • Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013; 5(1):22-29.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman, a wild banana species endemic to the Western Ghats, northeastern hills of India and northern Thailand. The seeds are known for their medicinal value and are widely used by indigenous healers as remedy for human disorders. Methods Systematic pharmacognostical evaluation of seeds of the plant has been carried out with focus on physicochemical and phytochemical characterization. Results Macroscopical and microscopical features of the seed have been documented. Preliminary phytochemical investigations indicated presence of steroid, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and sugars. HPTLC fingerprint profile was developed for identification of active compounds. Discussion E. superbum is an under-exploited medicinal plant of immense utility. The seeds are utilized by indigenous communities to cure various human ailment without adverse or side effects The present study has unveiled standardization of macroscopic and microscopic characterizations of the seed coat, embryo and perisperm powder. Seeds of E. superbum comprises of hard seed coat, perisperm, endosperm, embryo and chalazal disk. The seed coat consists of exotesta and Mesotesta made from sclerenchyma cells. The silica layer present in seed coat increases the strength and hardness of testa. Determination of physico-chemical parameters for endosperm and testa of seeds are subjected as per standard methods. HPTLC fingerprint profile has also been recorded for identification of the E. superbum extract. Phytochemical entities such as steroid, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and sugar were detected by colour tests. The standard tests conducted in the present investigation are important and useful in determining authenticity and purity of crude seed powder drug of E. superbum. Conclusion These parameters can be utilized for quick identification of the drug and are useful in establishing the identity of this medicinal material as whole or even in the form of powder.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013; 5:163-169.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Honokiol, an active component isolated and purified from Chinese traditional herb Magnolia officinalis. It is known to have a wide range of biological activities including antidepressant-like effects which have been observed in stress-induced depression models. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of honokiol in corticosteroid induced model of depression. Method Adult Swiss albino mice were injected with 40 mg/kg of corticosterone (CORT) chronically for 21 days. Behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated. Moreover, since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant effects of many drugs, we also evaluated the effects of honokiol on BDNF in the hippocampus. Results The results showed that the 3-week CORT injections caused the significant elevation in serum CORT levels in mice. Repeated CORT injections also caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption (P < 0.01) and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test (P < 0.001). Moreover, it was found that BDNF levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of the mice with honokiol significantly suppressed the depression-like behavior and increased brain BDNF levels (P < 0.01) in CORT-treated mice. Conclusion These results conclude that honokiol produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression, which is possibly mediated by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013; 5(5):211–215.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tephrosia jamnagarensis Sant. is a rare endemic species, restricted to the semiarid region of India.Methods: The present study gives insight into the anatomical, pharmacognosy, histochemical and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the root, stem and leaf of Tephrosia jamnagarensis. The analysis’s were done according to WHO norms. Result: The anatomical study of all of root and stem showed the characteristic rhomboidal calcium oxalate crystals in medullary rays. The paedomorphic ray and medullary phloem were observed in the mature stem. Micro–morphological parameters such as the stomatal index, palisade ratio and vein-islet number were distinctly quantified. The powder study showed the presence of warty unicellular trichomes and anisocyctic stomata in leaf and stem whereas calcium oxalate crystals and pitted xylem vessels were observed in roots, stem and leaves. The histochemical tests performed indicate the presence of mucilage and alkaloids. Phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and mucilage. Conclusion: The standardization parameters provide referential information for correct identification of the plant material and will also be useful in preparation of monographs on these plants.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 11/2012; Vol 4(Issue 32).

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