Pharmacognosy Journal

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  • ISSN
    0975-3575

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. is an extensive climbing annual herb in an agricultural country like India. Lupeol, a constituent of this species, has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological potential. Objective: In the current studies, the research team focused on determining the percentage of the lupeol present in the extract of Benincasa hispida seeds by chromatographic techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade-dried seeds of Benincasa hispida were subjected to soxhlet extraction followed by scrutinization of the lupeol contents by HPTLC and HPLC methods after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening for the constituents present in the extract. Results: The extraction yield was found to be 1.2% (w/w). Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, fixed oils and fats, tannins phenolic compounds, steroids and flavonoids. The amount of lupeol present in the seeds extract was found to be 0.47% w/w (HPTLC)and 6.85% w/v (HPLC) by HPTLC quantification and HPLC analysis respectively. Research studies showed a peak which coincided with the peak of standard lupeol signifying the presence of lupeol in the extract. Conclusion: The extract contains significant amount of lupeol.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 05/2014; 6(3):42-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Oroxylum indicum is a frequently reported traditional medicinal plant known to possess antiproliferative and antitumor activity. The present study investigated the effect of crude methanolic bark extract of Oroxylum indicum on testosterone induced benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in rat. Adult male rats were given either corn oil or testosterone dissolved in corn oil and testosterone with aqueous methanolic bark extracts of Oroxylum indicum (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. The inhibitory effect of Oroxylum indicum on testosterone induced hyperplasia was evaluated by prostatic index and histopathological examination. Serum marker of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and liver histopathological examination were also conducted. Compared with testosterone induced BPH model group, Oroxylum indicum extract treated groups exhibited significant reduction in the prostatic index. Oroxylum indicum treated group also exhibited reduced hyperplasia of prostatic epithelium likewise finasteride treated group. Aqueous methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum significantly inhibited testosterone induced prostate hyperplasia thus indicated the presence of efficient ingredients which can be used for the treatment of BPH.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 05/2014; 6(3):79-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the potential role of hydroethanolic root extracts were Rhus mysurensis (HERM) in the treatment of diabetes along with its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects was studied in streptozotocin induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Methods: In this study, the anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant activities of hydroethanolic root extract of Rhus mysurensis was evaluated by using STZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg p.o. daily for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific time intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: Oral administration of hydroethanolic root extracts of Rhus mysurensis (HERM) 400 and 800 mg/kg for 21 days significantly decreased the blood glucose level and considerably increased the body weight of diabetic induced rats. Daily oral treatment with HERM for 3 weeks resulted in reduced serum cholesterol, and triglycerides and improved HDL-cholesterol levels when compared to the diabetic control group. HERM significantly decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at the end of 21 days of treatment. Conclusion: Hydroethanolic root extract of Rhus mysurensis showed significant anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant activities, which provide the scientific proof for its traditional claims. The results also put forward that the HERM is promising for development of standardized phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 04/2014; 6(3):62-71.
  • Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2014; 6(3):93.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Capsicum frutescens is a well known spice. Leaves and fruits of the species are used in Ayurveda, Unani and Traditional system of medicines to cure various disorders. Therefore the study was aimed to investigate pharmacognostic parameters of C. frutescens leaf and fruit. Methods: Pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of morphological, microscopic characters and physicochemical parameters of C. frutescens samples using standard methods. Results: Smaller fruit size and color of C. frutescens was the distinguishing morphological character observed in the present study. The detailed microscopy of leaf confirmed the presence of rod shaped calcium oxalate crystals, oleoresin cells, pitted parenchyma and fruits with specified oleoresin, sclereid and stone cells with unicellular trichomes on persistent calyx. Physicochemical parameters like ash values, extractive values and nutritive values were determined. Fluorescence analysis of both leaf and fruit powder was determined using organic and inorganic solvents. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates and proteins. Conclusion: Observed pharmacognostic characters in this study may help in identification and standardization of C. frutescens leaf and fruit.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2014; 6(3):14-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Iris kashmiriana, a medicinal plant growing under Kashmir conditions, has been found very useful for pulmonary asthma, cancer, inflammation, liver and uterine diseases in traditional medicine. The medicinal importance of the plant prompted isolation of a variety of pharmacologically active compounds including quinones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and stilbene glycosides. Objective To evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of rhizomes of I. kashmiriana. Material & methods The effect of I. kashmiriana was evaluated against human epithelial cancer cell lines A549 and Caco-2 for their possible effect on cell proliferation. Free radical scavenging activity was tested by DPPH assay against known antioxidant Vitamin C. The extract was also analyzed for active components by RP-HPLC. Results The extract showed potent cytotoxic effect on both epithelial cell lines at all the tested concentrations with significant effect at 400 μg/ml (IC50 (A549) = 128.7 μg/ml; IC50 (Caco-2) = 237.76 μg/ml) as evaluated by MTT assay. The effect was, however, less pronounced on mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3 (IC50 (NIH-3T3) = 1182.92 μg/ml), indicative of possible cell specific activity against epithelial cancers. Furthermore the free radical scavenging activity as verified by DPPH assay revealed that the methanolic extract of I. kashmiriana has strong antioxidant potential. HPLC analysis showed respectable amount of Irigenin and Tectorigenin present in the extract. Conclusion The results demonstrate pharmaceutical potential of I. kashmiriana for treatment of epithelial cancers and other inflammatory diseases.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Plants offer a wide range of natural compounds of medicinal values to humans and domestic animals. Objective: The ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium, Aloe perryi, Viscum album (leaves) and Allium sativum (bulb) were investigated for their phytochemical/biochemical constituents and hypoglycemic properties. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycemia was induced in rats by a single dose (140 mg/kg) of intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Suspensions of the ethanolic extracts were administered by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 2 mg/kg every 16 h for 54 h. Collection of blood samples for estimation of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was carried out at regular time intervals of 0, 16, 32, 48 and 54 h, using the glucose oxidase method. Results: Phytochemical and biochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, proteins and carbohydrates in the four plant tissues under investigation. A. sativum and G. latifolium also tested positive for the presence of alkaloids. The capacities of the four ethanolic extracts to reduce FBG concentrations in treated rats at the 54 h were in the order: A. perryi > G. latifolium > A. sativum > V. album. Comparatively, at t = 16 h, FBG concentration of V. album treated rats was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those of G. latifolium treated group. Likewise, FBG concentration of rats treated with V. album extract did not show a significant difference (p > 0.05) compared to the group administered with extract of A. sativum. Conclusion: The four plant extracts used in the present study exhibited approximately the same capacity to act as hypoglycemic agents in the treated rats and correlate with the therapeutic capacity of the standard drug, glimepiride.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 04/2013; 3(2):12-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is one of insect toxicity mechanisms found in many plants. Stemona collinsiae Craib, a traditional insecticidal plant, has been of interest for its AChE inhibitory activity. Methods: Powdered roots of S. collinsiae were successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. The contents of major active insecticidal components, didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline alkaloids, were analyzed by HPLC. Anti-AChE activity was evaluated using Ellman’s colorimetric method and TLC-bioautography. Results: The contents of didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline alkaloids in the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts were 3.59 and 0.18, 40.78 and 0.74, and 1.43 and 0.09% w/w, respectively. TLC fingerprints of each extract showed major spots of didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline of which TLC bioassays indicated active AChE inhibitory activity. IC50 values on anti-AChE activities of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were 126.72, 73.78, and >1000 mg/ml, respectively while those of didehydrostemofoline, stemofoline, and standard galanthamine were 131.3, 102.1, and 1.30 mM, respectively. Conclusion: The AChE inhibitory activity of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from S. collinsiae roots and their major alkaloids, didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline, were determined. The data support the traditional utilization of this plant as a natural insecticide.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 02/2013; 5:56-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ursolic acid was determined in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum and in developed herbal hepatoprotective tablet by HPTLC method. Methods Hepatoprotective polyherbal formulation was prepared using five fractions of three plant extracts namely O. gratissimum, Butea monosperma and Bauhinia variegata. Among these three plants O. gratissimum contains ursolic acid. Chromatographic separation was performed on silica gel HPTLC plates with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate:acetone (8.2:1.8:0.1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. After drying, the plates were sprayed with 10% (v/v) ethanolic solution of sulfuric acid and heated to 120 °C for 3 min. Quantification was performed in absorbance/transmittance mode at a wavelength of 530 nm using a computer-controlled densitometer. Results The presented method was validated for linearity 400–1200 (ng/spot), intraday precision % C.V. (0.58–1.97), and interday precision % C.V. (1.46–2.22). Correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.9960), detection limits as well as recovery values (97.5%–98.22%) were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion A good correlation was obtained among the standard, samples of polyherbal formulation and fractionated extract of O. gratissimum using HPTLC method.
    Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013;
  • Pharmacognosy Journal 01/2013; 5(1):22-29.

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