Journal of parasitic diseases (J Parasit Dis )

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  • ISSN
    0975-0703

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Cymothoid isopods are permanent ectoparasites of fish. In the present study Strongylura strongylura captured in gillnets from the inshore waters of Pazhayar from January to March-12. Among the 122 Belonidae fishes examined, 16 specimens were parasitized by isopods belonging to the species Mothocya karobran, a new record of this cymothoid isopod for the first time from India. Lowest prevalence occurred in January (10.5 %) and the highest in February (15.9 %). The infected fishes usually carried one cymothoid per branchial cavity. 12 parasites were found in the left branchial cavity and 4 parasites in the right. The non ovigerous female (18.5–24.7 mm) and female ovigerous (20.8–27.4 mm) in total length.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 09/2014; 38(2):328-330.
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    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis. In this paper immunotherapy against common parasitic infections, and also immunotherapy of cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis with parasites or parasite antigens have been reviewed.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects and drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of garlic extracts against promastigote forms of Leishmania tropica and murine macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT) assay. The results revealed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic were effective in inhibiting promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 (50 % inhibitory concentrations) values 12.3 and 19.2 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic showed low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50 % of cells) values 291.4 and 348.2 µg/ml, respectively. Findings of present study were the first step in the search for new antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in volunteer human subjects.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 08/2014; 38(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is mostly asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent individuals while it can cause a severe infection in human fetus during pregnancy and immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG seropositivity and potential risk factors of the infection in humans referred to Urmia City main diagnostic laboratories, Urmia, Iran. Totally 195 blood samples were collected from the individuals referred to main diagnostic laboratories of Urmia City, 2013. Serum concentration of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were determined using ELISA method. Demographic variables of the participants were collected by interviewing, which are including sex, age, occupation, educational and residential status, eating undercooked meat, consumption of raw vegetable and the method of washing raw vegetables. None of all 200 serum sample were anti-Toxoplasma IgM positive, but different concentrations of anti-Toxoplasma IgG were observed in 88 (45.12 %) of samples. The significant higher rate of anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity were observed in people with soil related jobs (P = 0.005, OR = 2.266; 95 % CI 1.260, 4.078) and history of eating raw vegetables at restaurant (P = 0.036, OR = 1.985; 95 % CI 0.991, 3.978). Also anti-Toxoplasma IgG concentration mean was significantly higher in people who were commonly eaten raw vegetable at restaurants (P < 0.001, t = 7.918). The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is considerably high while the acute infection is very low in the studied area. Having soil related jobs and eating raw vegetables at restaurants increases the risk of acquiring the infection.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Climate is defined as the combination of climate and air elements of a given region which is usually measured for a period of decades. De-marton climate classification has been established based on many factors, including elements such as temperature and rainfall. Vesicle schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. This parasite lives in the blood vessels of the bladder. The parasite can cause hematuria in human and if not treated properly can lead to vesicale carcinoma. The parasite is distributed only in certain parts of the province and it is highly dispersed along the rivers of Dez, Karkheh and Karun with high emissions. In 1970, the prevalence of infection in infected foci was 23.8 %. Campaign against the parasite began in 1958 but it did not encompass all centers of infection. Preventive measures include diagnosis and treatment of patients, public health promotion, health education, drying swamps and ponds, improving the environment, cementing the irrigation canals, and the use of moluscocide eventually leads to changing the ecological and conditions of parasite and snail inhabits. Application of preventive measures resulted in the reduction of infection level to 0.7 % in 1979. By continuing struggle and intensifying preventive measures and changing ecological and climatic environment, in 2008, the examination of 3400 urine samples of students in Andimeshk district revealed no cases of the vesical schistosomiasis. It is concluded that S. haematobium and vesical schistosomiasis is eliminated from Khuzestan province southwest Iran, but the disease is still prevalent in neighboring Iran’s western border country (Iraq) and due to the special conditions of its facilities and the traffic between the two countries, it is necessary to control and eradicate the disease in Iraq by using the experiences of Iran in eliminating the disease.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is hyper-endemic in Ghana. Haematological alterations in the disease pathology may offer complimentary criteria to improve clinical and microscopy diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to evaluate haematological parameters in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections and report their predictive risk and diagnostic performance for malaria infections in Ghana. Haematological data, including thin and thick blood films were examined for children less than 12 years of age in a multicenter-based active case finding approach. Haematological changes were common in P. falciparum infected children and more pronounced in severe malaria cases. More so, a unit increase in parasiteamia increased the odds for severe malaria infection by 93 % [OR, 95 % CI: 1.93 (1.28–2.91); P value = 0.02]. In multivariate regression, low haemoglobin was a significant haematological change in predicting P. falciparum infections [OR, 95 % CI: 3.20 (1.26–7.09); P value = 0.001]. Low haemoglobin levels <11 g/dl was the most reliable indicator for P. falciparum infections [with a sensitivity of (64 %), specificity (71 %), positive predictive value (83 %) and likelihood ratio (2.2)]—even when evaluated in combination with leucocytosis, lymphocytopaenia and high neutrophil counts >7,500 µL. In malaria endemic settings, low haemoglobin concentration (<11 g/dl) in children with febrile illness should prompt a more diligent search for the malarial parasite to limit the misuse and abuse of anti-malarial drugs.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the carbohydrate structures associated with Fasciola gigantica adult worm were identified by indirect hemagglutination inhibition test. Glucose was found to be the main monosaccharide associated with the fluke. According to indirect hemagglutination inhibition results, purification of glycoprotein fractions from worm crude extract was carried out by affinity chromatography immobilized glucose agarose gel and Con-A lectin columns. The isolated glycoprotein fractions, FI and FII, were characterized by SDS-PAGE which revealed one band in FI of 26 kDa and another one band of 19.5 kDa in FII compared with 12 bands associated with whole worm extract. Both fractions were also characterized by isoelectric focusing technique which proved that both bands were acidic in nature with pIs 6.4 and 6.5 respectively. The comparative diagnostic evaluation of the two isolated glycoprotein fractions and crude extract of experimental fasciolosis in rabbits by ELISA revealed that FII was more potent in the diagnosis during prepatent (first week post infection) and patent periods (10 weeks post infection) than FI and crude extract. Moreover, infected rabbit sera at ten weeks post infection identified both bands; 26 and 19.5 kDa in western blot analysis confirming its immunodiagnostic activities which was proved previously by ELISA. FII proved potency in diagnosis of fasciolosis in 200 buffalo serumsamples of different ages and sexes using ELISA which recorded 95 % positive and 5 % negative samples. Moreover, the detailed structural analyses of the most potent fraction, F11, using mass spectrum was made and elucidated chemical structure; O-glycan [Ser-(Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-GlucNAc)19-GlucNAc]. The present result introduces GlucNAc rich fraction of F .gigantica that can be used successfully in the diagnosis of acute and chronic fasciolosis.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Crustacean parasites absorb their nourishment directly from hosts for feeding. The present study was aimed at collecting information as possible on this so far neglected group of isopod parasites of the Carangid fishes of Parangipettai coastal environment. A very little information is available regarding the isopod parasites of Carangid fishes. In the present study six species of isopods belonging to 3 genera were found on four species of fishes. The distribution of Catoessa boscii is found throughout the year.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 04/2014; Online First.
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    ABSTRACT: Totally 384 Mothocya plagulophora were collected in the branchial cavities of Hemiramphus far from the Southeast coast of India during the study period (from July to September 2013). 204 parasites were found in the left branchial cavity and 180 in the right one. The maximum prevalence was observed in July 2013 and the minimum in September 2013. The intensity ranged from a minimum value (1.3) in July and August to a maximum (1.4) in September 2013. In most cases, the parasite was located between the second and the third branchial arch, attached either to the vomerine arch or to the internal wall of the branchial operculum.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 02/2014;

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