International Journal of PharmTech Research

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ISSN 0974-4304

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: The term reproductive toxicity (RT) in current scenario grabs more attention due to its increased prevalence and also improving awareness among the general public. Since some drugs and chemicals during administration in human or in animals which has a tendency to disturb the normal sexual behavior, production and maturation of spermatozoa, implantation and development of embryo including growth of the fetus. There are certain chemicals like Altretamine, Benzene, Aspirin, Carbon disulfide, Clobetasol propionate, which causes developmental reproductive toxicity as listed by the environmental protection agency (EPA). This review mainly focuses on foretelling, some of the important alternative methods available for predicting the reproductive toxicity nature of a chemical without using animals. Alternative assay like embryonic stem cell test (EST), Estrogen receptor binding assay, Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA), Leydig cell culture, Androgen receptor chemicallyactivated luciferase expression reporter gene assays (AR CALUX) are available in recent time for evaluating the RT of a particular chemical. There are certain regulatory bodies which governs the accuracy and precision of the above mentioned test like, the organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD), EPA, European centre for the validation of alternative methods (ECVAM). According to the recent survey the accuracy of this assays ranging from 70-88% in animals and humans.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):474-479.
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental cancer research in laboratory has helped tremendously in understanding the cancer biology. Among the various physical examinations available for cancer detection, optical spectroscopic techniques were widely used in the last few decades owing to their non-invasive modalities. The diagnostic method carried out using the basis of optical spectroscopic techniques is termed as photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) while the treatment modality is known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has emerged as a novel therapeutic method that uses a combination of light and a chemical agent, photosensitizer (PS). This review article will provide a collection of research insights on these techniques are applied for understanding the photophysical processes and photochemical pathways involved in PDT, physico-chemical properties of PS in association with the cancerous tissues. These are simple and sensitive techniques such as absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques and Raman spectroscopy. An account of fluorescence studies on PS formulation for PDT is presented here, where PS is treated as a fluorescent drug molecule.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):453-462.
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology has been effectively developed during the last decade and represents one of the most crucial dimensions in the technological developments. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the leaves of Syzygium samarangense using 1mM silver nitrate solution. AgNPs were characterized by UV–Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The resonance plasmon peak of the AgNPs was studied by UV-Visible Spectrum analysis and the presence of primary amines that is responsible for the stabilization of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline nature and the spherical shape of the AgNPs with size ranging from 36-55nm were ascertained by X-ray diffractometry and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope analysis. Antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles was performed by well diffusion method against six bacterial pathogens and found that the highest activity was against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Thus, silver nanoparticles would be equally effective as that of antibiotics and other drugs in pharmaceutical applications.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):426-433.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the cytoprotective effects of fucoxanthin were isolated from Sargassum filipendula towards HeLa cell damage which characterized DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to obtain fucoxanthin isolated from S. filipendula and to determine the damage effect of fucoxanthin isolated against HeLa cells by Tunnel method. Fucoxanthin was identified with qualitative methods refer to fucoxanthin Rf 0.25 to 0.28. Fucoxanthin 97% purity was tested using the method of ESI LCMS. We obtained molecular weight of 658.77 m / z. Antioxidant activity in fucoxanthin of S. filipendula was assessed by DPPH for 1.0974 ± 0.0306 ppm with IC50 = 1.4174 ± 0.0126 ppm. While the test of cell apoptosis assay using the TUNEL method with the best dose anti cancer fucoxanthin of 50 ppm and 100 ppm indicates approaching 100% of apoptotic cells.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):402-407.
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    ABSTRACT: Levocetrizine Di Hydrochloride is second generation piperazine derivative, a potent H1 selective anti -histaminic or anti- allergic agent. It has bitter taste. So, the taste has to be masked inorder to reduce its bitterness, to increase its palatability and to improve patient compliance. The purpose of this research work to prepare tasteless complexes of levocetrizine di hydrochloride. Conventional taste masking techniques such as use of sweeteners and amino acids and flavoring agents often are unsuccessful in masking the taste of highly bitter drugs. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Levocetrizine Di Hydrochloride adopting inclusion complex formation array using HP β - cyclodextrin by Kneading method. The study conclusively demonstrated the complete masking of bitter taste of Levocetrizine Di Hydrochloride with HP Beta cyclodextrin in 1:1 Kneaded ratio.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):470-473.
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    ABSTRACT: The exponential growth in computational speed and storage capabilities has opened a new era in biological analysis of data. Bioinformaticswith itscontinually evolving tools have become indispensable in biological research. Bioinformatics changes large amounts of existing data into information that can be used to facilitate new discoveries in biology . At present research in bioinformatics can be classified into (1) genome studies, (2) proteomics, (3) cell visualization and simulation and (4) application to the development of drugs . Current Important approaches in bioinformatics research are(1) analysis based on wet -lab data,(2) finding new results from mathematical modeling, (3)an integrated approach that integrates mathematical modeling with search techniques. The current bioinformatic tools have a potential to develop vaccine and drugs, to know the causeof diseases at molecular level, to develop low cost biological agents for bioremediation. Here are the current roles of bioinformatics, on the other hand bioinformatics software tools and resources are reviewed.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):467-469.
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    ABSTRACT: Ficus carica fruits & leaves have been reported to possess anti-bacterial and antifungal activity. They are also present in anti-acne formulations. However, they have not been proven for their anti-acne activity according to modern methods. The aim of the present work is to investigate whether the use of F. carica fruits & leaves in anti-acne market formulations is justified. Successive extraction of F. carica fruits and leaves was performed separately using Petroleum Ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Distilled Water. Anti-acne activity was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes by measuring Zone of Inhibition of all four extracts of fruits as well as leaves using agar disc diffusion method. This was followed by calculation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the most active extract using serial tube dilution method. For both leaves and fruits of F. carica, their water extracts were found to be most effective against P. acnes with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of 10μg/ml. The present work provides proof of anti-acne potential of F. carica fruits & leaves, which justifies their use in anti-acne formulations. Also, its activity at a much lower concentration can help in formulation development at much lower doses, and indicates that development of resistance of P. acnes against the water extract will be minimal. The water extract can be further investigated for its phytochemical composition and for isolating anti-acne phytoconstituents.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):356-359.
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    ABSTRACT: Catechins from Green tea clones GMB4 is the natural substance that have the potential to be developed as inhibitor of atherogenesis through LXR signaling. LXR is one of the signaling pathways that contribute to the inhibition of atherogenesis through mechanisms reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and decreased LDL. There are two LXR isoforms in mammals, namely LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2). The results of molecular docking LXRα and LXRβ to Catechins showed the potential of Catechins as LXR agonists. The results of the analysis bioinformatics showed that bioactive compounds of Catechins have a great potential in the inhibition of atherogenesis. This analysis process was done using OpenBabel in Pyrx and docking was performed using Autodock vina in Pyrx. Visualization using PyMOL. To determine the sides of the interaction of molecular docking results using LigPlot +. All of isolates from Catechins have negative affinity energy, this shows all of the isolates have a strong affinity to LXR. The most potent as agonist LXR of Catechins showed that Epicathecin gallate (CID_107905) binds to LXR at many active sites including: Phe315, Leu260, Leu316, Ser228, Val263, Ile268, Glu301, Met298, Thr302. Further analysis revealed that these binding sites are maintained by hydrogen bonds with Ser264, Arg305, Asn225, Glu267. The interaction energy between LXR and Epicathecin gallate (CID_107905) is -9.86 Kcal/mol.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):340-346.
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    ABSTRACT: Liver is one of the largest organs in human body and health. Modern medicines have little to offer for the chief site for intense metabolism and excretion. Liver cell injury caused by various toxic chemicals (certain antibiotic, chemotherapeutic agents, carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), thioacetamide (TAA) etc excessive alcohol consumption and microbes is well studied. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders in this condition also cause further damage to the liver. Hence, drugs from plants have become increasingly popular and their use is wide spread. The present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic leaves and barks extract of Diospyros virginiana against experimentally induced hepatoxicity models in swiss albino rats. Silymarine was given as reference standard. The both leaves and barks ethanolic extract of Diospyros virginiana have shown very significant hepatoprotection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in swiss albino rats in reducing serum total bilirubin,total protein, ALP, SGPT and SGOT levels respectively.
    International Journal of PharmTech Research 07/2015; 8(3):444-447.