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ISSN 0974-2441

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and analyze the phylogenetic characteristics of a rare actinobacterial strain VJDS-3 with antagonistic activities isolated from Mangrove ecosystems of Nizampatnam, Guntur Dist, A.P., India. Methods: Soil samples collected were pre treated with calcium carbonate and used for isolation of potent actinobacterial strain designated as VJDS-3. Identification of the strain was carried out by studying the micro morphological, cultural, biochemical and physiological methods. The Phylogenetic study of the strain was carried out by employing 16S rDNA sequence based analysis. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA (Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis) software version 6. Results: The potent actinobacterial strain was identified as Saccharomonospora oceani VJDS-3 and the bioactive metabolites produced by the strain inhibited Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis), Gram negative bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Candida albicans). Conclusion: The results of the experiment showed that the crude ethyl acetate extract of Saccharomonospora oceani VJDS-3 showed significant antimicrobial potential hence it can be used for isolation of compounds with pharmaceutical importance. Key words: Mangrove ecosystems, Phylogenetic study, Saccharomonospora oceani VJDS-3, Bioactive compounds.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 12/2015; 9(4).

  • Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 11/2015; 8(6):58-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the present study was a comparative study of neuroprotective effect of telmisartan and donepezil against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in mice. Methods: In this study, we investigated the comparative effect of telmisartan (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and donepezil (5 mg/kg, p.o.) in systemic inflammation induced by LPS, ibuprofen (40 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard. Mice were treated with a single i.c. injection of LPS (5 μg/5 μl/kg), after 7 days the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, on Morris water maze and Pole climbing test. Biochemical estimation for glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plate reader. Results: The neuroprotective effect of telmisartan (5 mg/kg) and donepezil (5 mg/kg) in LPS induced neuroinflammation in mice was compared. Oral administration of telmisartan (5 mg/kg) for 7 days shows a better result in Morris water maze and pole climbing test, in comparison of donepezil. It also increases the level of GSH and decreases the level of MDA and TNF-α in mice brain. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that telmisartan and donepezil reduces LPS-induced microglial activation, beta-amyloid generation, central nervous system cytokine production, and behavioral symptoms of sickness. In comparative study of telmisartan and donepezil, telmisartan shows significant decrease in escape latency time and transfer latency time in comparison of donepezil. Therefore, telmisartan is more effective as the comparative of donepezil. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 11/2015; 8(6):68-72.

  • Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 11/2015; 8(6):73 - 76.

  • Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 10/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of caffeic acid and 18 β -glycyrrhetinic acid against diabetic rats. Methods: In this experiment, the animals were divided into five groups. Group I: Normal rats. Group II: diabetic control rats.Group III: diabetic rats treated with 18β-glycyrrhetinic. Group IV: diabetic rats treated with caffeic acid. Group V: diabetic rats treated with 18β-glycyrrhetinic and caffeic acid. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant (TAO), catalase , and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed. Results: Fasting blood glucose and MDA were significantly increased, whereas insuline, GR, GPx, TAO, catalase , SOD were decreased significantly in diabetic rats. Though the diabetic rats treated with caffeic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid individual exerts beneficial effects in all the biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The combined treatment with caffeic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid normalized all the above-mentioned biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. Conclusion: our findings demonstrated that 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid and caffeic acid either used individually or in combination to diabetic rats have an antidiabetic effect and a good antioxidant property .From the results, the combined dose of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid and caffeic acid to diabetic rats showed promising antidiabetic effect and antioxidant property compared to individual treatments.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):255-260.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Allicin is an organosulfur compound featuring thiosulfinate functional group. The compound is formed in garlic after tissue damage, by the action of enzyme alliinase on alliin. This study involves extraction of allicin from garlic using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and study of it is the genotoxic effect on human leukocytes. Methods: A simple and rapid reverse phase HPLC was used for the extraction of allicin. Quality allicin, in conjugation with chymosin, was used to study its genotoxic effect on leukocytes. Results: Garlic oil and garlic extract showed similar retention time, and we measured the products using genotoxic effects in human leukocyte culture and it shows statistically not significant. Conclusion: This study suggested that to take a lower concentration of garlic extracts benefits for health and these findings useful for further research. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 30 years, as the expense and complications involved in marketing new drug entities have increased, with concomitant recognition of the therapeutic advantages of controlled drug delivery, greater attention has been focused on development of sustained or controlled release drug delivery systems (DDS). For many disease states, a substantial number of therapeutically effective compounds already exist. The effectiveness of these drugs is often limited by side effects or necessity to administer the compound in an ethical setting. The goal in designing sustained drug delivery is to reduce the frequency of dosing or to increase the effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action, reducing the dose required or providing uniform drug delivery. The design of oral sustained release DDS depends on various factors such as, physicochemical properties of drug, type of delivery system, disease being treated, and patient condition, and treatment duration, presence of food, gastrointestinal motility, and coadministration of other drugs.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):34-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To demonstrate whether clove oil enhances the antibacterial effect of intracanal medicaments. Methods: Materials used include clove oil, Enterococcus faecalis microorganism, intracanal medicaments (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and calcium hydroxide), agar plates, motor, pestle, weighing machine, propylene glycol, glass slab, scale. Agar well diffusion method is employed to study the antibacterial effects of intra canal medicaments with and without clove oil against E. faecalis. Results: From the obtained results it can be concluded that intra canal medicaments combined with clove oil showed greater antibacterial effects against the microorganism, E. faecalis, than those intracanal medicaments without clove oil. Conclusion: The ultimate goals of intracanal medicaments are complete elimination of bacteria, their by-products and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Clove oil can be attributed to its antimicrobial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, and stimulating properties. Eugenol in clove essential oil has an inhibitory effect on various bacteria and should be used in minimum inhibitory concentration for safe and effective results. It is used to treat patients with pain from a dry socket, as well as used in a number of temporary restorative materials. Intracanal medicaments when combined with other substances may produce additive or synergistic effects. In this study, the synergistic effect of clove oil when mixed with other intracanal medicaments is tested and found to be more effective. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):143-145.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and ex vivo (acute and sub-chronic doses) effect of Phyllanthus niruri methanol extract (PNME) on the activity of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic young female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Young female SD rats were induced Type I diabetes mellitus using STZ (60 mg/kg intravenous). The in vitro study was performed on a cytosolic fraction of diabetic rat livers using PNME in concentrations of 0.01, 1, and 10 μg/ml. Meanwhile, ex vivo studies were performed on diabetic rats using PNME in doses of 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg p.o. for acute study (1 day) and 100, 500 and 2000 mg/kg/day p.o. for sub-chronic study (14 days). The GST activity in the cytosolic liver fraction was measured using spectrophotometric analysis. Results: The in vitro study showed that, there is no significant effect of the three concentrations of PNME versus control on GST activity in cytosolic fraction of diabetic young female SD rat livers, while for ex vivo study, there is a significant dose-independent induction effect on GST enzyme activity at all doses used in acute study. Meanwhile, the sub-chronic study showed significant dose-independent induction effect at doses 500 and 2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study suggests that P. niruri may increase the clearance of drugs that are metabolized by GST enzyme in Phase II metabolism when given concomitantly with this plant extract. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):157-160.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Prunus persica leaves are used as anthelmintic, insecticidal, sedative, diuretic, demulcent, expectorant and vermicidal ethnopharmacologically. The objective of the present study was an evaluation of anthelmintic activity of different extracts of P. persica leaves. Methods: Pheretima posthuma (annelids) and Ascaridia galli (nematods) were used to perform experiments for anthelmintic activity. Piperazine citrate was used as a standard. The time required for paralysis and death (lethal time) of worms were noted for each sample of P. persica extracts and standard. Results: The results demonstrated that the treatment with P. persica significantly (p<0.05-p<0.01) with dose-dependently paralyzed and killed the both A. galli and earthworms. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts have showed the comparable anthelmintic activity at the highest concentration (60 mg/ml) to the well-known anthelmintic agent piperazine citrate against A. galli. Conclusion: The ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the maximum potency, i.e. shortest paralysis and lethal times. The potency was not more than the reference drug, piperazine citrate but comparable to it at 60 mg/ml concentrations in both test worms. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):170-172.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: A number of studies previously conducted have shown that the progression of severity of diabetic neuropathy relates the increased oxidative stress due to hyperglycemia describing the probable underlying mechanism as changes in the anti-oxidant enzyme level leading to several vascular and neuronal changes. The present investigation was carried out to observe the combined effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. (Curcumin [CUR]) with metformin (Met) in delaying of diabetes-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods: The high-fat diet (HFD) treated male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were induced diabetic by a single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozocin (35 mg/kg). Eddy’s hot plate and hot water tail immersion test were the models used to assess the neuropathic pain. The HFD treated and diabetic rats were treated with Met (500 mg/kg), CUR (300 mg/kg) and a combination of low dose of Met with CUR, followed by the oral glucose tolerance test before and after the treatment on both normal and diabetic rats. After 7 weeks of treatment thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione levels were also estimated in the sciatic nerve homogenate of diabetic rats and compared with the control, followed by a supporting histopathological examination of sciatic nerve. Results: Diabetic rats treated with C. longa Linn. and Met alone and in combination showed a significant improvement in control of blood glucose level and restoration of anti-oxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant improvement in the hyperalgesia (p<0.001) due to diabetic neuropathy and also the reaction time to the nociceptive stimuli in neuropathic pain models was increased after the treatment. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):173-177.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was attempted to evaluate the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) among Enterobacteriaceae from different clinical samples from a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Methods: A total of 204 Gram-negative isolates from different clinical samples were studied. All isolates were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard microbiological procedures. ESBL production was detected by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test. The test was carried according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Out of 204 isolates, 78 (38.2%) tested positive for ESBL production. Klebsiella pneumoniae (50.9%) showed the maximum ESBL positivity. Amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem are the most effective drugs for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL producing organisms. Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals, with a tendency for multidrug-resistance, suggests that routine detection is mandatory as this may help in regulating hospital antibiotic policy. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):237-240.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To quantify the antioxidant - Phytochemicals in Vitis vinifera varieties. Methods: In this study, different antioxidant phytochemicals in V. vinifera varieties was determined in Thompson seedless, flame seedless, Kismis chorni, Pusa navrang, and Rizamat by spectrophotometric method. Results: The quantification levels of various antioxidant in selected grape varieties which possess predominant quantities of antioxidants are phenols, flavonols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, radical scavenging assay (ferric reducing antioxidant property [FRAP], 2,2′-azinobis3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulphonic acid, 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) respectively, phenols was recorded more in Rizamat (25.7±0.52 mg/g dry wt.), followed by FRAP radical scavenging activity was maximum in Kismis chorni variety (34±0.167 μM/g dry wt.) among all the varieties Kismis chorni, Pusa navrang were showing maximum antioxidant activity. Conclusions: This study shows that maximum antioxidant activity levels were in Kismis chorni followed by other varieties. The present experiments on Vitis varieties were designed to find out the important antioxidants and nutrient potential antioxidants are vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage caused by free radical induced oxidative stress. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):272-277.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS is a complex genetic disorder caused by several genes and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to provide an overview on variations in PCOS-associated genes based on underlying genetics Methods: Detailed literature screening was performed in PubMed. Manual curation process was adopted to extract the information on PCOS, associated genes, mechanism of association, details of the association, significance of association mentioned in the papers were carefully captured according to the authors’ interpretation of the results. Results: The detailed literature study revealed several genes and the genetic variations in PCOS and its critical effects, such as ovarian failure, obesity, spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenim. The causal genetic variants were assembled at various levels, including mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, etc., in PCOS and the associated phenotypic effects. Conclusion: The genetic variations play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS across different ethnicities, as it is associated with various other endocrine disorders including diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, hyperandrogenism, reproductive disorders, etc. The underlying mechanism and the network help in identifying the candidate genes or biomarkers in the disease conditions. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 09/2015; 8(5):249-254.