International Journal of Green Pharmacy (Int J Green Pharm)

Publisher: MedKnow Publications, Medknow Publications

Journal description

Subjects: Pharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacology, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacy practice, clinical and hospital pharmacy.

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Website International Journal of Green Pharmacy website
Other titles International journal of green pharmacy (online), IJGP
ISSN 0973-8258
OCLC 259149539
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Medknow Publications

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    • All titles are open access journals
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Brassica oleracea is a leafy green vegetable commonly called as cabbage. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae. Studies reveal that it is rich in flavonoids and has high antioxidant property. Aims: The present study was aimed at evaluating antiparkinsonian activity of B. oleracea in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia. Settings and Design: The present study was designed for 14 days administration of the plant extract then behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated in the rats. Materials and Methods: B. oleracea was collected, dried in the shade, powdered, and subjected to the extraction by cold maceration using water and methanol mixture of H2O/CH3OH as a solvent. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Haloperidol model was selected for screening antiparkinsonian activity, and it was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg i.p., for 14 days. Behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated in all the groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical significance between more than two groups was tested using one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni′s compare all columns test using the computer-based fitting program. Results: In groups treated with hydroalcoholic extract of B. oleracea (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.,) decreased the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation in the haloperidol-treated animals and elevated the cellular defense mechanisms such as glutathione, further suggesting the role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of the haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal syndrome. Conclusion: This study reveals the use of B. oleracea in parkinsonian disease.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 07/2015; 9(3):143. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.161230
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati, a polyherbal formulation is recommended for the management of diseases due to Medodushti (abnormal fat metabolism) like obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, etc. Though Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati is widely used for the treatment of diseases due to abnormal metabolism, but till date, its pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical study has not been carried out. Aim: Authentication of raw drug of Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati and phytochemical evaluation of finished product. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of the ingredients of Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati and its physicochemical analysis. Results: Powder microscopy revealed the presence of annular vessels of Musta, starch grains of Vacha, stone cells of Pippali, stone cells of Chitraka, oleoresins of Shunthi, starch grains of Musta, etc., Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value (15.91%), water soluble extract (13.5%), methanol soluble extract (17.2%) were assessed in preliminary physicochemical scanning. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) revealed maximum 10 spots in short wave ultraviolet (UV) 254 nm. And four spots were obtained in long wave UV 366 nm. Conclusion: Pharmacognostical study revealed genuinity of raw drugs. Physicochemical and HPTLC studies inferred that the formulation meets the minimum quality standards as reported in the American Petroleum Institute at a preliminary level. The inference from this study may be used as reference standard in the further quality control researches.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 07/2015; 9(3):150. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.161231
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Vasa Avaleha is a well-known Ayurvedic compound formulation, known for its usefulness in respiratory disorders like cough, cold, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, etc. Though Adhatoda vasica individually studied for antitussive activity in animals, no scientific evidence was available for Vasa Avaleha. This prompted us to initiate a comparative antitussive activity of Vasa Avaleha and granules of Vasa Avaleha in sulfur dioxide-induced coughing in mice. Materials and Methods: The test drugs were prepared as per classical guidelines and standards in the Departmental Laboratory of the Institute. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.56 g/kg and tested against sulfur dioxide-induced coughing in mice for 5 min. Results : Vasa Avaleha significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the sulfur dioxide-induced cough reflexes in mice compared to control group. The effect was comparable to the standard drug Recodex, which contain codeine phosphate and chlorpheniramine maleate. Granules of Vasa Avaleha also produced significant (P < 0.001) decrease in cough reflexes compared to control group. The magnitude of the antitussive effect was more pronounced and significant in Vasa Avaleha treated group in comparison to granules of Vasa Avaleha. Conclusions: From the present study, it is concluded that Vasa Avaleha and granules of Vasa Avaleha may prove as useful and an effective antitussive agent which provides experimental evidence in support of the Ayurvedic ancient claim. Further, Avaleha form of test formulation can be converted to granule form and further evaluated in clinical studies for better human therapeutic uses.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 07/2015; 9(3):180. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.161236
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Alzheimer′s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory associated with shrinkage of brain tissue and loss of neurons with a diminished level of the central cholinergic neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Objective: The present study was performed to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of Tagetes patula (EETP) on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, in mice. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with EETP and donepezil for 15 successive days followed by treatment with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) for 3 days. The changes in behavioral, biochemical, and neurotransmitters were assessed in rats. Cognitive functions were assessed using step-through latency on a passive avoidance apparatus and Morris water maze test. Antioxidants parametes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and nitrates were assessed. Neurotransmitters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin were also assessed, and neuronal damage was also analyzed. Results: Scopolamine-treated rats showed impaired learning and memory, increased activity of AChE, LPO and decreased levels of SOD, reduced glutathione, nitrates, serotonin, and DA. The EETP significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice was measured by the passive avoidance test. In addition, EETP decreased escape latency in the Morris water maze. In probe trail session, EETP increased the latency time in the target quadrant. Ex vivo EETP inhibited AChE activity in the mice brain. EETP treated mice significantly increased the SOD, GR, nitrates, DA, and serotonin levels, and decreased the level of LPO when compared with scopolamine-treated mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that EETP may exert anti-amnesic effect through both by anti-AChE and antioxidant mechanisms.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 07/2015; 9(3):167. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.161234
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is no detailed standardisation work reported for pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on alga. Thus, present communication attempts to evaluate the pharmacognostical, phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of red algae Porphyra vietnamensis, Bangiaceae family. Material and Methods: Extraction and isolation were performed to conduct preliminary phytochemical screening and various pharmacognostical studies on P. vietnamensis. Fatty acids and minerals were analysed using gas chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antimicrobial potential of aqueous and alcoholic fractions was investigated using agar disc diffusion method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening and pharmacognostical data confirmed the presence of the high amount of dietary fibre, Vitamin C, carbohydrate and lipid content. Fatty acid analysis confirms the presence of the high amount of methyl palmitate. Atomic absorption data revealed the presence of significant amount of Mg, S, Ca, P, Na and K. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts (200-300 μg/ml) was effective against all microbes whereas alcoholic extract was proved to be more effective then aqueous extract. Conclusion: This study revealed the specific identities for the commercially important red seaweed, Porphyra, which will be useful in identification and prevention of its adulteration. Furthermore anti-microbial elements present in this alga can be further investigated for the development of novel antibiotics.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2):131. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155065
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The essential oil from Vanillosmopsis arborea (EOVA) Baker is rich in (-)-α-bisabolol. Investigations demonstrated its gastroprotective, larvicidal, and visceral antinociceptive activities. Aims: The present study aimed to elucidate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative properties of the EOVA Baker in mice. Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were assessed using the abdominal constriction, formalin and carrageenan-induced paw edema models, respectively. The sedative property was detected by the open-field and sleeping time tests. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: EOVA, after intraperitoneal administration, produced an inhibition of the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. In addition, the same doses were able to inhibit both the early and late phases of the formalin-induced nociception. EOVA produced inhibition in the carrageenan-induced edema model, reduced the spontaneous motor activity and prolonged the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. Conclusion: The experimental data demonstrated that EOVA showed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and sedative activities.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2):138. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155067
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Evaluation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine lead to novel bioactive compounds with antifungal activity that could be exploited as therapeutic agents. Aims: The aim was to screen selected medicinal plants for antifungal activity against three important human pathogenic fungi and to identify the broad group of phytochemicals responsible for the activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 8 medicinal plants were screened for antifungal activity against three human pathogenic fungi. Aqueous and the solvent extracts of the plant materials were prepared by polarity based solvent extraction. Antifungal activity was tested by well and disc diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active extract was determined by micro-broth dilution technique. Phytochemical analysis of the active extract was done. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were statistically analysed by One-Way analysis of variance with Post-hoc Tukey′s B test at P < 0.05 using the Software SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY Released 2011). Results: Significant antifungal activity was observed in the aqueous extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula (47.75 mm) against Microsporum gypseum and the mesocarp of Persea americana (40.5 mm) against Microsporum canis. Candida albicans was inhibited by the ethyl acetate (20 mm) and aqueous extracts (16 mm) of T. chebula fruits and aqueous extract of the seeds of Syzygium jambos (16 mm). The aqueous extract of mesocarp of P. americana showed lowest MIC value (312.5 μg/ml) against M. canis and M. gypseum. Phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Conclusions: The study validates the use of the plants in the treatment of fungal infections and has provided important leads for the discovery of new plant-based antifungal agents.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2):110. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155058
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    ABSTRACT: Object: The present study was aimed to evaluate pharmacologically to a polyherbal formulation containing volatile extracts of various umbelliferae plants. Materials and Methods: The umbelliferae family was found most effective against spasm by extensive literature review and study of various rational formulations. Plants material was procured from the local market of Rajasthan. Volatile extracts were isolated from powdered plant materials through Clevenger′s method. The volatile extracts of following plants Trachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare were used to make polyherbal formulation. Results: Antispasmodic effect of newly prepared polyherbal formulation demonstrated on guinea pig ileum in vitro; 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) was 172.5 ± 1.4 μl/ml. A very effective value identified, when compared to antispasmodic drugs, e.g. Atropine (IC 50 was 166.7 ± 1.2 μl/ml). Oral administration of polyherbal formulation dose-dependently reduced intestinal transit in mice when compared to atropine at 0.1 mg/kg i.p. and formulation at (300 mg/kg) protected mice against diarrhea induced by castor oil significantly when compared to control and standard loperamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg orally. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation inhibits acetylcholine and calcium chloride induced contraction of guinea pig ileum dose-dependently. The current research validates antispasmodic effect of newly developed polyherbal formulation. It also concluded that polyherbal formulation inhibits the contraction produced by various spasmogens like acetylcholine and calcium chloride. This suggests that the activity of developed formulation is nonspecific to any spasmogen.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2):104. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155056
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study was aimed at to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extracts of the endangered medicinal tree species, Hildegardia populifolia on laboratory animal. Methods: The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract has been determined by using carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced paw edema assays in Wistar rats. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid induced writhing response and hot plate method in swiss albino mice. Aspirin and pentazocine were used as reference drugs respectively for these models. Results: The oral administration of leaf extract at doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) inhibited the carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced inflammation. The acute treatment of the extract produced a significant (P < 0.05-0.01) antinociceptive effect in the animals of acetic acid induced pain and the animals tested in a hot plate method. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. Conclusions: It is very clear that H. populifolia has both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and so may be used as pharmaceuticals.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2):125. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155062
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes has become one of the major global public health problems of this new millennium. There is dire need for truthful "Continuing Medical Education" for healthcare professional of all shades and spectrum to be aware of their historical role to provide necessary advices on Diabetes to their stakeholders at every intersection. Let us not place the fate of average Indians at the mercy of health care providers who are too busy to get time to be updated regarding preventive measures to reduce prevalence and downstream complications of this "silent" killer. The unremitting progressions of the concepts of diet and nutrition issues amid lifestyle management need to be internalized and advocated in the light of holistic approaches to the management to the diabetics on one hand and caregivers as well as nondiabetics on the other hand. The authors wish to emphasize on the importance of philosophy of the voluntary and perpetual updating of knowledge, on diet and appropriate lifestyle, of the health care providers of all shades and all levels for our mission and vision of health promotion with the example of diabetes at this juncture.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155051
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Silibinin, also known as silybin, is the major active constituent of silymarin reported myriad pharmacological activities. The present study investigates the protective effect of silibinin in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in experimentally induced type-2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test was performed in Sprague Dawley rats, fed with high-fat diet for 2 weeks. Rats failed to compensate glucose load were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg; i.p) and left untreated for 4 weeks. Thereafter, diabetic rats were orally treated with silibinin (40 or 80 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Results: A significant hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia were observed in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, and these changes were significantly restored in the silibinin treated diabetic rats. Further a long standing hyperglycaemia resulted in altered antioxidant system and induced DN, characterised by increased serum and urinary creatinine (P < 0.001), urea nitrogen (P < 0.001), creatinine clearance (P < 0.001) and urinary albumin excretion rate (P < 0.001) as well as decreased albumin (P < 0.01) and total protein (P < 0.001). Restoration of kidney functions and antioxidant system were observed in the diabetic rats treated with silibinin. Moreover, histopathological alterations in diabetic rats were restored towards near normal architecture with silibinin treatment. Conclusion: The present study indicated that 4 weeks of silibinin treatment may prevent the progression of early DN.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2):118. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155060
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but more expensive antibiotics. Synthetic drugs are mostly associated with side effects and are generally costly, hence are not affordable to economically poor class of the society when long-term treatment is required, thus interest has been developed in the use of herbal medicines which have been reported to have either very little or no side effects. Aims: Present work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Different plant parts of C. hirsutus were collected and air dried and soxhlet extracted using methanol as solvent. These extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method. Inhibition zone, activity index, minimum inhibitory concentration were also calculated. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and standard deviation were calculated for each test bacteria and fungus. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA and P values were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: Maximum Zone of inhibition was observed in the callus extracts against Staphylococcus epidermidis (3.9 ± 0.56 mm) amongst the bacteria species and against Phanerochaete chrysosporium (2.5 ± 0.63 mm) amongst the fungal species. Methanolic extracts of leaf and stem showed varied activity with a different strain of bacteria and fungi. Methanolic extract of leaf and stem showed maximum inhibition zone against Micromonospora sp. bacterial strain. In this study, methanolic extract of callus sample showed highest promising minimal inhibitory concentration of 61.1 μg/ml in S. epidermidis. Conclusion: Results of the present study reveal that methanolic extracts of C. hirsutus are showing great antimicrobial potential against tested microorganisms and may be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 04/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.155054
  • Sibi G ·

    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 01/2015; 8(14):226-230.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: Gnaphalium polycaulon (L.) Pers. (Asteraceae) plant, locally known as Nerabu chedi, collected from Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu was subjected to antimicrobial screening and minimum inhibitory concentration of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem, and flower. Methodology: The selected plant used in traditional Indian medicine was examined for antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration against human pathogenic bacteria and fungus using the agar well diffusion method. The antilog of the corresponding value of concentration was taken as the minimum inhibitory concentration value. Statistical Analysis: All the values of the results of the assay were expressed as means of triplicates, mean ± standard deviation. Results: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extracts of G. polycaulon showed a high level of antimicrobial activity against the studied bacterial and fungal pathogens. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, the medicinal value of this plant could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites in the traditional herbal medicines. Therefore, this antimicrobial activity shows a source for traditional use of the plant as a local health remedy to the indigenous communities of Tamil Nadu. Further studies on knowledge of the medicinal plant used medicinally by indigenous people could lead to further research and new drug discovery for the treatment of different diseases.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 01/2015; 9(1):39. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.150921
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    ABSTRACT: Context: In the present study, different parts (stem and roots) of Bauhinia tomentosa and Kalanchoe pinnata have been screened for antipyretic and analgesic activity. Materials and Methods: Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of analgesic potential whereas antipyretic potential have been evaluated by the yeast induced hyperthermia model. Results and Conclusions: B. tomentosa root extracts at both the doses (200, 400 mg/kg) and stem extracts at high doses (250, 500 mg/kg) were found to possess statistically significant analgesic as well as antipyretic activity when compared to that of control. K pinnata root and stem extracts at both the doses (200, 400 mg/kg) were found to possess statistically significant analgesic and antipyretic activity when compared with that of control. K. pinnata root extracts were found to possess significantly increases in mean latency time whereas failed to inhibit number of writhings in acetic acid-induced writhing models suggesting its central nervous system action whereas stem extract significantly inhibited number of writhings in acetic acid-induced writhing methods whereas fail to increase mean latency time at both doses respectively suggesting its peripheral nervous system action. Present study reveals that B. tomentosa (root and stem) possesses significant antipyretic and analgesic effect suggests that the plant may have therapeutic value in hyperthermia associated with pain.
    International Journal of Green Pharmacy 01/2015; 9(1):32. DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.150920