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ISSN 0972-3005

Publications in this journal

  • Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 08/2015; In Press.
  • Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):189-192.
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    ABSTRACT: Amidases (EC hydrolyzes amides with the production of the corresponding carboxylic acids and ammonia and are the most widely used amide-hydrolyzing enzymes in industry. It holds a great potential for biotechnological applications in organic acids synthesis, bioremediation, waste water treatment, synthesis of pharmaceutical chemical like anti-cancerous and anti-HIV Hydroxamic acids etc. Here, we report the purification of amidase from Bacillus sp. APB-6 and after purification the enzyme was characterized for optimum activity. The enzyme was purified by about 21.7 fold with specific activity 19.5 U/mg protein. A purified amidase enzyme of 44kDa was obtained after initially precipitated with 60% Acetone. The acetone precipitated enzyme was then loaded on to the anion exchange column (DEAE-Cellulose) and then the protein was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 55pC and 7.5 respectively. The Km and Vmax values for the purified amidase of APB-06 were 200mM and the Vmax was 100 pmoles/mg/min The enzyme was highly specific to substrate acetamide and less activity was detected in the presence of other amides, such as butyramide, cyanamide, nicotinamide and benzamide.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):79-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric and oesophageal cancer surgery is performed to remove cancerous tissue or to by pass part of the tumour tissue to prevent blockage of the stomach or oesophagus. However, surgical operations of the gastrointestinal tract may lead to alterations in the gut microbial community. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine changes in microbial community profile in the gastrointestinal tract of pre- and postoperative gastric and oesophageal cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Our results showed that changes occur in the intestinal tract after gastric and oesophageal cancer surgery but not immediately after operation.OIn oesophageal cancer patients, Collinsella sp. was detected in both pre- and post- operative subjects. Serratia marcesens, a prominent opportunistic pathogen was detected after oesophageal cancer surgery in one subject. Acholeplasma parvum which is known to survive in host environments was detected in one gastric cancer patient after six months of operation. In both gastric and oesophageal cancer patients most of the bacterial species detected belonged to Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The data obtained in this study could provide a basis for modulation of gut microbial balance after surgery which could lead to faster recovery, and prevention of post operative bacterial infections.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):53-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were carried out to evaluate the equilibrium and thermodynamic behaviour of the batch adsorption system involving the use of modified activated sludge for the treatment of refinery waste water. The equilibrium data were determined for the sorption system and fitted with three equilibrium isotherm models, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. Langmuir isotherm fitted well with the equilibrium data with high values of correlation coefficient and the maximum COD uptake capacity was determined from the linear plot as 147.06 mg/g at an operating temperature of 30°C. The thermodynamic studies were conducted to evaluate the Gibbs free energy and the negative values observed in this study confirmed the spontaneous nature of sorption. The enthalpy change was determined as-18.012 kj/mol indicating the exothermic nature of the process.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):261-265.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial potency of seaweed and to analyzes the ice-ice disease control through polyculture cultivation techniques. This research was conducted in two phases, namely laboratory and field study. The method used in the laboratory study is designed with a completely randomized design. The antibacterial activity assays performed with the agar diffusion method. Data of the inhibition zone diameter were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by honestly significant difference test at a significance level of 5 %. Data of the field study collected base on appearance of the thallus and the percentage of infected clumps and analyzed descriptively. Data on wet weight gain per week were analyzed by t test. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of seaweed Achantophora spicifera, Caulerpa racemosa, Sargasum duplicatum and Lorencia obtusa provide a significantly different effect on (a using) isolates of Pseudomonas sp A of ice-ice disease seaweed. Achantophora spicifera showed stronger potency in inhibiting bacterial test so it was decided to be used as companion plants in biological control. The field study suggests that ice-ice disease in Kappaphycus alvarezii can be controlled through polyculture techniques. The result showed that in the treatment group 0.062 % infected by ice-ice disease, while in control group more than 50%. Therefore polyculture techniques can be used to control the ice-ice disease using seaweed Achantophora spicifera.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):7-15.
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    ABSTRACT: The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) contains various proteins, carbohydrates such as starch, fibre, vitamins and minerals. The various functional properties of legume flours are provided by the composition of proteins, starch and complex carbohydrates present in them. Pigeon pea with seed coat (C06 variety from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, TNAU) and without seed coat were evaluated for their protein, moisture, ash and fat contents. Protein content of the legume without seed coat was 4.97 and 5.41 mg/mL in water and saline extracts respectively. The protein content of the legume with seed coat (C06) was higher both in water and saline extracts (5.16 and 5.72 mg/mL in respectively). Pigeon pea with seed coat exhibited higher amount of protein, fat, moisture and ash. Foaming capacity and foam stability of the proteins extracted varied depending upon pH, temperature and fat content. Highest foaming capacity (with seed coat) was observed as 67.8% in water extract when maintained at 25 °C and foam stability (with and without seed coat) was observed as 100% in saline extracts when maintained at-20 °C. While foaming capacity of 55.4% was obtained in the water extract in the full fatted flour, highest foam stability of 100% was obtained in the saline extract of with seed coat when it was de-fatted. Foaming capacity and stability of flour suspensions at pH 2 to 11 varied significantly. Emulsifying activity with corn oil of the water extract was 33.3%, while the saline extracts shown slightly higher value (36.6%). The emulsion stability of water extract of sample with seed coat decreased by 10% and the emulsion stability of saline extract of sample without seed coat increased by 36% respectively after heat treatment. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of Pigeon pea as a good foaming and emulsifying agent. The leguminous protein may act as an alternative for the commercial foam inducers and emulsifiers using in food products.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):181-187.
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    ABSTRACT: Present study was carried out to find the correlation between antioxidant enzyme status and antibody response to tumor specific antigen in serum of the skin carcinoma mice. Skin carcinoma was induced using 7,12-Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene; the mice at different stages of tumor development were diagnosed using histopathological analysis and selected for the study. Reduced glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes were measured from the crude enzyme fraction from freshly dissected liver sample. Tumor specific antigen was isolated using SDS-PAGE and autoantibody in the serum was meseared using ELISA. There was significant increase in the enzyme activity during the early stage of tumor progress and the level of auto antibodies to the tumor specific antigen was significantly high during the early progressive stages when compared with later stages. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be compensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress during the early and progressive stages. Hence treatment with antioxidants in the initial stages of the disease may be useful as secondary therapy to prevent the oxidative damage and to improve the immune function. The results also insist the necessity to find out the antioxidant status of each patient for therapeutic co-administration of antioxidants along with chemotherapy.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):95-100.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present times, increasing demand for the microbial enzymes in different industries is-making their production on commercial level very important. Cellulases, pectinases, lipases etc. are examples of commercially produced enzymes that contribute largely to the global economics, Xylanase is another industrially valuable enzyme that is used for the degradation of xylan. Xylan is the complex heterogenous polysaccharide belonging to the hemicellulosic component of lignocelluloses which are natural complex organic carbons present in the form of plant biomass. Xylan is the major constituent of the plant cell wall. Degradation of xylan by xylanase is a crucial step in several other industries like food, pulp, textile etc. For instance the xylan in the dough to be used for making bread makes it tight and results in crumbs formation while baking. Xylanase is also used for processing plant fibres such as hessian or linen in the textile industry. Therefore such industries require xylanase to be produced on vast commercial scale. The commercial production of xylanase involves a very basic and vital step known as the optimization of factors that affect its production. This step is essential for obtaining the maximum possible yield to achieve better quality product and economic advantage. There are two approaches for achieving the optimization, one is by using the conventional one factor at a time (OFAT) technique and the second one is by using statistical and computational biological tools such as those which work on the principle of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Some recent works suggest that optimization of these parameters by using RSM is less time consuming, less labour intensive and economical along with being the better option to conventional method as it gives higher values of maximum possible yields of xylanase. This review article helps tó understand the need for the large scale production of xylanase. The article, with the help of some recent 'works also helps to study and compare the two different approaches (OFAT and RSM) used for achieving the optimization of factors that affect the commercial production of xylanase.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):241-247.
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    ABSTRACT: A laboratory scale biofilter inoculated with mixed microbial culture using tree bark as a filter media was employed for the biodégradation of toluene. The biofilter was operated in the toluene concentration range of 1.5 - 7.5 g/m3 at different flow rates namely 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 m3/h. The maximum removal effeciency obtained was 98% at an inlet loading rate of 80 g/m3 h at an EBRT of 118 s. In the study on effect of bed height, the lowest part of the biofilter was found to remove nearly 60% of the inlet toluene load. Biomass distribution was studied through the biofilter and found to increase along with the progress of microbial degradation. Temperature increase during the biofiltration process confirmed the exothermic nature of the biochemical reaction. Carbon dioxide production rate was monitored and it varied according to the changes in inlet loading rates. Biodegradation of toluene was modeled using Michaelis-Menten type kinetics and the kinetic constants were estimated.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):61-68.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to wide spread use of petrol in situ biodégradation of pollutants has attracted immense attention in the few decades. Oil contaminated soil isolates, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Iwoffii by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and phylogentic anaylsis were used for the present investigation. The bacterium grew optimally at 37°C and pH 6.5 and maximum growth was obtained at 5% (v/v) petrol concentration. The intermediate of biodégradation catechol was detected by HPLC. Biodegradation of petrol was monitored by quantitative gas chromatographic analysis. The percent degradation of petrol by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter lowffi within 25 days was found to be 95% and 97% respectively. These strains were thereby suggestive for application in petrol biodégradations under all investigated nutritional and environmental conditions in polluted soil.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):255-259.
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    ABSTRACT: Plants can benefit from soil microbes in many ways. Certain microbes stimulate plant growth, enrich soils, degrade pollutants, or protect plants against pathogens. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living, soil-borne bacteria, which, when applied to seeds or crops, enhance the growth of the plant or reduce the damage from soil-borne plant pathogens. In the present work a total of one hundred and nine bacterial strains have been isolated from the rhizosphere, surfaces root (rhizoplane) and the inner roots tissues (endophytic bacteria) of tomato plant cultivated in different locations of semi-arides zones in west of Algeria. Out of these, 53% of the total isolates exhibited a variable antagonistic activity against tomato wilt agent (F. oxysporum f.sp lycopersici). The endophytic strain ERL3 has exhibited the maximal inhibition rate equivalent to 78%. Effective antagonist isolates have been further screened for their plant growth promoting (PGP) activity viz., production of plant growth regulators (IAA), siderophores, HCN, inorganic phosphate solubilization, Ammonia and catalase production. Indole acetic acid has been detected in 72%, 66% and 61% epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric strains respectively. 47.45% among antagonist strains are of solubilization inorganic phosphates capacity. A maximal solubilization index (SI) of 2.48 has been obtained after 14 days of incubation with RMSK43 and RPMK26. Evaluation of Seven strains, each with multiple plant growth promoting activities, to enhance tomato plant growth was carried out in pots experiments under greenhouse conditions. All the isolates have significantly (P<0.01) increased shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight of the inoculated plant. The percentage increase of root weight was up 141.56% with RPMK2 and shoots weight up to 57.98% with RSBK10 over uninoculated control.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):17-26.
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of methicillin-and, more recently, vancomycin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus threaten to lead us back to the pre-antibiotic era. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to combat S. aureus infections. The wealth of knowledge available in the form of whole genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria has aided target-driven approaches to identify novel therapeutic targets. Here, we present a computational genomic analysis that elucidates the therapeutic target in drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):131-138.
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    ABSTRACT: The present experiment was undertaken to study the effect of bioactive molecules (Cathecol and Eugenol) isolated from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) and Piper betle (Paan) leaf extracts respectively, on the activity of β-lactamase enzyme produced by Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aurues (MRSA). Bacterial isolate was obtained from the clinical samples, Anand, Gujarat, India. Extracts of fresh leaves of Camellia sinensis and Piper betle were prepared according to the previous published references. Various biomolecules were separated and identified using TLC and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity and β lactamase activity was checked against the crude extracts and the isolated molecule. Catechol, a derivative of Catechin present in Camellia sinensis was found to have the maximum inhibition on the β-lactamase activity in MRSA. Whereas, Eugenol was docked with penicillin binding protein 2A (PBP2A), which is mainly responsible for the resistant pattern in MRSA species.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):139-144.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Most of genetic resources and species diversity of Durio spp was reported existing in Kalimantan Island. Due to the open pollinated characteristic, the genetic diversity of Durio spp is enlarging and spreading significantly. The most popular of edible Durio species in East Kalimantan is Durio zibethinus (Durian, Local Name) and Durio kutejensis (Lai, Local Name). Here, we report our exploration and identification of Lai Durian, a putative new variety derived from natural crossing between Durio zibethinus and Durio kutejensis in East Kalimantan showing high performance of fruit characters and economic potential cultivars. Our findings showed that Lai Durian is existing in 6 districts of East Kalimantan, i.e. Samarinda, Kutai Barat, Kutai Kartanegara, Penajam Paser Utara, Bulungan, and Nunukan. Based on plant morphology, fruit performance, and nutritional value analysis, there is a strong indication that Lai Durian is orignated from the natural crossing of D. zibethinus and D. kutejensis and called as Durio zibethinus x kutejensis. Lai Durian fruit has positive combination properties originated from its parents (D. zibethinus and D. kutejensis) such as sweet (high sugar content), thick and attractive color (yellow) aril, soft and dry texture (low water and fiber content), not fragrant, high protein content, long shelf life at room temperature, and high percentage of the edible fruit part that are more preferred by consumers. Therefore, Lai Durian has a high economic potential value to be improved as a National Excellent Fruit Varitey in Indonesia.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(2):365-371.
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    ABSTRACT: Thermophilic microorganisms are of special interest as a source of novel thermostable enzymes. Thermostability is a characteristic of most of the enzymes for industrial usage. Total 12 bacterial strains were isolated from the samples collected from three different sites of hot water springs namely Ganeshpuri Kund, Surya Kund and Ram Lakshaman Sita Kund. Isolates were tested for extracellular enzyme production including gelatinase, urease, amylase, cellulase and catalase.As a follow up studies with these 12 isolates were carried out to detect out their enzymatic activity or enzymatic productivity using standard procedures. From the observations these isolates were found to be novel source of highly active exoenzymes with significant activities at high temperature. Thus these 12 isolates may be regarded as promising source of industrially important enzymes.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):205-207.
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    ABSTRACT: Biosorption of. lead: (II) ions from aqueous solution utilizing natural adsorbents have been .investigated/Few ecofriendly precursors are derived from Sapindus Emarginata, Tamarindus-Indica and Aegle marmelos. The rinds collected from above plants are used to prepare micro adsorbents such as SERF", HRP, and AMRP. They are characterized by proximate and chemical analysis. The surface morphology of the green adsorbents was studied by SEM. These are subjected for the studies of divalent Lead from aqueous solution. The influence of various factors namely pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage.was studied.The optimal pH.value for Pb (IT) adsorption is 5.0 for all the adsorbents. The elimination of lead ' from industrial effluents also examined. It is observed from the study that all the adsorbents mentioned in this work can be used as low cost,adsorbents for the removal of Pb (H) from various industrial effluents.
    Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 17(1):249-253.