Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology (Ann Indian Acad Neurol )

Publisher: Indian Academy of Neurology, Medknow Publications


The Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology-AIAN is the official journal of the Indian Academy of Neurology. Our aim is to serve as a medium for dissemination of information and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in neurosciences.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in various disorders including epilepsy. We studied the antioxidant status in patients with epilepsy and aimed at determining whether there was any difference in the antioxidant levels between patients and controls, patients who are not on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and on treatment, between individual AEDs and patients on monotherapy and polytherapy. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant levels like catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, glutathione (GSH), thiol group (SH), uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were compared between 100 patients with epilepsy and equal number of controls. Twenty-five patients who were not on AEDs were compared with patients on AEDs and the control group. Patients were divided into monotherapy and polytherapy group and antioxidant status was compared between the two groups and between individual drugs. Results: Catalase, SH, vitamin E, and TAC were significantly low in patients with epilepsy than those in the control group (P < 0.001). GSH and uric acid did not show any difference; GPx in patients was significantly higher than those in the control group There were no differences in the antioxidant levels between the treated and the untreated groups; however, it was lower in untreated patients than controls (P < 0.001), suggesting that AEDs do not modify the oxidative stress. Patients on Valproate (VPA) showed higher catalase and GPx levels. Catalase was higher in the monotherapy than polytherapy group (P < 0.04). Conclusion: Our study found significantly low levels of antioxidant in patients as compared to controls. AED did not influence the antioxidant status suggesting that seizures induce oxidative stress. Key Words Antiepileptic drugs, catalase, epilepsy, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, seizures, thiol goup, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, vitamin E
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 11/2014; 17(4):398-404.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether methylcobalamin and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) added to pregabalin provide additional benefit compared to pregabalin alone in type 2 diabetes mellitus associated peripheral neuropathy. An open label, randomized, controlled parallel-group pilot study. Thirty adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy for ≥6 months were randomized to receive pregabalin 75 mg, methylcobalamin 750 μg, and ALA 100 mg (PMA, n = 15); or pregabalin 75 mg (PG, n = 15) for 12 weeks. Assessment variables were numeric rating scale (NRS), sleep interference scores (SIS), response rate to pain, and global assessment for the usefulness of therapy. The nerve conduction velocity was assessed for sensory and motor nerves. Safety assessment included adverse events reported by the patients, clinical laboratory, and general medical, neurological examinations. Efficacy analyses were done on per-protocol (PP) population, whereas safety analyses were done on intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Significant improvement was seen in pain and sleep interference in both groups. Mean nerve conduction velocity of left common peroneal nerve (CPN) showed significant improvement in PMA group at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.018). For right CPN both groups showed significant improvement. (PMA, P = 0.002, PG, P = 0.007). For sensory testing, at week 12, right superficial peroneal nerve showed reduction in nerve conduction velocity in PG group compared to baseline (P = 0.043). Methylcobalamine, ALA and pregabalin combination provides pain relief and improves sleep interference. Addition of methylcobalamin and ALA to pregabalin improves the nerve function. Due to small sample size, most of the efficacy parameters could not reach significant difference between groups; hence benefit of the 3-drug-combimation should be interpreted with reservation.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 10/2014; 17(1):19-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a slowly progressive bilateral stenocclusive process of the distal internal carotid and proximal portions of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries and the formation of an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify clinical features, salient features, radiological features and yield of diagnostic cerebral angiography in MMD. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of 26 patients with MMD evaluated and treated at our institute from August 2010 until March 2013. Diagnosis of MMD was made on the basis of features of angiographic findings. Cerebral angiography showed typically fine network of vessels at the base of the brain with puff of smoke appearance suggestive of MMD. CT angiography (CTA) was done in 25 (96.15%) patients where as Digital substraction angiography (DSA) was done in 18 (69.23%) patients. Results: Out of the 26 patients 13 were in the pediatric age group and 13 were adults. At presentation 14 patients had infarcts and 10 patients had hemorrhages. Among the hemorrhagic group 20% had isolated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 50% patients had ICH with intraventricular extension (IVE) and 30% patients had primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH). 50 % of the patients had involvement of the posterior circulation. Conclusion: Posterior circulation involvement is frequent in MMD. Though parenchymal bleed with/without intraventricular extension is the usual presentation of hemorrhagic MMD, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage could also be the mode of presentation.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 05/2014; 17(2):182-186.
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    ABSTRACT: Areflexia is one of the cardinal clinical features for the diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome. However, some patients may have sluggish proximal muscle stretch reflexes. Presence of thumb reflex, a distal stretch muscle reflex has not been documented in Guillain Barré syndrome.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 04/2014; 17(2):199-201.
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    ABSTRACT: The Sturge Weber syndrome is characterized by developmental delay, seizures in infancy, unilateral cutaneous lesions with ipsilateral leptomeningeal enhancement. We report an unusual presentation of Sturge Weber syndrome with bilateral port wine nevus on the trunk and face along with bilateral cortical involvement in a developmentally normal child with progressive megalencephaly.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 04/2014; 17(2):207-8.
  • Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 04/2014; 17(2):238-9.
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    ABSTRACT: In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) tissue damage occurs in specific cortical and subcortical regions. Voxel based analysis using T1-weighted images depict quantitative gray matter (GM) atrophy changes. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging depicts qualitative changes in the brain parenchyma. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether MT imaging could indicate abnormalities in PSP.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 04/2014; 17(2):193-8.
  • Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 04/2014; 17(2):211-3.
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    ABSTRACT: The elderly are generally defined as those over 60 or 65 years old, but they are a heterogeneous group and may be subdivided into categories based on age and health status. The incidence of epilepsy is highest in the elderly. With a progressive increase in life expectancy, this is the fastest growing segment of patients with epilepsy. Older patients most often have focal seizures, with less prominent auras and automatisms, and longer duration of postictal confusion compared to younger patients. Status epilepticus is common and has a high mortality. The most common specific etiology is cerebrovascular disease, but the cause remains unknown in many patients. Diagnosis can be challenging because of several patient-related, physician-related and investigation-related factors. Over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis are common. Treatment is complicated by the presence of physiological changes related to aging, co-morbidities and cognitive problems as well as concerns regarding drug interactions and medication adherence. Seizures can be controlled in most patients with low doses of a single anti-epileptic drug (AED). Tolerability is an important factor in selection of an AED, as elderly patients tend to be highly sensitive to side effects. Drug-resistant epilepsy is uncommon. Epilepsy surgery, especially temporal lobectomy, can be performed in older patients with good results. More studies addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms of epilepsy in this age group, and greater inclusion of the elderly in clinical trials, as well as development of comprehensive care models are needed to provide optimal care to these patients.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 03/2014; 17(Suppl 1):S18-S26.
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical decision-making is a complex process. First, a medical decision is made to determine if surgery is necessary. Second, another medical decision is made to determine the type of surgery. Third, a corporate decision is made if such a surgery is financially feasible. Finally, a legal decision is made to proceed or refuse the chosen surgery. This paper examines these issues in the case of surgery for medically intractable epilepsy and proposes a method of decision analysis to guide epilepsy surgery. A stochastic game of imperfect information using techniques of game theory and decision analysis is introduced as an analytical tool for surgical decision-making. Surgery for appropriately chosen patients suffering from medically intractable epilepsy may not only be feasible, but may be the best medical option and the best financial option for the patient, families, society and the healthcare system. Such a situation would then make it legally or ethically difficult to reject or postpone surgery for these patients. A process to collect data to quantify the parameters used in the decision analysis is hereby proposed.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 03/2014; 17(Suppl 1):S120-S123.
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    ABSTRACT: Functional neuro-imaging techniques are helpful in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy for localization of the epileptogenic zone as ancillary tools to electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or when other localization techniques are normal, non-concordant or discordant. Positron emission tomography (PET) and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT) imaging are traditional tests that have been reported to have good sensitivity and specificity although the results are better with more expertise as is true for any technique. More recently magnetoencephalogram/magnetic source imaging (MEG/MSI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in localization and functional mapping during the pre-surgical work-up of epilepsy. Newer techniques such as fMRI-EEG, functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and near infra-red spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magneto nanoparticles hold promise for further development that could then be applied in the work-up of epilepsy surgery. In this manuscript, we review these techniques and their current position in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 03/2014; 17(Suppl 1):S56-S64.
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    ABSTRACT: The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 03/2014; 17(Suppl 1):S65-S68.
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    ABSTRACT: Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit.
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 03/2014; 17(Suppl 1):S50-S55.