Journal of Applied Animal Research (J APPL ANIM RES )

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  • 5-year impact
    0.22
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    6.10
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  • ISSN
    0971-2119

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings have shown that microbial nitrogen flow and digestible energy of diet are increased when urea (U) is combined with a slow-release urea product (SRU) in diets with a starch:acid detergent fibre (S:ADF) ratio of 4.5, while feed grade urea has shown greater effects on growth performance or dietary energy utilisation when the diet contains a S:ADF ratio of greater than 5.0. These results can be partially explained by the better synchronization of ruminal degradation rates between those urea sources with the carbohydrates of the diets. Therefore, 60 crossbreed steers (372.4±15 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of combining U and SRU in a diet with a S:ADF ratio of 4.5 vs. urea that was supplemented in diets with different S:ADF ratios (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5) on growth performance, dietary energetics, and carcass characteristics. Urea combination did not affect average daily gain (ADG), but reduced dry matter intake (DMI, as % of body weight [BW]) enough to increase feed efficiency (G:F) and dietary net energy (NE). As the S:ADF ratio increased, the DMI, ADG, G:F, and NE of diet increased linearly. Irrespective of the S:ADF ratio, urea diets did not modify the observed-to-expected NE ratio nor the apparent retention per unit DMI, while urea combination increased by 7.2% and 8.4%, respectively, the observed-to-expected dietary ratio and the apparent retention per unit DMI. Urea combination had no effect on carcass characteristics. As the S:ADF ratio increased, carcass weight and LM area were increased linearly. Combining feed grade urea and SRU in diets with a 4.5 starch:fibre ratio resulted in positive effects on the efficiency of utilisation of dietary energetics.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the potential of preparing fish silage (FS) as a low-cost, protein-rich supplement for livestock feeding in Oman from ground Indian oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps) using organic and inorganic acids. It was co-dried with wheat bran before being mixed with other feed ingredients and pelleted for feeding Omani sheep. Forty Omani sheep were offered one of five diets aiming to gradually replace soybean meal (SBM) with FS. The proportions of FS in the diet were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, whereas the parallel SBM levels ranged from 17% to 0%. Animals were fed 500 g/d of the concentrates and allowed ad libitum access to Rhodes grass hay. A digestibility experiment was carried out on 12 sheep fed 0, 100 and 200 g/kg FS. The fresh FS dry matter (DM) was 393 g/kg and it contained 510 g/kg crude protein (CP), 220 g/kg ether extract (EE), 153 g/kg ash, 34 g/kg calcium (Ca) and 31 g/kg phosphorus on DM basis. The 75:25 silage:wheat bran mixture contained 883 g/kg DM and 390, 139, 120, 17, 17 g/kg DM CP, EE, ash, Ca and phosphorus, respectively. The FS amino acid contents were comparable to that of the SBM. No ill health signs were observed on experimental animals. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in digestibility coefficients of CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre between the 0, 100 and 200 g/kg FS diets. However, the 200 g/kg silage diet had lower (P Keywords: Oman; fish silage; sardines; sheep Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2013.875909 Affiliations: 1: Agricultural Experiment Station, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman 2: Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman 3: Centre for Excellence in Marine Biotechnology, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman 4: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sharqiyah Region, Ibraa, Sultanate of Oman Publication date: October 2, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Al-Abri ; Mahgoub ; Kadim ; Al-Marzooqi ; Goddard ; Al-Farsi GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed In vitro inhibition of plasma and brain cholinesterases (ChE) by the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos in chicks at ages of 2, 10, 20 and 30 days. Plasma samples and whole-brain homogenates of each age group were pooled and ChE activity was determined by an electrometric method with or without the organophosphate (0.5 and 1.0 µM). ChE inhibitions were the highest in 2- and 10-day-old chicks (20–83%), followed by 5–73% inhibitions at ages of 20 and 30 days. Cholrpyrifos decreased plasma ChE activity only at the ages of 2 and 10 days by 21–75%. Dichlorvos decreased plasma ChE activity at all the ages tested (2–30 days) by 39–83%. The highest percentage of plasma ChE inhibition by chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos was in 2-day-old chicks. In the brain homogenate, chlorpyrifos decreased the ChE activity between ages 2 and 20 days by 20–62%. The highest percentage of brain ChE inhibition occurred at the age of 10 days and the least was at 20 and 30 days. Dichlorvos decreased brain ChE activity between ages 2 and 20 days by 24–74%. At the age of 30 days, only the higher concentration of dichlorvos (1 µM) decreased brain ChE activity by 27%. The data suggest an age-related differential In vitro inhibition of plasma and brain ChE s in chicks. In vitro ChE inhibition, though it does not exclude interfering factors, could be useful for initial screening of the inhibitory actions of organophosphate insecticides in chickens.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of alternate dairy control as an alternative to traditional dairy control was evaluated. Adjustment factors were obtained for morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) milkings and applied to animals subjected to alternate dairy control to estimate uncontrolled milking and total daily milk yield. Data was compiled from six dairy goat farms in the Metropolitan Region of Chile for animals with completed lactations (of 305 days) and with recorded date of birth and parturition, parity and a minimum of six controls per lactation (used to determine AM, PM and total production). Values were sorted by productive factors parity and lactation month. Statistical analysis was performed using the Number Crunchers Statistical System ®2000 (Kaysville, UT, USA) to obtain mean values and adjustment factors for each productive factor and to make possible their application on any animal presenting the minimum required information. Adjustment factors were applied to 8788 values to estimate total daily milk yield. AM values estimated more accurate totals than PM values. Analysis provided r 2 values of 0.9083 and 0.7593, respectively, and supported the reliability of applying calculated adjustment factors to one of two daily milkings. The alternate dairy control system represents a viable alternative for estimation of total daily milk yield.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical characteristics and ruminal degradability of barley straw when treated with dry application (spraying technique) of acid and alkali were studied over the adjusted pH range (1.5–12.5 by measuring titratable capacity). Enzymatic (a cellulase product) effectiveness was also examined on pretreated straw at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 11.5. Treated straws were then ensiled for four weeks. Results showed that the solubility of dry matter (DM) and hemicellulose (HC) was altered quadratically within the pH region, while that of cellulose (CL) and lignin displayed minor changes. Release of phenolic compounds and water-soluble carbohydrates increased linearly with increasing alkaline pH whereas, they were raised from pH 7 up to pH 2 and then decreased at pH 1.5. DM degradability was little affected under acidic conditions and the highest value was achieved at pH 2, whereas fibre components (HC and CL) degradability was orderly reduced towards zero with decreasing pH. Increasing pH with application of alkali led to a linear enhancement of DM, HC and CL degradability. An interaction between pH level and enzymatic treatment was detected, such that the degradability of pretreated straw at pH 4.5 was enhanced but no improvement was attained at pH 3.5 and 11.5 with enzyme addition. Dry processing of barley straw under acidic pH, increased fibre solubilisation, reduced ruminal fibre degradability and exhibited a positive effect on the efficacy of the exogenous enzyme, while alkaline pH, in particular pH 12, substantially improved the degradation of barley straw.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) is a game bird belonging to Phasianidae family. This species is native to Southern Asia, Middle-East and Caspian region including Turkey. Black francolins are popular game animals and they play an important role in biological control of pests. Nevertheless, studies conducted on this species are extremely rare. The objective of this study is to introduce a profile of serum biochemistry for wild black francolins and to determine variations between sexes. We have analysed 13 serum parameters for each gender separately. We sampled 20 clinically healthy, adult black francolins. Analysed biochemical parameters are as follows: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium and potassium. Females had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and ALT while males had higher cholesterol levels.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Citrus peel, a by-product of citrus processing is a rich source of numerous bioactive nutrients. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Citrus sinensis peel extract (CSPE) on few production and quality traits of broiler chickens. Four hundred broiler chicks (one-day-old) were assigned to any of the five dietary treatments comprised of: basal diet for 42 days, or basal diet containing 1000 ppm or 1250 ppm CSPE for 21 days, or basal diet containing 1000 ppm or 1250 ppm CSPE for 42 days. Compared to the final weight of broilers on the basal diet (2426.3 ± 120.9 g), the supplementation of the diet with 1000 ppm CSPE for 21 days resulted in significantly (P P Keywords: Citrus sinensis; broilers; carcass characteristics; carcass fat; carcass quality Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2013.875916 Affiliations: 1: Young Researchers Club, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran 2: Department of Animal Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran 3: School of Agriculture and Food Science, Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland Publication date: October 2, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Ebrahimi ; Qotbi ; Seidavi ; Bahar GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of threonine:lysine (Thr:Lys) ratios on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, and nitrogen balance in weaned pigs. In Experiment 1, a total of 90 weaned pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an initial average body weight (BW) of 6.57 ± 0.46 kg were allocated into three treatments for 35 days. Each treatment had six replicate pens with five pigs per pen. Diets were formulated with different apparent ileal digestible (AID) Thr:Lys ratios of 0.62, 0.67, and 0.72. Dietary AID of Lys and Thr concentrations were set at 10.8 and 6.7, 7.2, 7.8 g/kg, respectively. Throughout the experiment, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed:gain ratio were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary Thr:Lys ratios. However, BUN concentration was increased (linear, P = 0.01) as the Thr:Lys ratio increased at day 35. In Experiment 2, a total of 24 weaned pigs with an average BW of 8.57 ± 0.32 kg were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed for 10 days. Dietary treatments were the same as in Experiment 1. Nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion in feces and urine, and nitrogen retention were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary Thr:Lys ratios. In conclusion, increasing dietary AID Thr:Lys ratio (0.62, 0.67 vs. 0.72) could not improve the growth performance and nitrogen balance in weaned pigs.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Cattle–yak, the first filial generation of yak and ordinary cattle, showed obvious hybrid vigor, but a difficult problem in crossbreeding and improvement of yak is that the males are sterile. Thus it is not possible to steadily utilize the heterosis. So the study of the mechanism of male sterility is still one of the most interesting fields in yak science. Therefore, this paper will review contemporary studies in cattle–yak male sterility including the process of spermatogenesis, development of genital organs, pituitary and endocrinology, biochemical genetics and candidate genes correlating spermatogenesis, etc.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Medium rabbit breeds such as Californian (CAL) are generally regarded as most suitable for meat production on commercial farms. Despite the increasing scale of production, commercial rabbit breeding has not replaced traditional and organic small-scale farming systems which use various rabbit breeds and hybrids. The Flemish Giant (FG), the largest rabbit breed in the world, is widely used in small household farms. According to researchers, the progeny of FG does have a relatively high weaning weight, and bucks are deemed good paternal components in commercial crossing. The aim of this study was to compare rearing rate, body weight, daily gains, carcass dressing percentage and the percentage of primal cuts in the carcass in CAL and FG rabbits. Nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and nitrogen retention parameters were also compared in the studied breeds. In our study, CAL rabbits were characterised by better reproductive performance in comparison with FG rabbits. Despite the above, the observed daily gain values, daily nitrogen balance and retention parameters and carcass dressing percentages of the compared breeds suggest that FGs may be a good alternative to medium breeds such as CAL rabbits.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether wheat factory sewage (WFS) could partially replace barley grain in the diet of dairy cows without adversely affecting dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. Eight multiparous (60 ± 3 days-in-milk) Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with four 21-d periods. The four diets (treatment) differed by partially substituting WFS for barley grain at the rate of 0% (WFS0), 4% (WFS4), 6% (WFS6) or 8% of dietary dry matter (DM; WFS8). DM content of diets decreased from 65%, 59%, and 57% to 54% by increasing the inclusion of WFS due to high water content of WFS (80%). DMI changed quadratically and tended (P = 0.08) to be higher for WFS4 (23.1 kg/d) than for other three diets which were similar (21.5 kg/d). Ruminal fluid pH linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing WFS in the diet. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA; 100–103 mM), acetate (65–67 mM), propionate (24–25 mM) and ratio of acetate:propionate (2.68:2.89) were not affected by increasing the replacement of barley grain with WFS. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM (67%), crude protein (CP; 68%) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF; 54%) were not different among treatments. Milk yield (averaged 40 kg/d) and milk composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. These results showed that the inclusion of WFS at rates of 0, 4, 6, and 8% in place of barley grain in dairy cow diets decreased DM content of diets, but had no adverse effects on DMI, rumen fermentation, digestibility and milk production responses. In conclusion, WFS can be a candidate by-product as an alternative feedstuff for the partial replacement of barley grain in lactating dairy cow diets and also considered as an alternative energy source in a cost-effective manner when the price is competitive.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish and compare reference intervals of some haematological and electrophoretic parameters at different ages (1–2, 3–4 and over 5 years) in two Italian goat breeds: Aspromontana and Girgentana. A total of 90 female Aspromontana goats and 95 female Girgentana goats, ranging from 1 to 11 years of age, clinically healthy, were used. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analysed for haematological parameters and serum proteins profile with routine methods. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of age on white blood cell (WBC, P P P P P P P P P P 1-globulins and β2-globulins fractions in booth breed. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of breed in the following haematological and electrophoretic parameters: WBC (P P P P P P P 1-globulins (P 2-globulins (P P Keywords: age; electrophoretic parameters; goat; haematological parameters Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2013.875914 Affiliations: 1: Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, Polo Universitario dell'Annunziata, Messina, Italy 2: Experimental Zooprophylaxis Institute of Sicily, Palermo, Italy Publication date: October 2, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Piccione ; Monteverde ; Rizzo ; Vazzana ; Assenza ; Zumbo ; Niutta GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 10/2014; 42(4).
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the suitability of seven asymptotic nonlinear models to describe body weight growth of Hemsin male and female sheep from birth to 36 months of age and, using the selected functions, to provide a biological interpretation for this growth. The weight–age data for this study were obtained from records of 108 Hemsin female and male sheep held in variety breeder flocks of Artvin province in Turkey. The sheep records were collected between 2008 and 2010 with measurements taken at birth, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th, and 36th months of age. Body weight–age data from Hemsin sheep were used to obtain a growth pattern for sheep, with the use of Negative exponential, Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Bertalanffy, Richards, and Janoschek nonlinear functions. Comparisons between these functions were based on coefficients of determination and residual squared error. The R 2 values of the models ranged from 0.971 to 0.989 for males and from 0.951 to 0.991 for males. In both sexes, the Brody, Richards, and Janoschek models, with equal R 2 as 0.99, were superior to the others. However, the Brody was precise on its parameters and easy to interpret than Richards and Janoschek functions.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fifteen hair Pelibuey ewes were allotted individually to examine the effect of DL-malic acid (MA) supplementation level (0, 2 and 4 g of MA/ kg of feed) on the first weeks of lactation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and pre-weaning weight gain of their suckling kids. Milk yield (P=0.04) and milk efficiency (P=0.03) increased linearly as MA supplementation increased, but dry matter intake and milk composition (percentage of total solids, protein, and fat) were not affected (P>0.05). Increases on milk yield with no effect on milk composition led to a greater (linear effect, P=0.02) milk protein yield. The ingestion of malic acid by the ewes resulted in a greater (linear, P<0.01) average daily gain of their kids. Supplementation with 4 g of DL-malic acid per kilogram of feed increased milk production, milk protein yield, and milk efficiency with no effect on dry matter intake and milk composition. This milk production increase led to a greater daily gain of pre-weaned kids fed with milk as the unique feed source.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether a fermented feed supplemented with carrot by-product is associated with body weight and meat quality in pigs, as well as whether it affects the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). The chemical composition of the fermented feed was 4% crude protein, 4% crude fat, 2% crude fibre, 0.2% phosphorus and 0.04% calcium. The daily weight gain and finished body weights of pigs fed the treated diet, which supplemented with the fermented diet including carrot by-product, were approximately 175 g and 5 kg greater, respectively, than those that received the basal diet. The transcriptional levels of HSP27 and HSP70 in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs fed the treated diet were lower than those that received the basal diets. The correlation coefficients (CORRs) between the expressions of HSP and meat traits including carcass weight, quality grade, crude fat, water holding capacity and drip loss showed strong negative effects. The treated diet reduces the expression levels of HSP27 and HSP70 in pigs, and this is associated with increased daily weight gain, final body weight and higher meat quality as measured by carcass weight, quality grade and water-holding capacity
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 01/2014; 42(3):321-326.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 21 fat-tail Barbarine lambs were divided into three groups. Two groups were conducted on feedlot (FL). The daily diet was oat hay and 800 g of concentrate/lamb for control feedlot group (CFL) and control plus 200 g of aromatic plant (AP) of pasture for the second group (APFL). The last group was conducted on a natural pasture (NPG – natural pasture grazing group) rich with APs; sheep received daily 400 g/lamb of the same concentrate. At the end of the experiment, 70 days, all lambs were slaughtered. The average daily gain was 161 ± 11 g, and the slaughter body weight was 43 kg for all groups. Also, daily muscle and fat gains were similar for all groups. The initial pH was significantly higher for NPG than for both the FL ones. The use of AP increased a* and b* values for both rearing modes (16.4 vs. 15.5 and 7.3 vs. 5.8, respectively) but lightness value only for NPG group (L* = 37.3). Meat from NPG and APFL groups was more tender than that of FL one. However, meat juiciness was lower for grazing than for both the FL groups. In conclusion, with the half quantity of concentrate grazing natural pasture system resulted in the same growth rate as FL. The use of APs in natural pasture or in FL system leads to the same growth rate and tends to improve carcass traits. Furthermore, this use resulted in an increase in meat tenderness and lightness.
    Journal of Applied Animal Research 01/2014; 42(3).