Indian Journal of Virology (INDIAN J VIROL )

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  • Impact factor
    0.36
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  • 5-year impact
    0.29
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.04
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    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.07
  • ISSN
    0970-2822

Publications in this journal

  • Indian Journal of Virology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study confirms the occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) under the genus Potyvirus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya based on mechanical transmission assay, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and sequence analysis. This is the first record of Chivmv in Naga chilli in North-East India.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A survey was carried out to determine the extent of Potato virus V (PVV) infection, together with other potyviruses, in Iran in both commercial and local potato varieties. We found a low incidence of PVV in commercial varieties compared to a local potato cultivar Zardi, in which we noted a PVV infection up to ~32.9 %. We determined the genomic sequence 9,812 nucleotides of one isolate (KER.LAL.P) from cultivar Agria and the 3′-terminal sequence including coat protein (CP) gene of four additional isolates from cultivar Zardi. The Iranian isolate PVV KER.LAL.P was found to share 91 % sequence identity with the Scottish isolate DV-42 (AJ243766) of PVV. The CP gene sequences of the PVV isolates from Iran shared 96.5 to 99.3 % pairwise nucleotide identity and they shared <97.5 % pairwise identity with the CP sequences of all other PVV isolates available in public databases. Our host studies indicated that the Iranian PVV isolate had a narrower host range and infected Nicotiana debneyi and N. glutinosa test plants. Within the commercial varieties of potato in Iran, we noted a significant amount of mixed potyvirus infection. This study is the first report of occurrence and complete genome of PVV in Iran.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25:78-84.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hydroxyproline (Hyp), malondialdhyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant status (TAS) biomarkers in comparison with Metavir scoring for assessing the severity of hepatic fibrosis in the HCV patients. The histological activity index (HAI) was evaluated in liver biopsy by Metavir scoring system in 150 patients with HCV. HCV initial screening, further genotyping and biochemical data analysis were performed in serum using ELISA and biochemical assays. Out of the 150 HCV patients in this study, the most prevalent HCV genotype was genotype 4 (97 %). The significant fibrosis was estimated in 83.3 % of patients using the Metavir scoring system. They classified into 40 % of patients with mild fibrosis (F0–F1); 60 % with significant fibrosis (F2–4) and 20 % had cirrhosis (F4). Patients with cirrhosis (F4) showed significant correlation (P < 0.001) with increase in ALT, AST, AST/ALT, Hyp, Hyp/platelet count ratio, APRI, MDA, older age, and decrease (P < 0.001) in SOD, TAS, and platelet count compared to other stages of liver fibrosis. In our population, using optimized cut-off values of AST/ALT, APRI, Hyp, MDA, SOD, and TAS, significant fibrosis could be predicted accurately with a range of (80–90 %), and cirrhosis with a range of (67–97 %) of HCV patients. Our study showed that, oxidative stress and Hyp markers could be useful as noninvasive diagnostic markers in the assessment of hepatic fibrosis.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin–neuraminidase (HN) is a multifunctional protein, which possesses both the receptor recognition and neuraminidase activities. The fusion (F) protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein that mediates the merger of the viral envelope to the host cell membrane. Although the functions of the HN and F proteins have been well studied, however, the factors shaping synonymous codon usage bias and nucleotide composition in HN and F genes have been few reported. In our study, we analyzed synonymous codon usage using the 69 NDV HN and F genes, respectively. The general correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in HN and F genes. In addition, other factors, such as the aromaticity and hydrophobicity, also influence the codon usage variation among HN and F genes. This study represents the most comprehensive analysis to date of NDV HN and F genes codon usage patterns and provides a basic understanding of the mechanisms for codon usage bias.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Papillomaviruses are found in epithelial lesions and are linked to different carcinogenic processes in humans and other animals. Although BPV has been characterized as epitheliotropic, the presence of viral DNA has been detected in other tissues and fluids, such as fresh semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and expression of BPV in sperm cells of bulls (Bos taurus) asymptomatic for papillomatosis. A PCR assay was carried out with specific primers to test BPV2 in 26 semen samples. The presence of BPV transcripts was assessed by RT-PCR to E2 and E5 genes. BPV2 DNA was detected in nine out of 26 samples and the expression of E2 and E5 were detected in five out of nine BPV positive samples. This is the first record of BPV2 expression in bull sperm cells.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Cardamom being perennial, propagated vegetatively, detecting viruses in planting material is important to check the spread of viruses through infected material. Thus development of effective and sensitive assay for detection of viruses is need of the time. In this view, assay for the detection of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV), infecting cardamom was developed using SYBR Green one step reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The RT-qPCR assay amplified all isolates of CdMV and BBrMV tested but no amplification was obtained with RNA of healthy plants. Recombinant plasmids carrying target virus regions corresponding to both viruses were quantified, serially diluted and used as standards in qPCR to develop standard curve to enable quantification. When tenfold serial dilutions of the total RNAs from infected plants were tested through RT-qPCR, the detection limit of the assay was estimated to be 16 copies for CdMV and 10 copies for BBrMV, which was approximately 1,000-fold higher than the conventional RT-PCR. The RT-qPCR assay was validated by testing field samples collected from different cardamom growing regions of India. This is the first report of RT-qPCR assay for the detection of CdMV and BBrMV in cardamom.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for immune homeostasis and tolerance. However, because of their capacity to suppress antigen presenting cells (APC), T and B cells, Tregs could also inhibit protective immune responses to viruses and vaccines. Several viruses have been shown to exploit Tregs to evade immune response. By modulating APC and in particular by weakening the functions of dendritic cells such as their ability to secrete polarizing cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules, viruses could support differentiation and expansion of Tregs. Of note, as a proof of concept, depletion of Tregs significantly enhanced the protective immune response to viruses and vaccines suggesting that Tregs are viable targets to enhance immunogenicity of vaccines. As Treg depletion or inhibition of their functions could lead to deleterious autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, any Treg-based approach for vaccination should not aim at depletion of Tregs and inhibition of their functions should be transient. Recent studies have targeted the interaction between CCR4 expressed on Tregs and its ligands CCL22 and CCL17 to inhibit transiently the recruitment of Tregs at the site of immunization. Importantly, use of CCR4 antagonists as ‘molecular adjuvants’ in vivo in experimental models, amplified cellular and humoral immune responses when injected in combination with various vaccine antigens. The significant adjuvant activity observed in diverse models without noticeable side effects provided strong evidence that CCR4 is a sustainable target for rational adjuvant design.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, aquaculture has grown at an average annual growth rate of approximately 6 % worldwide despite many challenges. Viral diseases are one of the major challenges that are threatening a sustainable growth of finfish farming globally. Vaccination of farmed fish plays an important role in commercial fish farming to mitigate viral diseases. In this review, we summarized the major viral diseases that have caused serious economic losses, and emerging diseases that pose a potential threat to aquaculture. The current status of viral vaccines in farmed fish are discussed, particularly the different types of vaccines that were licensed in recent years and are now commercially available, and the routes of delivery of those vaccines including the merits and demerits of each of these delivery method. Furthermore, the article provides an overview of different experimental vaccines that have been reported in the literatures in recent years besides highlighting the future need for developing cost-effective, oral vaccines that can be easily applicable at farm level.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei has been introduced recently for culture practice in India. Though SPF stocks are imported for larval production and thereafter culture practice, these are prone to infection with the existing viruses in the environment. Here we report mortality of L.vannamei in several farms in India with minimum biosecurity. The shrimp were harvested early within 50–72 days of culture due to the onset of disease and consequent mortality. As per the analysis carried out, the shrimp were infected with two virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). About 80 % of the samples collected had either or both of the viruses. A majority of these samples (60 %) had dual infection with WSSV and IHHNV. Infection of shrimp with WSSV and IHHNV could be detected both by PCR and histopathology. Some of the samples had either exclusively WSSV infection or IHHNV infection and were also harvested before the completion of the required culture period. All the samples analyzed were negative for taura syndrome virus, yellow head virus and infectious myonecrosis virus. While it is difficult to point out the exact etiological agent as the cause of mortality, strict biosecurity measures are advisable for the continuity of L. vannamei culture in India.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Rabies is primarily a disease of terrestrial and airborne mammals. In most cases, rabies is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical symptoms and signs, and a corroborative history of or evidence of an animal bite, death of an animal and incomplete or no vaccination following exposure. The facility for laboratory diagnosis and confirmation of rabies is available in only a few institutions in India. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays like fluorescent antibody test (FAT) are unreliable at times, despite the clinical diagnosis. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. We have developed and evaluated an RT-PCR–ELISA using a panel of brain tissue samples from rabies suspected animals of various species. This assay was able to detect rabies virus genome in all the 43 samples that were previously tested positive for rabies. Moreover this assay was shown to be 100 % sensitive and specific in detecting the rabies virus genome in post-mortem brain tissue samples from different species of animals. Our pilot study shows the potential of this assay as an alternative diagnostic test when the samples are unsuitable for use in FAT and also a supplementary test to FAT. In addition, the region of nucleoprotein gene amplified using this assay can be used for the molecular investigation of geographical origin of the field strains.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A recombinant plasmid expressing the VP6 inner capsid coding gene of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) was constructed and expressed in a Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cell line and grass carps. The VP6 gene was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned into a pEGFP-N1 eukaryotic expression vector and transfected into CIK cells. Results from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) experiments and flow cytometry showed highest protein expression at 48 h. The immunoreactivity of fusion protein was confirmed using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The specific binding between the fusion protein and polyclonal mouse GCRV VP6-specific antiserum indicated that the fusion protein was translated in vitro and had good immunogenicity. An antiviral activity assay showed that the virus titer was 100-fold lower in the GCRV VP6 expressed cells than in the pEGFP-N1 transfected cells. The expression levels of three immune genes in the head kidney of grass carps injected with the recombinant plasmid were used. Mx, TLR3 and IgM mRNA expression increased sharply at the 1st and 15th days post-injection (dpi). Specific antibodies were detected 30 days after vaccination. Neutralizing titers of the antibodies in vaccinated fish detected ranged from 160 to 320. Intramuscular injection of grass carps with 1 μg of pEGFP-N1-VP6 was found to provide strong protection against GCRV. These results suggested that the VP6 gene was a good candidate for the design of GCRV-DNA vaccines and to investigate the use of cytokines as co-stimulatory molecules.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, crinviruses have gained interest due to their rapid widespread and destructive nature for cucurbit cultivation. Several members of the genus Crinivirus are considered emerging viruses. Currently, four criniviruses: Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Lettuce infectious yellows virus have been reported to infect field- or greenhouse- grown cucurbits. Apart from their cucurbit hosts, criniviruses infect other cash crops and weeds. Criniviruses are exclusively transmitted by whiteflies. The virion titer and the vector genus or species complex are predominant factors affecting virus transmission. These criniviruses maintain genetic stability with limited intra-species variability. They share similar core genome structure and replication strategies with some variations in the non-core proteins and downstream replication processes. Management of the diseases induced by criniviruses relies on integrated disease management strategies and on resistant varieties, when available. This review will cover their epidemiology, molecular biology, detection and management.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates were found in all samples of soil in nine Governorates of Yemen. From 384 isolates of Bacillus recovered from these soil samples after acetate selection, 104 isolates (27.1 %) were Bt. Five isolates of Bt were selected and insecticidal activity was tested against Culex pipiens, Callosobruchus maculatus and Spodoptera littoralis. The Bt isolate YH18 gave toxicity to all tested insects larvae. This study extended to isolate phages active against the selected Bt isolates. Five phages were isolated and classified into two groups of tailed phages. Four phages with long non-contractile tails and hexagonal heads (Siphoviridae) and one phage with very short tail and isometric head (Podoviridae). Susceptibility of selected Bt to infect by these phages was studied by spot-test technique. Also the Bt isolate no YH18 was resistant to all tested phages. This is the first report illustrates the diversity and the abundance of Bt and Bt phage in Yemen soil.
    Indian Journal of Virology 01/2014; 25(1).