Indian Journal of Community Medicine (Indian J Community Med)

Publisher: Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, Medknow Publications

Journal description

Published Quarterly at Department of Community Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-160012, India

Current impact factor: 0.00

Impact Factor Rankings

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Indian Journal of Community Medicine website
Other titles Indian journal of community medicine (Online)
ISSN 0970-0218
OCLC 60622662
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Medknow Publications

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike License
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • All titles are open access journals
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):75-78. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153864
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Every pregnancy is a joyful moment for all mothers who dream of a safe pregnancy and a healthy baby. However, every pregnant woman faces the risk of sudden, unpredictable complications that could end in death or injury to herself or to her infant. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) is a strategy that encourages pregnant women, their families, and communities to effectively plan for births and deal with emergencies, if they occur. It is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs. Objectives: The objective of our study was to assess the status of BPACR among pregnant women and to study the socio-demographic factors affecting BPACR. Materials and Methods: We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study among 417 antenatal attendees at a primary health center, Palam, New Delhi from January to April 2012. Knowledge about danger signs, planning for transport, place, and delivery by skilled birth attendant, financial management, and outcome were assessed. BPACR index was calculated. Results: Our study revealed that the BPACR index was very low (41%) although the preparedness level was high. Majority (81.1%) had identified a skilled attendant at birth for delivery. Nearly half of the women (48.9%) had saved money for delivery and 44.1% women had also identified a mode of transportation for the delivery. However, only 179 (42.9%) women were aware about early registration of pregnancy. Only one-third (33.1%) of women knew about four or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. Overall, only 27.8% women knew about any one danger sign of pregnancy. Conclusion: The level of awareness regarding BPACR was very low (41%). Efforts should be targeted to increase the awareness regarding components of BPACR among pregnant women and their families at the Primary Health Center (PHC) as well as at the community level. This will indeed go a long way in reducing morbidity as well as mortality in pregnant women, thus enabling us to reach the millennium development goal. Keywords: Birth preparedness and complication readiness, danger signs, India, pregnancy
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40:127-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as < -3 SD, -2 to -3 SD, > -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd's ratio, Chi square for trend. A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315) and females were 46% (267). One hundred and fifty-nine (27%) of the children had pallor, 81 (20%) had under nutrition, 38 (7%) had stunting, 197 (34%) had thinness and 5 (1%) were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):97-102. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153871
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    ABSTRACT: Blindness and visual impairment continues to be a major public health problem in India. Availability and easy access to primary eye care services is essential for elimination of avoidable blindness. 'Vision 2020: The Right to Sight - India' envisaged the need for establishing primary eye care units named vision centers for every 50,000 population in the country by the year 2020. The government of India has given priority to develop vision centers at the level of community health centers and primary health centers under the 'National Program for Control of Blindness'. NGOs and the private sector have also initiated some models for primary eye care services. In the current situation, an integrated health care system with primary eye care promoted by government of India is apparently the best answer. This model is both cost effective and practical for the prevention and control of blindness among the underprivileged population. Other models functioning with the newer technology of tele-ophthalmology or mobile clinics also add to the positive outcome in providing primary eye care services. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of various models presently functioning in the country with the idea of providing useful inputs for eye care providers and enabling them to identify and adopt an appropriate model for primary eye care services.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):79-84. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153868
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    ABSTRACT: Every pregnancy is a joyful moment for all mothers who dream of a safe pregnancy and a healthy baby. However, every pregnant woman faces the risk of sudden, unpredictable complications that could end in death or injury to herself or to her infant. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) is a strategy that encourages pregnant women, their families, and communities to effectively plan for births and deal with emergencies, if they occur. It is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs. The objective of our study was to assess the status of BPACR among pregnant women and to study the socio-demographic factors affecting BPACR. We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study among 417 antenatal attendees at a primary health center, Palam, New Delhi from January to April 2012. Knowledge about danger signs, planning for transport, place, and delivery by skilled birth attendant, financial management, and outcome were assessed. BPACR index was calculated. Our study revealed that the BPACR index was very low (41%) although the preparedness level was high. Majority (81.1%) had identified a skilled attendant at birth for delivery. Nearly half of the women (48.9%) had saved money for delivery and 44.1% women had also identified a mode of transportation for the delivery. However, only 179 (42.9%) women were aware about early registration of pregnancy. Only one-third (33.1%) of women knew about four or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. Overall, only 27.8% women knew about any one danger sign of pregnancy. The level of awareness regarding BPACR was very low (41%). Efforts should be targeted to increase the awareness regarding components of BPACR among pregnant women and their families at the Primary Health Center (PHC) as well as at the community level. This will indeed go a long way in reducing morbidity as well as mortality in pregnant women, thus enabling us to reach the millennium development goal.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):127-134. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153881
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the perceptions of health care providers about barriers to improved patient safety in the Indian state of Kerala. Five focus group discussions were held with 16 doctors and 20 nurses across three institutions (primary, secondary and tertiary care centers) in Kerala, India. Transcripts were analyzed by thematic analysis. One rural primary care clinic, one secondary care hospital and one tertiary care center in Kerala, India. 16 doctors and 20 nurses participated in five focus groups. Overall, there were 129 unique mentions of barriers to patient safety; these barriers were categorized into five major themes. 'Limited resources' was the most prominent theme, followed by barriers related to health systems issues, the medical culture, provider training and patient education/awareness. Although inadequate resources are likely a substantial challenge to the improvement of patient safety in India, other patient safety barriers such as health systems changes, training, and education, could be addressed with fewer resources. While initial approaches to improving patient safety in India and other low- and middle-income countries have focused on implementing processes that represent best practices, this study suggests that multifaceted interventions to also address more structural problems (such as resource constraints, systems issues, and medical culture) may be important.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):116-120. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153875
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue viruses, single-stranded positive polarity ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses of the family Flaviviridae, are the most common cause of arboviral disease in the world. We report a clinico-epidemiological study of the dengue fever outbreak of 2010 from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, North India. Objectives of the study were to know the incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue cases among the clinically suspected patients; to study the clinical profile of dengue-positive cases; and to co-relate the above with the prevalent serotype and environmental conditions. Four thousand three hundred and seventy serum samples from clinically suspected cases of dengue infection were subjected to μ-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of dengue-virus-specific IgM antibodies. Virus isolation was done in 55 samples on C6/36 cell mono-layers. Clinical and demographic details of the patients were obtained from requisition forms of the patients or from treating clinicians. Out of the 4,370 serum samples, 1,700 were positive for dengue-virus-specific IgM antibodies (38.9%). Prevalent serotype was dengue virus type-1. Thrombocytopenia and myalgia was seen in 23.1% and 18.3% of the 1,700 dengue IgM-positive patients, respectively. Also, 10.3% of 1,700 were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients; and the mortality in serologically confirmed dengue fever cases was 0.06%. A change in the predominant circulating serotype, unprecedented rains, enormous infrastructure development, and increased reporting due to improved diagnostic facilities were the factors responsible for the unexpected number of dengue fever cases confronted in 2010.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):135-138. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153884
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    ABSTRACT: To study levels of physical activity and various measures of obesity and their association in an urban population. Cross sectional. One thousand and forty-seven individuals between the ages 25-64 years systematically sampled from a community-based population database were contacted through a house-to-house survey. We adopted the WHO STEPS guidelines for conducting this study. Anthropological measures collected were height, weight, and waist and hip circumference. Physical Activity (PA) levels declined with age and the decline was greater among females. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for age against PA among males was found to be negative and weak (r = -0.104) and that among females was found to be similar (r = -0.206). The prevalence of obesity was higher among females (28.8 %) than among males (13.3 %) and the difference was statistically significant. There was a progressive increase in abdominal obesity with age in both genders. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among individuals with low levels of PA as compared to those with high levels of PA. Sedentary behavior is prevalent in more than half of the current study sample. This was more so with increasing age, female gender and increasing obesity. PA is an important component on long-term weight control, and therefore adequate levels of activity should be prescribed to combat the obesity epidemic. Habitual moderate physical activity may be beneficial in preventing excess accumulation of fat.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 04/2015; 40(2):103-107. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153873
  • Indian Journal of Community Medicine 03/2015; 40(2):139-40. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.153885
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    ABSTRACT: Although school eye screening is a major activity of the National Program for Control of Blindness, inadequate evidence exists about accuracy of school teachers in screening. Compare quality of referral for subnormal vision by school teachers and primary eye care workers (PECW) in school children and to establish appropriate cutoff for identification of subnormal vision in school going children. This was a cross-sectional study involving school children studying in classes 1 to 9 in different schools of Delhi evaluated for sub-normal vision. Vision was recorded by the teacher and a primary eye care worker especially trained for the study using the optotypes of Early treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Survey (ETDRS) vision chart with standard lighting. The total number of children enlisted in the 20 selected schools was 10,114. Of these, 9838 (97.3%) children were examined in the study. The mean age of children enrolled in the study was 11.6 ± 2.19 years with 6752 (66.9%) males. The sensitivity and specificity of teachers in comparison to PECW using 6/9.5 vision level as cutoff for referral was 79.2% and 93.3%, respectively compared to 77.0% and 97.1%, respectively on using the 6/12 optotype. The results showed significantly higher sensitivity and lower specificity for private schools against government schools and for older against younger children. Our results show that the use of teachers and shift to use of the 6/12 sized "E" for the school eye screening (SES) program is appropriate and would substantially reduce the work of eye care providers while improving its overall efficiency.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 01/2015; 40(1):38-42. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.149269
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial disease involving the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Studies highlighting the public health importance of risk factors like chronic infections causing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Indian context are scarce. This study was undertaken to study the association of socio-demographic and life-style factors with acute myocardial infarction in central India. Materials and Methods: The cases and controls were group-matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. A blinded research associate administered the study questionnaire. We performed an unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The case-control study included 265 cases of AMI and 265 controls. The results of final model of logistic regression analysis for risk factors of AMI included 11 risk factors at α = 0.05. They were waist hip ratio, body mass index, stress at home in last 1 year, hypertension, family history of CHD, past history of gingival sepsis, tobacco smoking, raised total serum cholesterol, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and raised C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The findings confirm the role of conventional risk factors for cardiac disease and highlight need for research into the association between chronic infections with AMI.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 01/2015; Ind J Community Med 2015(40):19-26. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.149265
  • Indian Journal of Community Medicine 01/2015; 40(1):8. DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.149262