Neuroreport (NEUROREPORT )

Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins


NeuroReport, with its exceptionally fast publication times, is consistently up to date with the latest advances in neuroscience research. One of the fastest fully refereed journals, NeuroReport aims to publish manuscripts within 12 weeks of receipt. All aspects of neuroscience are covered by this prestigious journal.

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    Neuro report
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Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 10/04/2014
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attempts to identify physiological correlates of listening effort have mainly focused on peripheral measures (e.g. pupillometry) and auditory-evoked/event-related potentials. Although nonauditory studies have suggested that sustained time-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) features in the θ-band (4-7 Hz) are correlated with domain-general mental effort, little work has characterized such features during effortful listening. Here, high-density EEG data was collected while listeners performed a sentence-recognition task in noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of which varied across blocks. Frontal midline θ (Fmθ), largely driven by sources localized in or near the medial frontal cortex, showed greater power with decreasing SNR and was positively correlated with self-reports of effort. Increased Fmθ was present before speech onset and during speech presentation. Fmθ power also differed across SNRs when including only trials in which all words were recognized, suggesting that the effects were unrelated to performance differences. Results suggest that frontal cortical networks play a larger role in listening as acoustic signals are increasingly masked. Further, sustained time-frequency EEG features may usefully supplement previously used peripheral and event-related potential measures in psychophysiological investigations of effortful listening.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(2):94-9.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that inhibition of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a sirtuin family protein, can decrease cellular and tissue injuries in models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD); however, the mechanisms underlying these observations have remained unclear. Because inflammation plays key pathological roles in multiple major neurological disorders including PD and HD, in our current study we tested our hypothesis that SIRT2 plays an important role in microglial activation. We found that treatment of BV2 microglia with lipopolysaccharides led to significant increases in NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels, as well as increases in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6 mRNA, which indicated microglial activation. These increases were significantly decreased in the cells with SIRT2 silencing-produced decreases in the SIRT2 level. These observations suggest that SIRT2 is required for lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation. The findings also suggest that SIRT2 may be a therapeutic target for inhibiting the inflammatory responses in neurological disorders such as PD and HD.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(2):88-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemorrhages are associated with high rates of disability and mortality. Telemedicine in general provides clinical healthcare at a distance by using videotelephony and teleradiology and is used particularly in acute stroke care medicine (TeleStroke). TeleStroke considerably improves quality of stroke care (for instance, by increasing thrombolysis) and may be valuable for the management of intracranial hemorrhages in rural hospitals and hospitals lacking neurosurgical departments, given that surgical/interventional therapy is only recommended for a subgroup of patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency, anatomical locations of intracranial hemorrhage, risk factors, and the proportion of patients transferred to specialized hospitals. We evaluated teleconsultations conducted between 2008 and 2010 in a large cohort of patients consecutively enrolled in the Telemedical Project for Integrated Stroke Care (TEMPiS) network. In cases in which intracranial hemorrhage was detected, all images were re-examined and analyzed with a focus on frequency, location, risk factors, and further management. Overall, 6187 patients presented with stroke-like symptoms. Intracranial hemorrhages were identified in 631 patients (10.2%). Of these, intracerebral hemorrhages were found in 423 cases (67.0%), including 174 (41.1%) in atypical locations and 227 (53.7%) in typical sites among other locations. After 14 days of hospitalization in community facilities, the mortality rate in patients with intracranial hemorrhages was 15.1% (95/631). Two hundred and twenty-three patients (35.3%) were transferred to neurological/neurosurgical hospitals for diagnostic workup or additional treatment. Community hospitals are confronted with patients with intracranial hemorrhage, whose management requires specific neurosurgical and hematological expertise with respect to hemorrhage subtype and clinical presentation. TeleStroke networks help select patients who need advanced neurological and/or neurosurgical care. The relatively low proportion of interhospital transfers shown in this study reflects a differentiated decision process on the basis of both guidelines and standard operating procedures.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(2):81-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between procalcitonin (PCT) serum levels and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a Chinese sample. All consecutive patients with first-ever AIS between January 2012 and December 2013 were recruited to participate in the study. PCT levels and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were evaluated at the time of admission. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk for stroke according to serum PCT levels. The results indicated that serum PCT levels were significantly higher in AIS patients as compared with normal controls (P<0.0001). PCT levels increased with increasing severity of stroke, as defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. After adjusting for all other possible covariates, PCT level was found to be associated with an increased risk for AIS, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.244 (95% confidence interval 1.563-3.756, P<0.0001). On the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum PCT levels as an indicator for auxiliary diagnosis of AIS was projected to be 1.20 ng/ml, which yielded a sensitivity of 79.6% and a specificity of 72.1%, with the area under the curve at 0.801 (95% confidence interval 0.762-0.844). An elevated serum level of PCT was a novel, independent diagnostic marker of AIS in the Chinese sample. Further study is needed to confirm these results.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):33-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Bell's palsy (BP), a unilateral and idiopathic palsy of the facial nerve, is a common disorder generally followed by a good natural recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the recovery process of BP. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers and 67 patients were studied by functional MRI (fMRI). The seed regions of bilateral ACC were first extracted from the task-state fMRI data of healthy participants performing the task of mouth opening and closing. The connectivity of bilateral ACC was calculated from resting-state fMRI data of patients in whom only resting-state fMRI data were collected. The correlation between the strength of ACC's connectivity with the duration (time course of disease) was computed by analysis of covariance. It was found that the functional connectivity of the ACC ipsilateral to the lesioned side was enforced as the duration increased. The enforced brain areas included the sensorimotor areas and the ACC contralateral to the palsy. It was suggested that enforced functional connectivity of ACC might be related to cortical reorganization, which is important in the process of BP recovery.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):6-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is speculated to be caused by disturbed microcirculation of the central nervous system. However, characteristic imaging findings of NPSLE have not been established. Hence, we investigated whether high-resolution images obtained using ultrahigh field MRI at 7 T can detect microcerebrovascular lesions in patients with NPSLE that have never been detected by conventional MRI. We prospectively examined 20 patients with SLE, including five with NPSLE, using a 7 T MRI scanner. High-resolution two-dimensional T2-weighted images and high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images (T1WIs) before and after the administration of contrast agents were obtained. On the high-resolution T1WIs obtained at 7 T, minute punctate/linear hyperintense lesions in subcortical and/or cortical areas were found in four (80%) NPSLE patients and one (7%) non-NPSLE patient. Further, the minute punctate enhanced lesions in these areas were found on contrast-enhanced T1WIs in only three (60%) NPSLE patients. These findings suggesting microvascular thrombi or inflammation were significantly more frequent in NPSLE than in non-NPSLE patients (P=0.001). In contrast, other imaging findings, laboratory findings, and clinical characteristics were not different between the two groups. High-resolution T1WIs obtained at 7 T can detect minute lesions, indicating intracerebral microvascular lesions in patients with NPSLE.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):27-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Early life stress is a risk factor for developing functional pain disorders. The 'limited bedding' (LB) model elicits psychological stress in the dam and her pups by providing minimal nesting material following delivery. Little is known about the effects of LB on visceral pain. Rats (female, male) were exposed to LB on postnatal days 2-9. Electromyographic visceromotor responses were recorded at the age of 11-12 weeks during titrated colorectal distension. LB exposure resulted in significant visceral hyperalgesia in both sexes. Sex differences were demonstrated only in nonstressed controls, with females showing a greater visceromotor response. Our results prepare the way for use of the LB model in studying the development of visceral pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):13-6.
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    ABSTRACT: During hunting, insectivorous bats systematically vary the parameters of emitted pulses and analyze the returning echoes to extract prey features. As such, the duration of the pulse (P) and echo (E), the P-E gap, and the P-E amplitude difference progressively decrease throughout the prey-approach sequence. Our previous studies have shown that most inferior collicular neurons of bats discharge maximally to a best duration, and they have the sharpest echo frequency and amplitude sensitivity when stimulated with P-E pairs with duration the same as the best duration. Furthermore, their echo duration and frequency sensitivity improves with decreasing P-E duration and P-E gap. The present study shows that this is also true in the amplitude domain. Thus, all these data indicate that bats can better extract multiple parameters of expected rather than unexpected echo after pulse emission. They also support the hypothesis that a bat's inferior collicular neurons improve the response sensitivity in multiple parametric domains as the prey is approached to increase the success of hunting.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):38-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Functional connectivity density (FCD) is a newly developed data-driven method to measure the number of functional connections of each voxel, possibly providing new insight into the neural correlates of fluid reasoning. Here, we recruited 211 healthy young adults (91 men and 120 women) to investigate associations between the global FCD and fluid reasoning capacity as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices scores were correlated negatively with the global FCD in multiple brain regions of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices in male participants. No significant correlation was found in female participants. Our findings confirmed the association between fluid reasoning and functional connectivity of multiple cognitive-related brain regions. The positive correlation with the functional connectivity strength and the negative correlation between fluid reasoning and FCD suggest that individuals with superior fluid reasoning capacity may possess a small number of strong functional connections. The sex dichotomy of this association indicates that the fluid reasoning capacity of men and women may have different neural substrates.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):17-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Late preterm birth is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for cognitive and social deficits. The prefrontal cortex is particularly vulnerable to injury in late prematurity because of its protracted development and extensive cortical connections. Our study examined children born late preterm without access to advanced postnatal care to assess structural and functional connectivity related to the prefrontal cortex. Thirty-eight preadolescents [19 born late preterm (34-36 /7 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term] were recruited from a developing community in Brazil. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing. Individuals underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and resting state functional MRI. Probabilistic tractography and functional connectivity analyses were carried out using unilateral seeds combining the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Late preterm children showed increased functional connectivity within regions of the default mode, salience, and central-executive networks from both right and left frontal cortex seeds. Decreased functional connectivity was observed within the right parahippocampal region from left frontal seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed a pattern of decreased streamlines in frontal white matter pathways and the corpus callosum, but also increased streamlines in the left orbitofrontal white matter and the right frontal white matter when seeded from the right. Late preterm children and term control children scored similarly on neuropsychological testing. Prefrontal cortical connectivity is altered in late prematurity, with hyperconnectivity observed in key resting state networks in the absence of neuropsychological deficits. Abnormal structural connectivity indicated by probabilistic tractography suggests subtle changes in white matter development, implying disruption of normal maturation during the late gestational period.
    Neuroreport 01/2015; 26(1):22-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To observe changes in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 in a patient transitioning from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS). One patient with intracerebral hemorrhage and an 8-month disease course was evaluated as being in the VS using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Two weeks after the patient was admitted to the hospital, another evaluation was performed, and the patient was determined to be in an MCS. Using the Oddball paradigm, pure tone and name stimuli were presented to the patient to study event-related potentials (ERPs). A 15-week clinical follow-up was carried out, and four ERP examinations were performed at 2 days and 2, 6, and 15 weeks after admission. One healthy individual was assessed as a control participant. MMN and P300 were elicited in all four ERP examinations. MMN and P300 may occur earlier than believed in patients in persistent VS and MCS; their predictive values for prognosis need to be further confirmed by follow-up studies on a large clinical sample.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Neuroreport 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between plasma levels of copeptin and 1-year mortality in a cohort of Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively studied 275 patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. Copeptin and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) score were measured at the time of admission. The prognostic value of copeptin to predict mortality within 1 year was compared with the NIHSS score and other known outcome predictors. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher copeptin levels on admission compared with survivors (P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that elevated plasma levels of copeptin were an independent stroke mortality predictor, with an adjusted odds ratio of 4.48 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.18-9.06]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of copeptin was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.847-0.921) for stroke mortality, which yielded a sensitivity of 90.7% and a specificity of 84.5%. Copeptin improved the NIHSS score (area under the curve of the combined model, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.97; P=0.011). Elevated plasma copeptin levels at admission were an independent predictor of long-term mortality after ischemic stroke in a Chinese sample, suggesting that these alterations might play a role in the pathophysiology of stroke.
    Neuroreport 12/2014; 25(18):1447-52.
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    ABSTRACT: The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates various physiological and psychological functions, such as movement, motivation, behavior, and learning. DA exerts its function through DA receptors and a series of studies have reported the role of DAergic receptors in preventing DAergic neuronal degeneration. Here, we studied the DA receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of the D2-like receptor agonists against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DAergic neurodegeneration. D2-like receptor agonists were administered in the substantia nigra in vivo and to primary cultured neurons. Treatment of 6-OHDA decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and paraplegin (mitochondrial regulation protein) immunoreactivity, whereas pretreatment with quinpirole (a full D2-like receptor agonist) preserved TH and paraplegin reactivity. This led us to test which DA receptors were necessary for the neuroprotective effect and whether paraplegin can be regulated by D2 or D3 receptor agonists. Pretreatment with the D2 receptor selective agonist, sumanirole, did not preserve TH and paraplegin reactivity from 6-OHDA. However, the D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole, protected TH reactivity and restored paraplegin expression to the control level in the presence of 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pretreatment with the D3 receptor antagonist GR103691 reduced TH and paraplegin expression levels. These results suggest that the D3 receptor agonist may protect DA neurons from the effect of 6-OHDA through the modulation of the mitochondrial regulation protein paraplegin.
    Neuroreport 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is well known for its aggressiveness, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear, limiting the treatment. In the present study, we showed that miR-181c, a commonly downregulated miRNA in GBM reported by several miRNA profiles, was associated with the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and predicted the outcome for patients from a GBM cohort (n=518) obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. A multivariate analysis showed that miR-181c was an independent prognostic indicator for GBM patients. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that miR-181c was expressed poorly in neurospheres of glioma cells that resemble glioma stem cells. Proliferation and invasion assays showed that miR-181c also blocked the proliferation and invasion abilities of glioma cells. Limiting dilution and colony formation assays showed that miR-181c attenuated the self-renewal ability of glioma cells. Finally, investigation of the mechanism defined Notch2, a key molecular of Notch signaling, as the functional downstream target of miR-181c. An inverse correlation was found between miR-181c and Notch2 in glioma cells and verified in fresh glioma samples. Taken together, the present study showed that miR-181c can be considered a valuable indicator for the outcome of GBM patients. miR-181c acts as a tumor suppressor that attenuates proliferation, invasion, and self-renewal capacities by downregulation of Notch2 in glioma cells.
    Neuroreport 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a negative deflection that appears around 250 ms after the gain or loss of feedback to chosen alternatives in a gambling task in frontocentral regions following outcomes. Few studies have reported FRN enhancement in adolescents compared with adults in a gambling task without probabilistic reinforcement learning, despite the fact that learning from positive or negative consequences is crucial for decision-making during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to identify differences in FRN amplitude and latency between adolescents and adults on a gambling task with favorable and unfavorable probabilistic reinforcement learning conditions, in addition to a nonlearning condition with monetary gains and losses. Higher rate scores of high-magnitude choices during the final 30 trials compared with the first 30 trials were observed during the favorable condition, whereas lower rates were observed during the unfavorable condition in both groups. Higher FRN amplitude in all conditions and longer latency in the nonlearning condition were observed in adolescents compared with adults and in relation to losses. Results indicate that both the adolescents and the adults improved their performance in relation to positive and negative feedback. However, the FRN findings suggest an increased sensitivity to external feedback to losses in adolescents compared with adults, irrespective of the presence or absence of probabilistic reinforcement learning. These results reflect processing differences on the neural monitoring system and provide new perspectives on the dynamic development of an adolescent's brain.
    Neuroreport 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during tasks of imitation and counter-imitation of observed actions. Twenty individuals participated in two experiments. One experiment was an imitation/counter-imitation task, requiring the participant to imitate or counter-imitate an observed movement. The second experiment required the participant to plan a movement, then to imitate an observed movement that could be either the same or different from that planned. In both experiments, participants executed the task in a baseline session and in a session following inhibitory trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the right TPJ and on the right ventral premotor cortex. In both experiments, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right TPJ decreased reaction times of incongruent responses - that is, it facilitated the execution of movements different from those previously observed or planned. These findings provide an example of modulation of self-other interactions using noninvasive neuromodulation of the right TPJ.
    Neuroreport 11/2014;