World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (WORLD J MICROB BIOT )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology publishes independently refereed research papers short communications technical communications and review articles on all aspects of applied microbiology and biotechnology including virology. The Journal seeks to provide a forum for research work directed towards microbiological and biotechnological solutions to global problems such as agriculture and food supplies and environmental issues including pollution waste management metal recovery bioleaching biological control agents etc. However it is recognized that many global issues for example improving crop productivity and public health have more acute consequences in the developing world than elsewhere. The Journal therefore aims to emphasize the role of biotechnological advances for and from the developing world whilst encouraging contributions from all scientists who have an interest in tackling these global problems. The editors also encourage contributions on aspects of education in microbiology and biotechnology and invite papers or reviews commenting on the social issues attendant with biotechnological applications. The Journal also publishes from time to time special review issues in which a topic of current interest is reviewed in depth by a group of invited scientists usually under the special editionship of a key leader in the area.

  • Impact factor
    1.26
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.55
  • Cited half-life
    6.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.26
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.36
  • Website
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology website
  • Other titles
    World journal of microbiology & biotechnology (Online), World journal of microbiology and biotechnology
  • ISSN
    0959-3993
  • OCLC
    37775874
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's website or institutional repository
    • On funders designated website/repository after 12 months at the funders request or as a result of legal obligation
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial peptide PMAP-36 is a highly cationic and amphipathic α-helical peptide. PRW4 is a truncated analog that replaces paired lysine residues with tryptophan along the N-terminal and deletes the C-terminal hydrophobic tail of PMAP-36. Studies on the two peptides have already been performed. However, whether there is a synergistic effect with antibiotics has not been investigated, and the study of the antibacterial mechanism of the peptides is inadequate. In this study, antibiotic-peptide combinations were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and the confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSCM) and DNA gel retardation were measured. The results indicated synergy between the peptides and gentamicin when tested against E. coli [fractional lethal concentration (FLC) < 0.5]; partial synergy was observed between the peptides and gentamicin against S. aureus (0.5 < FLC < 1); and streptomycin showed no reaction with the peptides against E. coli and S. aureus (1 < FLC < 4). LSCM and DNA binding suggest that PMAP-36 was able to translocate across the bacterial membranes and interact with intracellular DNA, but PRW4 presented no DNA-binding ability. These results indicate that the combination of PMAP-36 and PRW4 with aminoglycosides may provide useful information for clinical application, and the antibacterial mechanism of peptides likely does not solely involve cytoplasmic-membrane permeabilization.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used insecticidal microbe due to its specific toxicity and safe use with respect to animals and the environment. In this study, we isolated Bt strain Q52-7 from a soil sample collected in the Qian Shan District, Liao Ning Province, China. We observed that the Q52-7 strain produced spherical crystals. The Bt Q52-7 strain had high toxicity against Asian Cockchafer (Holotrichia parallela), exhibiting an LC50 of 3.80 × 10(9) cfu/g, but is not toxic for Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky and Holotrichia oblita. Using general cry8 primers, we amplified a 1.3 kb fragment with the polymerase chain reaction. Specific primers were designed for the amplified fragment to clone the full-length coding region. A novel gene, cry8Na1, had 69 % sequence similarity with cry8Ca1. cry8Na1 gene was successfully expressed in the HD-73(-) acrystalliferous mutant of Bt subsp. Kurstaki HD-73. Bioassays demonstrated that the Cry8Na1 protein is highly toxic for the H. parallela, with a 50 % lethal concentration of 8.18 × 10(10) colony forming units per gram.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most popular path of organic waste disposal. It is often used in wastewater treatment plants for excessive sludge removal. Methanogenic fermentation had usually been performed under mesophilic conditions, but in the past few years the thermophilic processes have become more popular due to economics and sludge sanitation. Methanogens, the group of microorganisms responsible for methane production, are thought to be sensitive to temperature change and it has already been proven that the communities performing methanogenesis under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions differ. But in most cases the research performed on methanogen diversity and changeability was undertaken in two separate anaerobic chambers for meso- and thermophilic conditions. It is also known that there is a group of microorganisms performing AD which are insensitive to temperature. Also the linkage between digester performance and its microbial content and community changeability is still not fully understood. That is why in this experiment we analyzed the bacterial community performing methanogenesis in a pilot scale anaerobic chamber during the shift from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions to point at the group of temperature tolerant microorganisms and their performance. The research was performed with PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). It occurred that the community biodiversity decreased together with a temperature increase. The changes were coherent for both the total bacteria community and methanogens. These bacterial shifts were also convergent with biogas production-it decreased in the beginning of the thermophilic phase with the bacterial biodiversity decrease and increased when the community seemed to be restored. DGGE results suggest that among a wide variety of microorganisms involved in AD there is a GC-rich group relatively insensitive towards temperature change, able to adapt quickly to shifts in temperature and perform AD effectively. The studies of this microbial group could be a step forward in developing more efficient anaerobic digestion technology.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are efficient enzymes for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. These two enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, a promising candidate for industrial ethanol production, resulting in high ethanol production in the engineered E. coli. To investigate the intracellular changes to the enzyme overexpression for homoethanol production, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were performed. More than 1,000 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the gel by image analysis. Compared to the wild-type, 99 protein spots showed significant changes in abundance in the recombinant E. coli, in which 46 were down-regulated and 53 were up-regulated. Most proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycerol metabolism and other energy metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway were down-regulated, indicating the rewired metabolism in the engineered E. coli. As glycolysis is the main pathway for ethanol production, and it was inhibited significantly in engineered E. coli, further efforts should be directed at minimizing the repression of glycolysis to optimize metabolism network for higher yields of ethanol production.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and surface properties of unsaturated biofilms of a heavy metal-resistant rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida CZ1, in response to aging, pH, temperature and osmotic stress, were studied by quantitative analysis of EPS and atomic force microscope. It was found that EPS production increased approximately linearly with culture time, cells in the air-biofilm interface enhanced EPS production and decreased cell volume to cope with nutrient depletion during aging. Low pH, high temperature and certain osmotic stress (120 mM NaCl) distinctly stimulated EPS production, and the main component enhanced was extracellular protein. In addition to the enhancement of EPS production in response to high osmotic (328 mM NaCl) stress, cells in the biofilm adhere tightly together to maintain a particular microenvironment. These results indicated the variation of EPS composition and the cooperation of cells in the biofilms is important for the survival of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 from environmental stresses in the unsaturated environments such as rhizosphere.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Huperzine A is isolated from Huperzia serrata and is used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, due to its low toxicity and long effective period. The decrease in H. serrata sources means that natural huperzine A cannot meet the needs of clinical therapy. In this study, >200 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from H. serrata, and screened using high-performance liquid chromatography. Strain ES026 produced huperzine A. Production was identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the yield of huperzine A was 1 μg/g dried mycelium. ES026 strain was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by morphology, polymerase chain reaction with species-specific primers and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. ES026 contributes to the breeding of cultivated strains with high yield of huperzine A. Meanwhile, the strain was suitable for the study of biosynthesis of huperzine A.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, microalgae have gained a lot of attention because of their ability to produce fatty acids in their surrounding environments. The present paper describes the influence of organic carbon on the different fatty acid pools including esterified fatty acids, intracellular free fatty acids and extracellular free fatty acids in Ochromonas danica. It also throws light on the ability of O. danica to secrete free fatty acids in the growth medium under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Biomass production of photoautotrophically grown O. danica was higher than that of mixotrophically grown, where a cellular biomass formation of 1.8 g L(-1) was observed under photoautotrophic condition which was about five folds higher than that under mixotrophic conditions. Contrary, the esterified fatty acid content reached up to 99 mg g(-1) CDW under photoautotrophic conditions at the late exponential phase, while during mixotrophic conditions a maximum of 212 mg g(-1) CDW was observed at the stationary phase. Furthermore, O. danica cells grown under mixotrophic conditions showed higher intracellular free fatty acid and extracellular free fatty acid contents (up to 51 and 20 mg g(-1) CDW, respectively) than cells grown under photoautotrophic conditions (up to 26 and 4 mg g(-1) CDW, respectively). The intra- and extracellular free fatty acids consisted of a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa-an opportunistic pathogen, perhaps best known for chronic lung infections, produces wide range of pigments that possess specific activities which either assist the organism's survival or bring about changes within host. A similar blue-green diffusible pigment producing P. aeruginosa was isolated from dug-well water, so as to extract 1-hydroxyphenazine from its crude pigment. The compound was purified from the crude pigment using column chromatography followed by a preparative thin layer chromatography that showed a single yellow spot. Further molecular characterisation of the purified component was carried out using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy which showed respective peaks corresponding to 1-hydroxyphenazine. Biological characterisation using in vitro assays revealed that 1-hydroxyphenazine showed anti-bacterial activity only against Bacillus sp. and a concentration of 30 µg/ml induced noticeable morphological alteration in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells followed by cell death after 48 h. Thus, such active components within bacterial pigments can be characterized and used as possible anti-bacterial or anti-cancer agents.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, characterises of the microbial community structures of three typical Chinese liquor Daqu, as well as different kinds of light flavour Daqu were investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that microbial diversity was considerably different, and the microfloral compositions were highly variable among various Daqu. Lactic acid bacteria, which accounted for 30.95 % of all identified bacteria, were dominant in all Daqu samples, whereas Bacillus species were also predominant in the Luzhou (14.8 %) and Langjiu Daqu (18.2 %). Citrobacter and Burkholderia were first identified in light flavour Daqu. Aspergillus was the dominant moulds, and the non-Saccharomyces yeast species, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Pichia subpelliculosa, were the dominant yeasts. Rasamsonia, Galactomyces, Geotrichum and Wallemia were first identified using nested PCR-DGGE. Cluster analysis indicated that the microbial community structures of different Daqu samples exhibited some differences. These may be ascribed to the different peak production temperatures, raw material constituents and microhabitats around the liquor enterprises. The current study provides insights into the microbial community structures of three typical Daqu samples, and may facilitate the development of starter cultures for manufacturing Chinese liquor.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfur is an essential element for rhizobia, such as sulfated modified Nod factors and nitrogenase. To investigate the role of sulfur metabolism in Rhizobium-Soybean symbiosis, a transponson random insertional mutants' library was constructed and a sulfur assimilation-related gene was isolated and characterized. A mutant strain unable to utilized sulfate was screened from 11,000 random insertional mutants of Sinorhizobium fredii WGF03. Sequencing analysis showed that a sulfate assimilation-related gene (cysDN) was inserted by the Tn transponson. Mutants inactivated in cysD and cysN (SMcysDF and SMcysNF) were constructed by homologous recombination using the suicide plasmid pK18mob. The mutants SMcysDF and SMcysNF could no longer utilize sulfate as sulfur source. Phenotype analysis revealed that mutation of cysDN had multiple effects on S. fredii WGF03. Root hair deformation assay showed that the activity of Nod factors secreted by mutants SMcysDR and SMcysNR elicited minimal hair initiation only. Soybean plant tests indicated that the mutant strains delayed 1-2 days to nodulate and exhibited lower nodulation efficiency and symbiotic efficiency than the wild-type strain. The complementary strain of cysD and cysN (HcysDF and HcysNF) could restore the nodulation efficiency.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The secretion of exopolysaccharides and oxalic acid in cultures of a white rot Ganoderma applanatum strain and a brown rot Tyromyces palustris strain were tested in terms of culture time, pH range, and temperature. The high yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) required a moderate temperature of 28 °C for G. applanatum and 20 °C for T. palustris. G. applanatum and T. palustris accumulated more EPS when the concentration of the carbon source (maltose for G. applanatum and fructose for T. palustris) was 30 g/L. The results indicate that the production of oxalic acid by G. applanatum is correlated with the initial pH value of the culture medium and the concentration of oxalic acid increased to 1.66 ± 0.2 mM at the initial pH of 6.5 during the fungal growth. During the growth of T. palustris, the reduction of the initial pH value of the growing medium lowered the oxalic acid concentration from 7.7 ± 0.6 mM at pH 6.0 to 1.99 ± 0.2 mM at pH 3.5. T. palustris accumulated considerably more oxalic acid than G. applanatum and its presence did not affect significantly the production of exopolysaccharides. We also observed that the maximum amounts of exopolysaccharides secreted during cultivation of G. applanatum and T. palustris were 45.8 ± 1.2 and 19.1 ± 1.2 g/L, respectively.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Patterns of precipitation have changed as a result of climate change and will potentially keep changing in the future. Therefore, it is critical to understand how ecosystem processes will respond to the variation of precipitation. However, compared to aboveground processes, the effects of precipitation change on soil microorganisms remain poorly understood. Changbai Mountain is an ideal area to study the responses of temperate forests to the variations in precipitation. In this study, we conducted a manipulation experiment to simulation variation of precipitation in the virgin, broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain. Plots were designed to increase precipitation by 30 % [increased (+)] or decrease precipitation by 30 % [decreased (-)]. We analyzed differences in the diversity of the bacterial community in surface bulk soils (0-5 and 5-10 cm) and rhizosphere soils between precipitation treatments, including control. Bacteria were identified using the high-throughput 454 sequencing method. We obtained a total 271,496 optimized sequences, with a mean value of 33,242 (±1,412.39) sequences for each soil sample. Being the same among the sample plots with different precipitation levels, the dominant bacterial communities were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi. Bacterial diversity and abundance declined with increasing soil depth. In the bulk soil of 0-5 cm, the bacterial diversity and abundance was the highest in the control plots and the lowest in plots with reduced precipitation. However, in the soil of 5-10 cm, the diversity and abundance of bacteria was the highest in the plots of increased precipitation and the lowest in the control plots. Bacterial diversity and abundance in rhizosphere soils decreased with increased precipitation. This result implies that variation in precipitation did not change the composition of the dominant bacterial communities but affected bacterial abundance and the response patterns of the dominant communities to variation in precipitation.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Transcript levels of several key genes responsible for cephalosporin C (CPC) biosynthesis and transport have been determined using qPCR analysis of Acremonium chrysogenum strains differing more than 100-fold in the levels of CPC production. The expression of genes involved in the final steps of CPC production was significantly increased in the high-producing RNCM F-4081D strain compared to the wild-type ATCC 11550 strain. Different dynamics in the course of cultivation was observed for the genes known to be involved in the transport of CPC intermediates between subcellular compartments. Overall, comparative expression analysis showed balanced and fine-tuned expression of the genes responsible for CPC biosynthesis and transport in the genetically selected A. chrysogenum RNCM F-4081D strain, reflecting its capacity to overcome known CPC biosynthesis "bottlenecks" and produce CPC of high yield and purity.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a promising technology for lignocellulosic ethanol production, and the key is the engineering of a microorganism that can efficiently utilize cellulose. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires high level expression of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases (CBH). In this study, to construct a CBP-enabling yeast with enhanced CBH activity, three cassettes containing constitutively expressed CBH-encoding genes (cbh1 from Aspergillus aculeatus, cbh1 and cbh2 from Trichoderma reesei) were constructed. T. reesei eg2, A. aculeatus bgl1, and the three CBH-encoding genes were then sequentially integrated into the S. cerevisiae W303-1A chromosome via δ-sequence-mediated integration. The resultant strains W1, W2, and W3, expressing uni-, bi-, and trifunctional cellulases, respectively, exhibited corresponding cellulase activities. Furthermore, both the activities and glucose producing activity ascended. The growth test on cellulose containing plates indicated that CBH was a necessary component for successful utilization of crystalline cellulose. The three recombinant strains and the control strains W303-1A and AADY were evaluated in acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob containing media with 5 FPU exogenous cellulase/g biomass loading. The highest ethanol titer (g/l) within 7 days was 5.92 ± 0.51, 18.60 ± 0.81, 28.20 ± 0.84, 1.40 ± 0.12, and 2.12 ± 0.35, respectively. Compared with the control strains, W3 efficiently fermented pretreated corncob to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at creating cellulolytic yeast with enhanced CBH activity by integrating three types of CBH-encoding gene with a strong constitutive promoter Ptpi.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A novel endoglucanase gene was cloned from Rhizopus stolonifer and expressed in Escherichia coli, the gene product EG II (45 kDa) was assigned to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 45 (GH45), and its specific activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) was 48 IU/mg. To solve the problem of substrate accumulation in the cellulose hydrolysis and enhance the catalytic efficiency of endoglucanase, the eg2 gene was modified by site directed mutagenesis. Mutations generated by overlapping PCR have been proven to increase its catalytic activity on carboxymenthyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and PASC, among which the mutant EG II-E containing all 6 mutations (N39S, V136D, T251G, D255G, P256S and E260D) peaked 121 IU/mg on PASC. The bioinformatic analysis showed that 2 key catalytic residues (D136 and D260) moved closer with the opening of a loop after mutagenesis, and a tunnel was formed by structural transformation. This structure was conducive for the substrate to access the active centre, and D136 played an indispensable role in the substrate recognition.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is considered a worldwide destructive rice disease and leads to considerable yield losses. A bio-control agent, Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04, was screened to resist against the pathogen. The inhibitory effects were investigated (>80 %) by the growth of the hyphae. Microscopic observation of the hypha structure manifested that the morphology of the pathogenic mycelium was strongly affected by P. kribbensis PS04. To explore essentially inhibitory mechanisms, proteomic approach was adopted to identify differentially expressed proteins from R. solani GD118 in response to P. kribbensis PS04 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profiling was used to identify 13 differential proteins: 10 proteins were found to be down-regulated while 3 proteins were up-regulated. These proteins were involved in material and energy metabolism, antioxidant activity, protein folding and degradation, and cytoskeleton regulation. Among them, material and energy metabolism was differentially regulated by P. kribbensis PS04. Protein expression was separately inhibited by the bio-control agent in oxidation resistance, protein folding and degradation, and cytoskeleton regulation. Proteome changes of the mycelium assist in understanding how the pathogen was directly suppressed by P. kribbensis PS04.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The spread of multi-resistant enterobacteria, particularly carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), in both community and hospital settings is a global problem. The phenotypic identification of CRE is complex, occasionally inconclusive and time consuming. However, commercially available molecular assays are very expensive, and many do not allow the simultaneous identification of all genetic markers of resistance that have been recognised in CRE (bla KPC, bla OXA-48, bla VIM and bla NDM). The aim of the present study is to describe a new test: a multiplex real time PCR probe-based assay designed for the simultaneous detection of KPC, OXA-48, VIM and NDM in a short time (no longer than 90 min from the extraction of DNA to detection). Our assay correctly identified 63 CRE isolates and all standard reference strains tested, in agreement with and extending the results of phenotypic identification tests; additionally, a KPC-VIM co-expressing Enterobacter aerogenes isolate was identified using the new assay, whereas traditional methods failed to detect it. The assay was also able to correctly detect 28 CRE-producers from 50 positive blood cultures, again detecting, in four specimens, the presence of CRE co-expressing KPC and VIM, which were only partially identified by traditional methods. Finally, when used directly on rectal swabs, the assay enabled the identification of CRE-carrier patients, for whom isolation is mandatory in a hospital setting.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Endoglucanase activity produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa BEb-40 was studied. In submerged culture with minimal medium supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), this microorganism produced up to 0.37 U/mL endoglucanase activity with high specific activity (14.3 U/mgtotal protein). Detection of endoglucanase activity through zymography revealed at least 14 isoenzymes with molecular weights between 38 and 220 kDa. This high variety of secreted endoglucanases has not been described previously in Paenibacillus genus. The optimum conditions, determined by response surface methodology, were 48 °C and pH 3.4, which allowed an increase of 33.7 % in the relative endoglucanase activity obtained with respect to the standard conditions. Nevertheless, high levels of hydrolysis of at least 70 % of the maximum activity could be obtained at wide ranges of pH (2-9) and temperature (40-60 °C). Under optimal conditions, high levels of CMC hydrolysis were reached, of about 40 %, after only 12 h of reaction with substrate/total protein ratios between 19 and 76. Kinetic analysis revealed that endoglucanase activity followed a mixed inhibition model (K m = 8.4 mM, K ic = 0.03 mM, K iu = 0.35 mM, V max = 33.3 U/mgtotal protein). These results allow to consider P. polymyxa BEb-40 as a promising microorganism for the production of endoglucanases, with possibilities of application in the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass. The high specific activity at wide ranges of pH and temperature can allow its use in a wide variety of processes, under both acidic and alkaline conditions, as well as in mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, further reducing the amount of enzymes used.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP synthase) is an important enzyme in the shikimate pathway mediating the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms. A novel class II EPSP synthase AroA S. fredii from Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21. It was purified to homogeneity and its catalytic properties were studied. The enzyme exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 8.0 and 50 °C. It was stable below 40 °C, and over a broad range of pH 5.0-9.0. The EPSP synthase was increasingly activated by 100 mM of the chlorides of NH4 (+), K(+), Na(+) and Li(+). Kinetic analysis of AroA S. fredii suggested that the enzyme exhibited a high glyphosate tolerance and high level of affinity for phosphoenolpyruvate, which indicates the enzyme with a high potential for structural and functional studies and its potential usage for the generation of transgenic crops resistant to the herbicide.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014;

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