World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (WORLD J MICROB BIOT )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology publishes independently refereed research papers short communications technical communications and review articles on all aspects of applied microbiology and biotechnology including virology. The Journal seeks to provide a forum for research work directed towards microbiological and biotechnological solutions to global problems such as agriculture and food supplies and environmental issues including pollution waste management metal recovery bioleaching biological control agents etc. However it is recognized that many global issues for example improving crop productivity and public health have more acute consequences in the developing world than elsewhere. The Journal therefore aims to emphasize the role of biotechnological advances for and from the developing world whilst encouraging contributions from all scientists who have an interest in tackling these global problems. The editors also encourage contributions on aspects of education in microbiology and biotechnology and invite papers or reviews commenting on the social issues attendant with biotechnological applications. The Journal also publishes from time to time special review issues in which a topic of current interest is reviewed in depth by a group of invited scientists usually under the special editionship of a key leader in the area.

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    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology website
  • Other titles
    World journal of microbiology & biotechnology (Online), World journal of microbiology and biotechnology
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endophytic fungi are plant beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms often applied as bioinoculants for enhanced and disease-free crop production. The objectives of the present work were to develop a carrier-based formulation of root endophyte Piriformospora indica as a bioinoculant. Powder formulation of four different carrier materials viz., talcum powder, clay, sawdust and bioboost (organic supplement) were evaluated and a talc-based formulation was optimized for a longer shelf life with respect to microbial concentration, storage temperature and biological activity. Finally the effect of optimized talc formulation on plant productivity was determined. The application dosages were optimized by studies on plant growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants under green house conditions. Five percent formulation (w/w) of talcum powder was observed to be the most stable at 30 °C with 108 CFU g−1 and effective for a storage period of 6 months. The application of this optimized formulation resulted in increase of growth parameters of P. vulgaris L. and better adaptation of plants under green house conditions.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Carotenoids are natural pigments that act as powerful antioxidants and have various beneficial effects on human and animal health. Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina) is a carotenoid producing zygomycetes fungus, which accumulates β-carotene as the main carotenoid but also able to produce the hydroxylated derivatives of β-carotene (i.e. zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) in low amount. These xanthophylls, together with the ketolated derivatives of β-carotene (such as canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin) have better antioxidant activity than β-carotene. In this study our aim was to modify and enhance the xanthophyll production of the M. circinelloides by expression of heterologous genes responsible for the astaxanthin biosynthesis. The crtS and crtR genes, encoding the cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase, respectively, of wild-type and astaxanthin overproducing mutant Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains were amplified from cDNA and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared to each other. Introduction of the crtS on autonomously replicating plasmid in the wild-type M. circinelloides resulted enhanced zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin accumulation and the presence of canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin in low amount; the β-carotene hydroxylase and ketolase activity of the X. dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase in M. circinelloides was verified. Increased canthaxanthin and echinenone production was observed by expression of the gene in a canthaxanthin producing mutant M. circinelloides. Co-expression of the crtR and crtS genes led to increase in the total carotenoid and slight change in xanthophyll accumulation in comparison with transformants harbouring the single crtS gene.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Collar rot is one of the most destructive and prevalent disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, resulting in heavy yield losses. The causative organism, Sclerotium rolfsii is a soil-borne polyphagous fungus characterized by prolific growth and ability to produce persistent sclerotia. The pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. This study presents the suitability of DNA hybridization technique for species specific detection of S. rolfsii in soil and planting material. The detection limit of the probe was 10–15 pg of pure pathogen DNA. The developed probe was found to be highly specific and could be used for accurate identification of pathogen up to the species level. The protocol was standardized for detection of the pathogen in naturally infected field samples.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of imipenem and rifampicin alone and in combination against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each isolate grown in suspension and in biofilm using a microbroth dilution method. Chequerboard assays and the agar disk diffusion assay were used to determine synergistic, indifferent or antagonistic interactions between imipenem and rifampicin. We used the tissue culture plate method for A. baumannii biofilm formation to measure the percentage of biofilm inhibition and the amount of extracellular DNA after the treatment. To understand the synergistic mechanisms, we conducted hydroxyl radical formation assays. The results were verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Imipenem and rifampicin showed effective antimicrobial activity against suspensions and biofilm cultures of A. baumannii, respectively. Synergistic antimicrobial effects between imipenem and rifampicin were observed in 13 and 17 of the 20 clinical isolates when in suspension and in biofilms, respectively. Imipenem and rifampicin alone and in combination generated hydroxyl radicals, which are highly reactive oxygen forms and the major components of bactericidal agents. Furthermore, treatment with imipenem and rifampicin individually or in combination has obvious antibiofilm effects. The synergistic activity of imipenem and rifampicin against clinical isolates of A. baumannii (in suspension and in biofilms) was observed in vitro. Therefore, we conclude that imipenem combined with rifampicin has the potential to be used as a combinatorial therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by A. baumannii.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Potential application of chromium reducing bacteria for industrial scale wastewater treatment demands that effect of presence of other metal ions on rate of Cr(VI) reduction be investigated, as industrial wastewaters contain many toxic metal ions. In the current study, the effect of different heavy metal ions (nickel, zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, iron) on chromium reduction by a novel strain of Acinetobacter sp. Cr-B2 that shows high tolerance up to 1,100 mg/L and high Cr(VI) reducing capacity was investigated. The alteration in Cr(VI) reduction capacity of Cr-B2 was studied both in presence of individual metal ions and in the presence of multi-metal ions at different concentrations. The study showed that the Cr(VI) reduction rates decreased in presence of Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) when present individually. Pb(2+) at lower concentration did not show significant effect while Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) stimulated the rate of Cr(VI) reduction. In the studies on multi-metal ions, it was observed that in presence of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+), the inhibiting effect of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) on Cr(VI) reduction was reduced. Each of these metals affect the overall rate of Cr(VI) reduction by Cr-B2. This work highlights the need to consider the presence of other heavy metal ions in wastewater when assessing the bioreduction of Cr(VI) and while designing the bioreactors for the purpose, as rate of reduction is altered by their presence.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The separation was achieved on a weak anion exchange column. The mobile phase was pH 7.0 ammonium nitrate solution. The redox reaction between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was avoided during separation and determination. This separation method could be used to separate the samples with large concentration differences between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The alkaline digestion was used to extract chromium in solid sample, which had no effect on the retention time and the peak area of the Cr(VI). However, the conversion of Cr(VI) from Cr(III) was observed during alkaline digestion, which displayed positive relation with the ratio of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) contents of chromium yeasts cultured in media with different chromium additions were determined. The spike recoveries of Cr(VI) for chromium yeasts were in the range of 95-108 %.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tilletia controversa Kühn (TCK) is an important quarantine pathogen that causes wheat dwarf bunt and results in devastating damage to wheat production. The fungus is difficult to be distinguished from T. caries and T. laevis, which cause wheat common bunt, based on morphological, physiological and symptomatological characteristics of the pathogens. The traditional detection of the fungus can be a long and tedious process with poor accuracy. The inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique has been used for identifying molecular markers for detection of TCK. Of 28 ISSR primers screened, ISSR-859 amplified a specific 678 bp DNA fragment from all TCK isolates but not from any isolates of the common bunt fungi or other pathogenic fungi tested. Based on the fragment sequence, a pair of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers was designed, which amplified a 372 bp DNA fragment specifically in TCK. The SCAR marker was detected using as low as 1 ng template DNA of TCK, and was also detected using broken teliospores and DNA from asymptomatic wheat samples. We developed the SYBR Green I and TaqMan Green I and TaqMan real-time polymorphism chain reaction methods to detect TCK with the detection limit of 0.1 fg with asymptomatic wheat samples. Further work is needed to develop a rapid test kit for this pathogenic fungus using the designed specific primers.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shikimic acid (SA) is an industrially important chiral compound used in diverse commercial applications, and the insufficient supply by isolation from plants and expensive chemical synthesis of SA has increased the importance of developing strategies for SA synthesis. In our previous studies, glycerol was observed to be an effective carbon source for SA accumulation in E. coli DHPYAAS-T7, where the PTS operon (ptsHIcrr) and aroL and aroK genes were inactivated, and the tktA, glk, aroE, aroF (fbr) , and aroB genes were overexpressed. For further investigation of the effects of glycerol aerobic fermentation on SA accumulation in E. coli BL21(DE3), the glpD, glpK genes and tktA, glk, aroE, aroF (fbr) , aroB genes were overexpressed simultaneously. The results indicated that SA production was increased 5.6-fold, while the yield was increased 5.3-fold over that of parental strain in shake flasks. It is demonstrated that the aerobic fermentation of glycerol associated with glpD and glpK gene overexpression increased glycerol flux, resulting in higher SA accumulation in E. coli BL21(DE3)-P-DK.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilters of granular activated carbon (GAC) are responsible for the removal of organic matters in drinking water treatments. PreBiofilters, which operate as the first unit in a surface water treatment train, are a cost-effective pretreatment for conventional surface water treatment and provide more consistent downstream water quality. This study investigated bacterial communities from the samples of raw surface water, biofilm on the PreBiofilter, and filtrates for surface water pretreatment. A bench-scale pilot plant of PreBiofilter was constructed to pretreat surface water from the Canoochee River, GA, USA. PreBiofilter exhibited a significant reduction of total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. The evenness and Shannon diversity of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher on the biofilm of PreBiofilter than in raw water and filtrates. Similar bacteria communities were observed in the raw water and filtrates using relative abundance of bacterial OTUs. However, the bacterial communities in the filtrates became relatively similar to those in the biofilm using presence/absence of bacterial OTUs. GAC biofilm or raw water and filtrates greatly contributed to the abundance of bacteria; whereas, bacteria sheared from colonized biofilm and entered filtrates. Evenly distributed, diverse and unique bacteria in the biofilm played an important role to remove organic matters from surface water for conventional surface water pretreatment.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) is a promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against human IGF-1R forms inclusion body when expressed in periplasmic space of E. coli routinely. Here, we described that co-expression of appropriate disulfide bonds (Dsb) proteins known to catalyze the formation and isomerization of Dsb can markedly recover the soluble expression of target scFv in E. coli. A 50 % recovery in solubility of the scFv was observed upon co-expression of DsbC alone, and a maximum solubility (80 %) was obtained when DsbA and DsbC were co-expressed in combination. Furthermore, the soluble scFv present full antigen-binding activity with IGF-1R, suggesting its correct folding. This study also suggested that the selection of Dsb proteins should be tested case-by-case if the approach of co-expression of Dsb system is adopted to address the problem of insoluble expression of proteins carrying Dsb.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To study the phylogenetic relationships and genetic heterogeneity of 21 Acidithiobacillus strains isolated from different environments, we amplified and sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacers (ITS) of all these strains. These sequence data, combined with related sequences available from GenBank, were divided into six phylogenetic groups by 16S rRNA gene and by 16S-23S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results of phylogenetic analysis were consistent with those obtained by repetitive element PCR and arbitrarily primed PCR. In this research, the Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) strains were always separated into two groups in phylogenetic and cluster analyses. Genotypic analyses of the genes rusA, rusB, hip and iro suggest that these two groups may have different biochemical mechanisms for oxidizing ferrous iron. Strains in one A. ferrooxidans group were detected with rusA gene that encodes rusticyanin A which plays a very important role in the iron respiratory chain. The second A. ferrooxidans group was found to contain rusB gene which encode a homologous protein (RusB). The data suggested that ITS-based phylogeny is an effective tool to elucidate the relationships of Acidithiobacillus and that a different iron oxidation pathway may exist in different A. ferrooxidans groups.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In winemaking, after the alcoholic fermentation of red wines and some white wines, L-malic acid must be converted into L-lactic acid to reduce the acidity. This malolactic fermentation (MLF) is usually carried out by the lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oeni. Depending on the level of process control, selected O. oeni is inoculated or the natural microbiota of the cellar is used. This study considers the link between growth and MLF for five strains of O. oeni species. The kinetics of growth and L-malic acid consumption were followed in modified MRS medium (20 °C, pH 3.5, and 10 % ethanol) in anaerobic conditions. A large variability was found among the strains for both their growth and their consumption of L-malic acid. There was no direct link between biomass productivities and consumption of L-malic acid among strains but there was a link of proportionality between the specific growth of a strain and its specific consumption of L-malic acid. Experiments with and without malic acid clearly demonstrated that malic acid consumption improved the growth of strains. This link was quantified by a mathematical model comparing the intrinsic malic acid consumption capacity of the strains.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014;