Biosensors & Bioelectronics (BIOSENS BIOELECTRON)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Biosensors & Bioelectronics is the principal international journal devoted to research, design, development and application of biosensors and bioelectronics. It is an interdisciplinary journal serving professionals with an interest in the exploitation of biological materials in novel diagnostic and electronic devices. Biosensors are defined as analytical devices incorporating a biological material (e.g. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids etc.), a biologically derived material or a biomimic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem, which may be optical, electrochemical, thermometric, piezoelectric or magnetic. Biosensors usually yield a digital electronic signal which is proportional to the concentration of a specific analyte or group of analytes. While the signal may in principle be continuous, devices can be configured to yield single measurements to meet specific market requirements. Biosensors have been applied to a wide variety of analytical problems including in medicine, the environment, food, process industries, security and defence. The emerging field of Bioelectronics seeks to exploit biology in conjuction with electronics in a wider context encompassing, for example, biomaterials for information processing, information storage and actuators. A key aspect is the interface between biological materials and electronics. While endeavouring to maintain coherence in the scope of the journal, the editors will accept reviews and papers of obvious relevance to the community, which describe important new concepts, underpin understanding of the field or provide important insights into the practical application of biosensors and bioelectronics.

Current impact factor: 6.41

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 6.409
2013 Impact Factor 6.451
2012 Impact Factor 5.437
2011 Impact Factor 5.602
2010 Impact Factor 5.361
2009 Impact Factor 5.429
2008 Impact Factor 5.143
2007 Impact Factor 5.061
2006 Impact Factor 4.132
2005 Impact Factor 3.463
2004 Impact Factor 3.251
2003 Impact Factor 2.947
2002 Impact Factor 2.445
2001 Impact Factor 2.714
2000 Impact Factor 3.014
1999 Impact Factor 2.02
1998 Impact Factor 1.772
1997 Impact Factor 2.014
1996 Impact Factor 2.036
1995 Impact Factor 2.033
1994 Impact Factor 1.858
1993 Impact Factor 2.167
1992 Impact Factor 2.295

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 6.05
Cited half-life 4.20
Immediacy index 1.92
Eigenfactor 0.06
Article influence 1.17
Website Biosensors and Bioelectronics website
Other titles Biosensors & bioelectronics (Online), Biosensors and bioelectronics
ISSN 0956-5663
OCLC 38871169
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A simple, environmentally friendly hydrothermal method was used to prepare strongly luminescent, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) with the use of Chinese yams as a source of carbon and nitrogen. Such NCDs have an average size of 2.7±1.4nm; they emit blue light at 420nm and have a quantum yield of up to 9.3%. Thus, carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-DNA macro-molecules were assembled on the surfaces of the NCDs, and stabilised by strong π-π stacking; the so formed hybrid nano-sensors were found to have an ultra-sensitive response to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). A strong emission and enhancement of yellow radiation was observed from FAM. Furthermore, due to the specific interactions between DNA and Hg(2+), which resulted in the formation of the T-Hg(2+)-T (T: thymine base) complex - a large, conjugated system, which formed between NCDs, DNA and 6-MP, was broken up. Thus, the fluorescence from FAM was quenched. The detection limits for 6-MP and Hg(2+) were 0.67 and 1.26nM, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the determination of 6-MP in human serum and Hg(2+) in water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.014
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    ABSTRACT: A portable method of specific nucleic acid detection would be very useful for monitoring public health in a variety of settings for point-of-care and point-of-need testing. However, conventional methods for the detection of nucleic acids are not ideal for use in the field, as they require skilled operators and complex equipment. Here, we constructed a method for specific nucleic acid detection using a split G-quadruplex (Gq) structure that can recognize target nucleic acids without competitive reactions in a bimolecular reaction and directly produce a detectable signal based on peroxidase activity. We developed a single signal-transducing molecule with a split Gq-based DNA-nano tweezers (NT) structure that self-assembles from three single-stranded DNAs through simple mixing, and detects its target without requiring any washing steps. A model target, a partial norovirus mRNA (NV-RNA), was specifically recognized by the split Gq-based DNA-NT, causing it to undergo a structural change that restored its peroxidase activity. The peroxidase activity was measured by following the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), which gave a greenish colorimetric response, and was proportional to the NV-RNA concentration. The lower detection limit was 4nM. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting specific nucleic acids with a split Gq-based DNA-NT structure as a nucleic acid signal-transducing molecule in a homogenous assay format. Also the target recognition sites of split Gq-based DNA-NT can easily be designed without delicate optimization of tweezers structure. Thus a split Gq-based DNA-NT technique is readily applicable to a basic platform for the development of a portable device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.055
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we reported iminodiacetic acid-copper ion complex (IDA-Cu) immobilized onto gold nanoparticles (GNPs)-modified glassy carbon electrode as a novel electrochemical platform for selective and sensitive determination of lysozyme (Lys). IDA-Cu complex acted as an efficient recognition element capable of capturing Lys molecules. GNPs acts as a substrate to immobilize IDA-Cu coordinative complex and its interaction with Lys leds to a great signal amplification through measuring changes in differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) peak current of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox probe. Upon the recognition of the Lys to the IDA-Cu, the peak current decreased due to the hindered electron transfer reaction on the electrode surface. Under optimum condition, it was found that the proposed method could detect Lys at wide linear concentration range (0.1pM to 0.10mM) with detection limit of 60fM. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) detection of Lys was demonstrated as a simple and rapid alternative analytical technique with detection limit of 80fM at concentration range up to 0.1mM. In addition, the proposed sensor was satisfactorily applied to the determination of Lys in real samples such as hen egg white. The proposed modified electrode showing the high selectivity, good sensitivity and stability toward Lys detection may hold a great promise in developing other electrochemical sensors based on metal-chelate affinity complexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.019
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    ABSTRACT: Highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) is a novel promising noninvasive biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a kind of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). But traditional methods limited HULC clinical detection for ownself drawbacks. Development a new HULC detection approach is urgent and necessary. Electrochemical nucleic acid sensor based on different signal amplification strategies with high sensitivity, fast, simple, and convenient, may solve this problem. Herein, we propose a novel strategy based on Pt-Pd bimetallic nanodendrites/nanoflower-like clusters on graphene oxide/Au/horseradish peroxidase (PtPd BND/BNF@GO/Au/HRP) to enhance the catalytic efficiency and sensitivity. And Au particles were simultaneously and separately capped with thionine or detection probe, which increase the binding amount of detection probe and decrease the electronic background. The results indicated that the catalytic effect was noticeably elevated and that the biosensor provides ultrasensitive detection for the lncRNA HULC. The linear calibration of the biosensor ranged from 1.00×10(-3) to 1.00×10(3)pM/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.247fM/mL. The lncRNA biosensor based on the PtPd BND/BNF@GO/Au/HRP/Au/thionine exhibited acceptable reproducibility and clear selectivity. This strategy may provide a new alternative for clinical HCC diagnosis through the detection of HULC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.021
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    ABSTRACT: An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on a novel signal amplification strategy was developed for the quantitative determination of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Pd nanocubes functionalized magnetic graphene sheet (Pd-Fe3O4-GS) was employed as the matrix to immobilize the primary antibodies (Ab1). Owing to the synergetic effect between Pd nanocubes and magnetic graphene sheet (Fe3O4-GS), Pd-Fe3O4-GS can provide an obviously increasing electrochemical signal by electrochemical catalysis towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Silicon dioxide (SiO2) was functionalized as the label to conjugate with the secondary antibodies (Ab2). Due to the larger steric hindrance of the obtained conjugate (SiO2@Ab2), the sensitive decrease of the electrochemical signal can be achieved after the specific recognition between antibodies and antigens. In this sense, this proposed immunosensor can achieve a high sensitivity, especially in the presence of low concentrations of IgG. Under optimum conditions, the proposed immunosensor offered an ultrasensitive and specific determination of IgG down to 3.2fg/mL. This immunoassay method would open up a new promising platform to detect various tumor markers at ultralow levels for early diagnoses of different cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.033
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    ABSTRACT: A new signal-amplification strategy based on copper(II) (Cu(2+))-dependent DNAzyme was developed for sensitive impedimetric biosensing of Cu(2+) in aqueous solution by coupling with target-induced formation of hemin/G-quadruplex-based DNAzyme and enzymatic catalytic precipitation technique. Initially, the target analyte cleaved the Cu(2+)-specific DNAzyme to generate an initiator strand on the sensor. Thereafter, the initiator strand underwent an unbiased strand-displacement reaction between hairpin probes in turn to construct a nicked double-helix, accompanying the formation of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme on the long duplex DNA. The newly formed DNAzyme could oxidize the 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) to produce an insoluble precipitation on the sensor, thus resulting in a local alteration of the conductivity. Under the optimal conditions, the resistance increased with the increasing Cu(2+) in the sample, and exhibited a wide dynamic working range from 0.1pM to 5.0nM with a detection limit of 60fM. The methodology also displayed a high selectivity for Cu(2+) relative to other potentially interfering ions owing to the highly specific Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, and was applicable for monitoring Cu(2+) in real river samples. Thus, our strategy has a good potential in the environment surveys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.05.056
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus anthracis is a bioterrorism agent classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a novel electrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive, specific and easy detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) toxin in picogram concentration was developed. The immunosensor consists of (i) a Nafion-multiwall carbon nanotubes-bismuth nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE) as a sensing platform and (ii) titanium phosphate nanoparticles-cadmium ion-mouse anti-PA antibodies (TiP-Cd(2+)-MαPA antibodies) as signal amplification tags. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta-potential analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed to characterize the synthesized TiP nanoparticles and modified electrode surfaces. The immunosensing performance of BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE was evaluated based on sandwich immunoassay protocol. A square wave voltammetry (SWV) scan from -1.2 to -0.3V in HAc-NaAc buffer solution (pH 4.6) without stripping process was performed to record the electrochemical responses at -0.75V corresponding to high content of Cd(2+) ions loaded in TiP nanoparticles for the measurement of PA toxin. Under optimal conditions, the currents increased with increasing PA toxin concentrations in spiked human serum samples and showed a linear range from 0.1ng/ml to 100ng/ml. The limit of detection of developed immunosensor was found to be 50pg/ml at S/N=3. The total time of analysis was 35min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.015
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    ABSTRACT: The expression profile of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly correlated with the occurrence and development of cancer. This work reports an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) approach for highly sensitive detection of VEGF165. This approach comprises aptamer-target recognition, T7 exonuclease (T7 Exo)-assisted cycling signal amplification and efficient quenching of ECL of CdS:Eu nanocrystals (NCs) by using DNAzyme. In this assay, CdS:Eu NCs were used as the ECL substrate, A guanine (G)-rich single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sequence and VEGF165 aptamer were co-immobilized on the surface of the CdS:Eu NCs modified glassy carbon electrode. After recognition and binding to VEGF165, the aptamer moved away from the electrode surface and induced the proposed cyclic cleavage of the target DNA with T7 Exo. A large amount of G-rich ssDNA was released on the CdS:Eu film and folded into G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme in the presence of hemin and K(+), consequently decreasing the ECL intensity of CdS:Eu. A good linearity was obtained for VEGF165 detection within the range of 1pM to 20nM with a detection limit of 0.2pM. This assay could be a universal and promising protocol for detection of various biomarkers for early clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.05.069
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate and highly sensitive detection of glycan expression on cell surface is extremely important for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, a carbohydrate derivative-functionalized biosensor was developed for electrochemical detection of the expression level of cell surface glycan (mannose used as model). Thiomannosyl dimer was synthesized to design the thiomannosyl-functionalized biosensor by direct and rapid one-step protocols. The biosensing surface-confined mannose could effectively mimic the presentation of cell surface mannose and was responsible for competing with mannose on cancer cells in incubation solution. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by exploiting the excellent conductivity of multiwalled carbon nanotube/Au nanoparticle (MWNT/AuNP), the amplification effect of MWNTs, and the favorable catalytic ability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Using competitive strategy, the developed biosensor exhibits attractive performances for the analysis of mannose expression with rapid response, high sensitivity and accuracy, and possesses great promise for evaluation of cell surface glycan expression by using a greater variety of lectins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.051
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    ABSTRACT: A high sensitive label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on potassium niobate-Au nanoparticles@bismuth sulfide (KNbO3-Au NPs@Bi2S3) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The prepared Bi2S3 nanosheets exhibited strong and stable cathodic ECL activity. The synthesized KNbO3-Au NPs was firstly used to fabricate ECL modified electrodes and Bi2S3 nanosheets worked as luminophores for the first time in ECL sensors. Au NPs were used to combine with Bi2S3 and anti-PSA via the Au-S covalent bond and Au-NH2 covalent bond without the usage of crosslinking agents respectively, further enhancing the sensitivity and stability of immunosensor. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the ECL signal of KNbO3-Au NPs@Bi2S3 linearly decreased with the increase of PSA concentration in the range of 0.005-5ng/mL with a detection limit of 3pg/mL. The preparated label-free ECL immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, good repeatability and long-term stability. The applicability of the proposed ECL immunosensor was also evaluated by detecting PSA in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.027
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    ABSTRACT: Deciphering how genetic variation in drug targets such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) affects drug response is essential for precision medicine. GPCR signaling is traditionally investigated in artificial cell lines which do not provide sufficient physiological context. Patient-derived cell lines such as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) could represent the ideal cellular model system. Here we describe a novel label-free, whole-cell biosensor method for characterizing GPCR-mediated drug responses in LCLs. Generally, such biosensor technology is deemed only compatible with adherent cell lines. We optimized and applied the methodology to study cellular adhesion properties as well as GPCR drug responses in LCLs, which are suspension cells. Coating the detector surface with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin resulted in cell adherence and allowed detection of cellular responses. A prototypical GPCR present on these cells, i.e. the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), was selected for pharmacological characterization. Receptor activation with the agonist JWH133, blockade by antagonist AM630 as well as downstream signaling inhibition by PTX could be monitored sensitively and receptor-specifically. Potencies and effects were comparable between LCLs of two genetically unrelated individuals, providing the proof-of-principle that this biosensor technology can be applied to LCLs, despite their suspension cell nature, in order to serve as an in vitro model system for the evaluation of individual genetic influences on GPCR-mediated drug responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.031
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    ABSTRACT: A triple-dimensional sensing chip is developed based on simultaneous utilization of fluorescence (FL), electrochemical (ECL) and mass-sensitivity (MS) properties of a novel nanocomposites. The sensing nanomaterial is composed of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and graphene through a one-pot room-temperature reverse microemulsion polymerization. Here, full integration of QDs and graphene on one chip provides triple-dimensional sensing signals. It enables quick and accurate discrimination of eight analytes in a "lab-on-a-nanomaterial" approach and notably improves the overall sensor performance. Unknown samples randomly taken from the training set at concentrations of 0.7μM are successfully classified by principal component analysis (PCA) with accuracies of 92.5%, compared with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We further apply it to discriminate eight antioxidants from real oil samples, and explore the mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.04.096
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    ABSTRACT: A bioelectronic nose for the real-time assessment of water quality was constructed with human olfactory receptor (hOR) and single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (swCNT-FET). Geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), mainly produced by bacteria, are representative odor compounds and also indicators of contamination in the water supply system. For the screening of hORs which respond to these compounds, we performed CRE-luciferase assays of the two odorants in heterologous cell system. Human OR51S1 for GSM and OR3A4 for MIB were selected, and nanovesicles expressing the hORs on surface were produced from HEK-293 cell. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor was functionalized with the nanovesicles. The bioelectronic nose was able to selectively detect GSM and MIB at concentrations as low as a 10ngL(-1). Furthermore, detection of these compounds from the real samples such as tap water, bottled water and river water was available without any pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.053
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) as a DNA biosensor for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The DNA sample were collected from clinical specimens, including sputum and blood hemoculture were undergone LAMP amplification for 0.18kbp and 0.23kbp DNA fragments of femB and mecA genes, respectively. The self-assembled monolayer surface (SAMs) was used for immobilized streptavidin-biotinylated probes on the sensor surface for the detection of LAMP amplicons from MRSA. Both LAMP amplicons were simultaneously hybridized with ssDNA probes immobilized onto a bio-functionalized surface to detect specific targets in the multiplex DNA array platform. In addition, the sensor surface could be regenerated allowing at least five cycles of use with a shortened assay time. The detection limit of LAMP-SPR sensing was 10 copies/µl and LAMP-SPR sensing system showed a good selectivity toward the MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74:335-340. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.038
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    ABSTRACT: It was reported that Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 (PCSK6) can promote the progression of rheumatoid arthritis to a higher aggressive status. In this work, a novel visible light induced photoelectrochemical (PEC) platform was designed to detect PCSK6 gene. ZnO@CdTe nanocable arrays/carboxylated g-C3N4 used as the PEC signal generator. Hexagonal ZnO nanorods grew on ITO electrode firstly. CdTe were then electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorods surface to enhance the photogenerated h(+)/e(-) separation efficiency. Carboxylated g-C3N4 was utilized to improve h(+)/e(-) separation efficiency and anchor the capture probes of PCSK6 gene by the covalent bonding effect. The 5' and 3' primers captured PCSK6 ssDNA by the specific recognition. The linear range was 10pg/mL to 20.0ng/mL with a detection limit of 2pg/mL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.030
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    ABSTRACT: A label-free fluorescence assay for rapid and sensitive detection of heparin (Hep) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) was developed by guanidine-terminated poly (amidoanime) (PAMAM-Gu(+)) dendrimers induced aggregation of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The fluorescence of GQDs was obviously quenched after mixing with PAMAM-Gu(+). However, the addition of highly negatively charged Hep or CS into the fluorescence sensing system resulted in the fluorescence recovery. Because the multi-positively charged PAMAM-Gu(+) would prefer to bind with highly negatively charged Hep or CS, resulting in the deaggregation of GQDs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the recovery of fluorescence intensity ratio I/I0 (I0 and I were the fluorescence intensity of the sensing system in the absence or presence of target analytes, respectively) was proportional to the concentration of target analytes in the range of 0.04-1.6μgmL(-1) for Hep and 0.1-2.5μgmL(-1) for CS. In addition, this method afforded high sensitivity with the detection limit as low as 0.02μgmL(-1) and 0.05μgmL(-1) for Hep and CS, respectively. All results suggested that the fluorescence turn-on method could be successfully employed for sensitive and selective detection of heparin analogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.032
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N,S/C-dots) with high fluorescence quantum yields (FLQY, 25%) was successfully synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted method. In comparison with nitrogen doped C-dots (N/C-dots) prepared using the same method, the resulting N,S/C-dots featured small particle size, uniform surface state, insensitive FL properties to excitation wavelengths and environmental conditions, negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility. Simultaneous doping of N and S effectively promoted electron-transfer and coordination interaction between N,S/C-dots and Hg(2+). Thus, when used as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) label-free detection, the resulting N,S/C-dots showed good detection sensitivity and ion selectivity. The limit of detection was 2μM; among 15 metal ions investigated, only Fe(3+) showed interference to the Hg(2+) detection. Fortunately, this interference could be effectively shielded using a chelating agent sodium hexametaphoshpate. The applicability of N,S/C-dots as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) detection in lake water and tap water was demonstrated. Finally, based on its favorable features of negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the N,S/C-dots were successfully applied to probe Hg(2+) in living cells, which broaden its application in biological system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.050