International Journal of the History of Sport (Int J Hist Sport )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

The International Journal of the History of Sport is acknowledged as a leading journal in the field of the historical study of sport in its political, cultural, social, educational, economic, spiritual and aesthetic dimensions. The journal offers a forum to anthropologists, sociologists, historians and others who seek to explore the relationship between sport and society in a historical context.

  • Impact factor
    0.26
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    5.40
  • Immediacy index
    0.17
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • Website
    International Journal of the History of Sport website
  • Other titles
    The International journal of the history of sport
  • ISSN
    0952-3367
  • OCLC
    16314947
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • Pre-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to analyse the Law on Physical Education of 1938 to demonstrate the state interventions in Turkey's sport history. The Law was claimed to be the first one in the world which made physical education (PE) and sports obligatory to its citizens and was created on the verge of the Second World War. It was prepared by Carl Diem under the direction of Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. According to the Law, male citizens aged between 12 and 45 years, and female citizens between 12 and 30 years would be required to perform PE and sports regularly. For the execution of the Law, a General Directorate of Physical Education was founded. Many grand plans such as creating sports complexes, and training teachers and staff were made without taking the socio-economic conditions of the country into consideration. Ultimately, due to the effects of the economic and political conditions of the nation and the wider world, the Law failed to fulfil the expectations of its creators. Two government-supported journals named Beden Terbiyesi ve Spor and Ülkü are examined here as primary sources to see how the Law was enforced and how they reflected the Law and the period.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper seeks to address the extent to which Olympic Solidarity (OS) funding patterns are consistent with the organisation's explicit mission, namely to serve the interests of National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and in particular those in greatest need. In addition, the paper reviews the extent to which Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states have been able to avail themselves of such resources. While OS funding has tended at the level of the World Programme, to reflect a tendency to favour NOCs from less affluent economies, this tendency towards progressive funding has been weakening and to some extent reversed, since the mid-2000s. Funding of GCC states has tended to be well below that of other NOCs of comparable dimensions, reflecting the fact that Gulf States have not followed a ‘linear’ path to ‘modernity’ in sport. Such a linear path might be characterised as in an initial concern with growing participation, improving governance (through issues such as women's role in sport) and enhancing performance, but GCC states have instead focused on elements of a what might be characterised as a post-modern approach in the form of hosting of major events and the celebration of spectacle, and thus drawing relatively modestly on OS resources.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This analysis is built on two questions: first, what discourses of a masculinity of resistance maintaining a sense of normality under abnormal conditions are drawn from the interviews of the footballers referred to in this article, and second, to what extent is football experienced as and felt to be a ‘free space of health’ for the Gaza players in a context of war and blockade and in relation to the situation before 2007. To answer these questions, the author interviewed, during July 2011, male athletes, coaches and managers in nine football clubs in Khan Younis and Gaza City. She also conducted 18 qualitative interviews during November 2011 with footballers in the two top Gaza leagues in Rafah, Khan Younis, Gaza City and Shati Prison Camp.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The controversial awarding to Qatar of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, the world's most important sporting event alongside the Olympic Games, has emerged as a potential monkey wrench for social and political change. The tournament has to the Qataris' surprise given international trade unions, human rights groups and a reluctant governing world soccer body, Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), leverage they lacked prior to the awarding to pressure Qatar to radically reform the Gulf state's long-criticised labour system. It has also offered critics of the awarding of the event a stick with which to beat Qatar. In response, Qatar has pledged significant reform in a bid to secure achievement of its soft and subtle power goals and fend off demands that would fundamentally alter its political and social structures. In doing so, it is walking a tightrope, balancing the soft power-dictated need to embed itself favourably at multiple levels in the international community and defeat the mounting threat of losing the right to host the World Cup with maintaining a socially and politically restrictive system whose long-term viability is being called into question.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although Syria did not compete in Olympic Games between 1948 and 1970, its participation in most sport mega-events has been varied in terms of the level of participation, results, different championships and sports mega-events types since 1970. The nature of Syria's involvement in sport on the international stage reflects the nature of the institutional-culture context after the ‘Corrective Movement’ led by the late President Hafez al-Assad. This article relies on the official archive of the General Sport Federation in Syria, official International Olympic Committee publications and other material to examine the history of Syria's competitions and its results in different sports events. It is argued that Syrian competition in most regional/international games has not only been because of the social/political support represented by the Baath party but also it has been a means of reflecting the civilised and secular face of Syria and Syrians after a long period of coups in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper concludes by contending that political stability between 1970 and 2011 helped the sports movement to flourish. Even political conflicts after 2011 did not influence the desire for competition, but it was noted that the lack of security, and the increasing terrorism and political/economic sanctions, were the major barriers to Syrian sport on an international stage after the ‘Arab Spring’, which had a negative impact on the support of most sports teams and missions.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2012, five Qatari women participated in a qualitative research study, which aimed to explore the negotiation of opportunity to be members of Qatar's first national women's football team. Qatar is a conservative Islamic country which is experiencing rapid modernisation. Part of this modernisation includes the increasing visibility of sport, for example the successful bid for the 2022 men's Football World Cup. In response to this bid, the first Qatari women's national football team was established in 2011. The project was positioned within a social constructivist framework. Five out of 12 squad members, over the age of 18, volunteered to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interview questions probed the women's experiences and influences on their opportunities and journey to membership in the national team. From a thematic analysis, issues such as the management of gender norms and the influence of significant others dominated the data. This research indicated that the women's agency enabled them to manage their situation with a range of strategies and to change attitudes towards women footballers. The winning of the bid to host the men's World Cup has been a catalyst for change in making spaces for Qatari sportswomen.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Istanbul's ‘Big Three’ football clubs, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray, dominate the Turkish Super League. The matches between these fiercely rival teams, also known as ‘derbies’, are often intense and culminate in the eruption of violence, which has even been fatal on occasion. To many people's surprise, the anti-government protests which were sparked by outrage over police action against environmental protestors in May 2013 brought these eternal rivals together. Thousands of Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray supporters marched arm-in-arm to Taksim Square and demanded justice and freedom. Out of this solidarity is born Istanbul United, a seemingly new fan group with a new logo that combines the three rival logos. Çarşı, the legendary fan group of Beşiktaş, also played an important role in the protests and received the support of all football fans as well. This paper will focus on the politicisation of football in Turkey during the second half of 2013. By looking at both the political role of football fans of the ‘Big Three’ during and after the Gezi protests, and the ways in which mutual respect and solidarity is born among diverse protesters, this paper discusses the possibilities of translating this positive genre to a peaceful spectatorship in Turkish football.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Jordan, national identity is composed of two sub-national identities: the Transjordanian identity of Jordan's indigenous inhabitants from east of the Jordan river, and the Palestinians originating in the west of the Jordan river. Historically, the Jordanian throne has maintained power through an alliance with the Transjordanians. As the majority of the Jordanians are of Palestinian origin, democratisation in Jordan would likely imply the Palestinians taking over the political momentum in the country. When unrest has erupted in Jordan, as during the democracy protests of the Arab Spring, this has on some occasions been labelled as threats to the national unity by the Jordanian monarchy. No one wants to return to the civil war of 1970. On the other hand, to avoid democratisation, the memory of the civil war must be sustained. Since the civil war, Jordan has had a history of ethnic-based football riots. These are reminders of the threats to stability, security and national unity. But as long as they are contained at the football stadiums, they serve the interests of political forces wanting to preserve power and political status quo.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current paper sheds light on a process that has changed Israeli sport between the years 1981 and 2002. The paper traces, conceptually and historically, the multiphase nature and struggle for equality of the Israeli women's basketball team. Through examining interrelated processes, this paper illustrates that although women have gained some ground as far as visibility and awareness is concerned, it is far too early for a ‘victory lap’. The rapid increase in women's participation in sports in Israel over the last decades expresses the change in the status of women in sports itself and in many other social areas, but in parallel also exposes staunch thought patterns in regard to women's and men's involvement in sports.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Men's lacrosse and women's lacrosse share a name, but their histories differ. Both sports developed and became organised in close concert with the race, class and gender expectations of the eras. As a result, the sports began with rules that reflected those norms. Over time, the sports developed separately and generated unique forms, even as they sustained moments of interaction. Therefore, men's lacrosse and women's lacrosse are different sports. Using comparisons as the mode through which to view the sports, this article explores the organised beginnings of men's lacrosse and women's lacrosse to establish that the sports began and continued within identity-based norms. Through the discussion of the practical distinctions and critical understandings of the differences between the games, the author poses that these dissimilarities are relevant in considerations of the separate sports as they continue to change in the larger US sporting context. As sports such as basketball demonstrate, these arguments matter because broad-scale comparisons of women's sports to men's frequently render women's sport participants, and the sports they play, inferior. Notably, women's lacrosse participants also employed comparisons to distinguish and claim their history as unique from that of men's lacrosse. A comparative analysis highlights points of disjuncture between the sports and contextualises the importance of gender in the articulations of difference.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses a major blind spot in the history of Australian sport by investigating women's participation in sport with relation to social class. This is a question that has been largely overlooked in the current literature on the history of women's sport, but stands out as an issue deserving of further attention. The paper considers whether the obstacles faced by Australian sportswomen have been irrespective of social class and status, or if working-class women faced a double burden of both gender and economic barriers to sporting activity? Drawing upon an in-depth examination of sport and identities in an inner-city working-class Australian suburb, the paper examines and analyses the sporting experiences of local women in the early part of the twentieth century. Based on an extensive evaluation (and critique) of the local, city and sporting press and local histories, the paper argues that not only did working-class women have far fewer opportunities to participate in sport than their working-class male counterparts, but that they also had much less access to sport than middle- and upper-class women. It concludes that issues relating to class were the most significant deterrent to sporting involvement amongst local women.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the gap in literature that ignores sport as practiced, managed or communicated by women by focusing on sportswriter Mary Garber, and the meanings engendered through her coverage of black high school and collegiate athletics in the Twin City Sentinel of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, during the mid-1940s through early 1960s. She received numerous prestigious awards during a career that spanned seven decades, but limited historical treatises examine this influential figure. Few scholars have attempted to understand the history of women in this male-dominated field or the sociocultural forces and obstacles that contextualise and hinder their contributions. It is a sad irony that Garber was atypical for her time, and remains so in the contemporary climate. Therefore, one major objective of this paper is to create a discourse through Garber's body of work that will help to eradicate the gender inequalities of women in sport media. In contrast with representations of women and racial minorities in mainstream sport media, this paper demonstrates that Garber addressed pertinent social concerns and supplemented dominant ideological content with more inclusive depictions of the population she covered by resisting white, masculine, heteronormative assumptions about which sports and athletes merit attention.1
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first two decades of the twentieth century are considered a golden age for sport, but these years were also a time when female daredevils, lady swashbucklers and athletic heroines were surprisingly common. Although they are virtually forgotten today, muscular women stars were a worldwide phenomenon. The first of these female daredevils was Pearl White who put her athletic abilities on display in weekly serials where she continually rescued herself from improbable scrapes by using her own strength and wits. Other intrepid females in Europe soon showed off their own brand of cliffhanging: Frenchwomen Musidora and Josette Andriot, the Danish daredevil Emilie Sannom and the ‘mastodontic’ Italian Astrea all demonstrated their muscular and thespian skills in popular cinematic entertainments during the silent era. These mighty ladies helped to expand the vocabulary of what it meant to be strong and sporty and feminine at the same time. Unfortunately, this enjoyment of female strength and independence all came to an end when sound came to the movies in 1929. By the early 1930s, the era of athletic female stars had come to an end and a more traditional form of femininity caused the disappearance of these forgotten Amazons of the silent screen.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, football and fandom have been male domains and celebrations of masculinity. So far there has been some sociological and historical research on women's football; however, little is known about women's fandom, in particular about its formation and development. This article focuses on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called ‘The Female Vikings’, which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man's world. Drawing on available information about football and fans in Denmark, we have reconstructed the developments of both Lyngby BK and its supporters. Special focus was placed on the histories and cultures as well as the experiences of female fans in this club. Insights into the foundation of the women's fan group were provided by problem-centred interviews which also contained open questions. The foundation and activities of the Female Vikings show how women can perform gender in the fan's stands and how they play a significant role in the fan movement. The interviews also reveal the loyalty of the female fans during the club's ‘crisis’ and their ‘collective memories’.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the Cold War, women from Eastern Europe excelled in international sport. Rather than applauding the successes of these female athletes, many in the Cold-War-West responded with suspicion, contempt and derision. Armed with rumours and anecdotes, the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) implemented sex testing in 1966, and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) followed suit two years later. Despite the introduction of a compulsory sex/gender control, many continued to lament the muscular physiques of the Cold-War-Eastern victors. The known and suspected sex test ‘failures’ from North Korea, the Philippines, Poland, the Soviet Union and Spain served to exacerbate the fears of gender fraudulence. As global dynamics shifted, however, so, too, did the anxieties in sport. When women from the People's Republic of China dominated the international sports scene in the 1990s, many in the geographic-West again doubted the authenticity of the achievements and called for a return to gender verification. A decade later, the international plights of Indian athlete Santhi Soundarajan and South African runner Caster Semenya convinced the IAAF and the IOC that such a reestablishment was necessary. Using the ‘colonial/modern gender system’ framework, this article explores the political and racialised sex/gender concerns medical professionals and sport authorities possessed, which led to the establishment, abandonment and reintroduction of sex testing/gender verification in elite sport. Through these three phases of sex testing/gender verification, the IAAF and the IOC reaffirmed a binary notion of sex and privileged white, Western gender norms.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the 1980s, China has initiated a new era of urbanisation. Urbanisation, like a social engine, has driven a dramatic change in the way that people take part in sport. The particular focus of this article is to explore the impact of urban development on the systematic transformation of women's sport at the grass-roots level. Based on Riess's perspective of the relationship between cities and sport, and socialist feminist's points of view concerning female sport, this research applied a qualitative research paradigm using an in-depth interview method to examine the major social forces which stimulated the rise of women's mass sport in urban China. It is argued that urban development has provided Chinese women with a governmental guarantee, comparatively free individual choices and diversified opportunities to pursue their own interests and fulfilment in and through sport. Generally speaking, Chinese women's mass sport has improved. However, there are still limitations within the institutional structure, physical structure and value systems of the urban society, as well as its sport subsystem to support the sustainable development of women's mass sport. Ideas concerning women's inferiority and gender inequality still remain during this transformation.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 09/2014; 31(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The German re-entry into the Olympic Movement after the Second World War took place at the 1952 Olympic Winter Games in Oslo – the capital of a country which had been occupied by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945. The wounds of war had by no means healed in Norway at the time of the Oslo event; thus, the 1952 Olympic Games became once more a political issue. In fact, prior to the event, the question of German participation had given rise to numerous discussions between Norway, the Federal Republic of Germany and the IOC. Therefore, the West German ‘Return to Olympia’ was a process which took two years and required patience and diplomatic tact. The objective of this article is to trace this process both from the Norwegian and German perspectives since the research results on the subject available to date emphasised either a Norwegian or a German perspective. This approach also seems interesting against the historical background of the onset of the Cold War.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 08/2014; 31(12).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As mountaineering was a non-Olympic sport and of no military relevance, it did not obtain any support of the socialist state. Consequently, it was very difficult for the mountaineers to obtain visas and financial or material resources. Invitations from the Soviet Union (SU), well-paid side jobs and self-made equipment were just some of the things necessary to be able to get into the highlands. From the end of the 1970s the emerging ‘hippie-generation’ brought new life into the scene of traditional alpinists. These young people travelled into the Soviet Union with the help of a so-called ‘Transitvisum’. They stayed in the SU illegally for several weeks or even months, always being weary of the police. Not having much financial possibilities, they travelled mostly by train or by hitchhiking and thus got into close contact with the Soviet people. Due to their experiences the alpinists were able to distance themselves from the official socialist discourse in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and to realise the possibility of liberty. They can be considered as an avant-garde of the massive exoduses or escapes of thousands of GDR citizens in 1989 through one or more eastern countries which initiated the collapse of the GDR.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 08/2014; 31(12).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A lot has been written about the Olympic Games of 1936, which were held under the National Socialist dictatorship, and most of the issues seem to have been researched. On closer inspection, however, it is evident that this is not in fact the case. Accordingly, as part of a dissertation, the circumstances surrounding the planning, construction and use of the Olympic Village of 1936 have been researched. For this project, unknown documents from more than 100 archives were analysed. Using the example of the Olympic Village, it can be shown how the Olympic Games were organised and how they were perceived outside Berlin.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 08/2014; 31(12).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Just like most dictatorships, the German National Socialist regime attempted to completely control sporting activities. To that effect, in the early years of war in the ‘Third Reich’, the Bavarian sporting official Karl Oberhuber called for a ‘revolution’ of the football game system. He was supported by several influential National Socialist politicians. Oberhuber pushed to put aggressive, extremely attack-oriented football on the agenda, initially in Bavaria and then in the entire German Empire. In his view, football should be transformed into an instrument for Hitler's warfare. This version of a true German Blitzkrieg football was simultaneously conceived as an alternative to the allegedly defensive and unattractive English football. However, this initiative faced resistance from Sepp Herberger, the coach of the German national team. The present article deals with the conflict-ridden course of events surrounding the attempts to transform football along paramilitary lines, which ultimately failed. The author elaborates on how this dispute over the correct game system was linked to other discussions at the global level at that time, which also aimed to make football a more entertaining, high-scoring and thus financially lucrative affair. This was a chapter of German and European sporting history, which was entirely unknown until recently.
    International Journal of the History of Sport 08/2014; 31(12).

Related Journals