BioFactors (BIOFACTORS )

Publisher: International Society of Vitamins and Related Biofactors; International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons


BioFactors is an international journal aimed at identifying and increasing our understanding of the precise biochemical effects and roles of the large number of trace substances that are required by living organisms. These include vitamins and trace elements, as well as growth factors and regulatory substances made by cells themselves. The elucidation, in a particular organism or cell line, of the roles of substances active in trace quantities, is frequently applicable directly to many other forms of life. In keeping with this unified view of biochemistry, BioFactors publishes articles dealing with the identification of new substances and the elucidation of their functions at the basic biochemical level as well as those revealing novel functions of trace substances already known.

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  • Website
    Biofactors website
  • Other titles
    BioFactors (Online)
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

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    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endogenous morphine and its derivatives (morphine-6-glucuronide [M6G]; morphine-3-glucuronide [M3G]) are formed by mammalian cells from dopamine. Changes in the concentrations of endogenous morphine have been demonstrated in several pathologies (sepsis, Parkinson's disease, etc.), and they might be relevant as pathological markers. While endogenous morphine levels are detectable using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was, so far, the only approach to detect and quantify M6G. This study describes the preparation of a specific anti-M6G rabbit polyclonal antibody and its validation. The specificity of this antibody was assessed against 30 morphine-related compounds. Then, a M6G-specific ELISA-assay was tested to quantify M6G in the plasma of healthy donors, morphine-treated, and critically ill patients. The antibody raised against M6G displays a strong affinity for M6G, codeine-6-glucuronide, and morphine-3-6-glucuronide, whereas only weak cross-reactivities were observed for the other compounds. Both M6G-ELISA and LC-MS/MS approaches revealed the absence of M6G in the plasma of healthy donors (controls, n = 8). In all positive donors treated with morphine-patch (n = 5), M6G was detected using both M6G-ELISA and LC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, in a study on critically ill patients with circulating endogenous morphine (n = 26), LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that 73% of the positive-patients (19 of 26), corresponding to high M6G-levels in M6G-ELISA, contained M6G. In conclusion, we show that endogenous M6G can be found at higher levels than morphine in the blood of morphine-naive patients. With respect to the interest of measuring endogenous M6G in pathologies, we provide evidences that our ELISA procedure represents a powerful tool as it can easily and specifically detect endogenous M6G levels. © 2013 BioFactors, 2013.
    BioFactors 01/2014; 40(1):113-120.
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    ABSTRACT: Thy-1 or CD90 is a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, thymocytes, subsets of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, mesangial cells and some hematopoietic cells. Thy-1 is evolutionarily conserved, developmentally regulated, and often has dramatic effects on cell phenotype; however, the effects vary between and in some cases within cell types and tissues, and between similar tissues in different species, indicating that the biological role of Thy-1 is context-dependent. Thy-1 exists in soluble form in some body fluids; however, the mechanisms of its shedding are unknown. In addition, Thy-1 expression can be regulated by epigenetic silencing. Because Thy-1 modulates many basic cellular processes and is involved in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, it is important to better understand its regulation.
    BioFactors 06/2009; 35(3):258-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells respond to hypoxia by decreased degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), accumulation of which leads to increased transcription of numerous proteins involved in cell growth and survival. Ascorbic acid prevents HIF-1alpha stabilization in many cell types, but the physiologic relevance of such effects is uncertain. Given their relevance for angiogenesis, endothelial cells in culture were used to evaluate the effects of ascorbate on HIF-1alpha expression induced by hypoxia and the hypoxia mimic cobalt. Although EA.hy926 cells in culture under oxygenated conditions did not contain ascorbate, HIF-1alpha expression was very low, showing that the vitamin is not necessary to suppress HIF-1alpha. On the other hand, hypoxia- or cobalt-induced HIF-1alpha expression/stabilization was almost completely suppressed by what are likely physiologic intracellular ascorbate concentrations. Increased HIF-1alpha expression was not associated with significant changes in expression of the SVCT2, the major transporter for ascorbate in these cells. Cobalt at concentrations sufficient to stabilize HIF-1alpha both oxidized intracellular ascorbate and induced an oxidant stress in the cells that was prevented by ascorbate. Whereas the interaction of ascorbate and cobalt is complex, the presence of physiologic low millimolar concentrations of ascorbate in endothelial cells effectively decreases HIF-1alpha expression and protects against cobalt-induced oxidant stress.
    BioFactors 05/2009; 35(3):306-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Current intakes of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in most individuals living in Western countries. A good natural source of these fatty acids is seafood, especially oily fish. Fish oil capsules contain these fatty acids too. Very long chain omega-3 fatty acids are readily incorporated from capsules into transport, functional, and storage pools. This incorporation is dose-dependent and follows a kinetic pattern that is characteristic for each pool. At sufficient levels of incorporation, EPA and DHA influence the physical nature of cell membranes and membrane protein-mediated responses, eicosanoid generation, cell signaling and gene expression in many different cell types. Through these mechanisms, EPA and DHA influence cell and tissue physiology, and the way cells and tissues respond to external signals. In most cases, the effects seen are compatible with improvements in disease biomarker profiles or in health-related outcomes. As a result, very long chain omega-3 fatty acids play a role in achieving optimal health and in protection against disease. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids protect against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and might be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, childhood learning, and behavior, and adult psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses. DHA has an important structural role in the eye and brain, and its supply early in life is known to be of vital importance. On the basis of the recognized health improvements brought about by long chain omega-3 fatty acids, recommendations have been made to increase their intake.
    BioFactors 05/2009; 35(3):266-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin acts both as a hormone of the pineal gland and as a local regulator molecule in various tissues. Quantities of total tissue melatonin exceed those released from the pineal. With regard to this dual role, to the orchestrating, systemic action on various target tissues, melatonin is highly pleiotropic. Numerous secondary effects result from the control of the circadian pacemaker and, in seasonal breeders, of the hypothalamic/pituitary hormonal axes. In mammals, various binding sites for melatonin have been identified, the membrane receptors MT(1) and MT(2), which are of utmost chronobiological importance, ROR and RZR isoforms as nuclear receptors from the retinoic acid receptor superfamily, quinone reductase 2, calmodulin, calreticulin, and mitochondrial binding sites. The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) MT(1) and MT(2) are capable of parallel or alternate signaling via different Galpha subforms, in particular, Galpha(i) (2/) (3) and Galpha(q), and via Gbetagamma, as well. Multiple signaling can lead to the activation of different cascades and/or ion channels. Melatonin frequently decreases cAMP, but also activates phospholipase C and protein kinase C, acts via the MAP kinase and PI3 kinase/Akt pathways, modulates large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. MT(1) and MT(2) can form homo and heterodimers, and MT(1) interacts with other proteins in the plasma membrane, such as an orphan GPCR, GPR50, and the PDZ domain scaffolding protein MUPP1, effects which negatively or positively influence signaling capacity. Cross-talks between different signaling pathways, including influences of the membrane receptors on nuclear binding sites, are discussed. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):183-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in animals and humans indicate that diets containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil (containing >80% DAG) decrease body weight gain and body fat accumulation, especially visceral fat. Body weight and body fat are controlled by energy expenditure, fat oxidation, fat storage capacity, and appetite control. Recent researches indicate that DAG oil, compared with conventional oils, has distinct metabolic effects. We review the evidence concerning the effects of DAG oil intake on fat oxidation and energy expenditure. In humans, dietary DAG is more susceptible to oxidation, and in animals 1,3-DAG, a major component of DAG oil, is rapidly oxidized. Short-term human studies with indirect calorimetry demonstrate greater fat oxidation with DAG oil consumption compared with triacylglycerol (TAG) oil consumption. Furthermore, DAG oil consumption for 14 days stimulates energy expenditure. Based on these reports, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure by daily DAG oil intake could contribute to long-term reductions in body weight and fat accumulation. The literature provides support for the notion that dietary DAG is more rapidly oxidized than dietary TAG, and that, compared with TAG oil, DAG oil consumption increases whole body fat oxidation. The effects of DAG oil consumption on energy expenditure, however, remain inconclusive. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):175-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Mutations in the enzymes and/or nutritional deficiencies in B vitamins required for homocysteine metabolism can induce HHcy. Studies using genetic- or diet-induced animal models of HHcy have demonstrated a causal relationship between HHcy and accelerated atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and activation of proinflammatory factors have been proposed to explain the atherogenic effects of HHcy. Recently, HHcy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been found to play a role in HHcy-induced atherogenesis. This review will focus on the cellular mechanisms of HHcy in atherosclerosis from both in vivo and in vitro studies. The contributions of ER stress and the UPR in atherogenesis will be emphasized. Results from recent clinical trials assessing the cardiovascular risk of lowering total plasma homocysteine levels and new findings examining the atherogenic role of HHcy in wild-type C57BL/6J mice will also be discussed. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):120-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial theory of aging is the idea that age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction is caused by accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mitochondria are considered to be a dynamic organelle that repeats fusion and fission. Through fusion and fission, there is an extensive and continuous exchange of mtDNA and its products between mitochondria. This mitochondrial complementation prevents individuals from expression of respiratory dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutant mtDNAs. Thus, the presence of mitochondrial complementation does not support the mitochondrial theory of aging. Moreover, the presence of mitochondrial complementation enables gene therapy for mitochondrial diseases using nuclear transplantation of zygotes. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):130-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a key mediator of p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and may play the role of a tumor suppressor in cancer. However, it has been shown that p21 may also act as an oncogene, because it inhibits apoptosis and may promote cell proliferation in some tumors. These data point out to "antagonistic duality" of p21, because it possesses anticancer and procancer properties at the same time. New data suggest that more and more proteins also may play contradictory roles in cancer thus challenging current paradigm of established oncogenes and tumor suppressors. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):161-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are phylogenetically conserved signaling molecules that belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily and are involved in the cascades of body patterning and morphogenesis. The activities of BMPs are precisely regulated at various stages, and extracellulary, mainly regulated by certain classes of molecules termed as BMP antagonists and pro-BMP factors. BMP antagonists inhibit BMP function by prohibiting them from binding their cognate receptors, whereas pro-BMP factors stimulate BMP function. In this review, the functions of these BMP regulators will be discussed. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):113-9.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been well-established that type-2 immunity, characterized by eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus production, and B cell class switching to IgE, is highly dependent on the production of the type-2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. However, it is less clear how the type-2 cytokine effector response is induced and in addition what innate cell type produces the initiating factor. Recent reports highlight IL-25 as a type-2 inducing factor, with IL-25 administration resulting in severe gut and lung type-2 pathologies. The expression of IL-25 is also necessary for initiation of a robust type-2 response both at the genesis of the response, as with helminth infection, and during the response, as has been shown in experimental allergic asthma. It is also apparent that, as well as directly controlling type-2 immunity via IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, IL-25 may also interact with other cytokines and their receptors, such as IL-17A and the IL-17RA receptor. Here, we review the role of IL-25 as an important factor in controlling the initiation and severity of the type-2 response, and as an alternative therapeutic target to the type-2 cytokine family, for the treatment of allergic asthma. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 04/2009; 35(2):178-82.

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