Gynecological Endocrinology (GYNECOL ENDOCRINOL )

Publisher: International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology, Taylor & Francis


Gynecological Endocrinology, the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology, covers all the experimental, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this increasingly new discipline. It includes papers relating to the control and function of the different endocrine glands in females, the effects of reproductive events on the endocrine system, and the consequences of endocrine disorders on reproduction.

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    Gynecological endocrinology (Online)
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    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine serum human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) levels and establish whether serum HLA-G level is related with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and ovarian hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-five patients with PCOS and 23 healthy control women were evaluated in this study. Serum HLA-G, lipid fractions, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), white blood cell (WBC), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and other hormone (gonadotropins and androgens) levels were measured. The estimate of insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, fasting insulin, WBC levels and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, free androgen index (FAI) and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with healthy women. However, the women with PCOS had considerably lower serum FSH, SHBG, MDA, GSH and HLA-G levels than healthy subjects. HLA-G was inversely related with HOMA-IR, FAI, LH/FSH ratio and WBC, but positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Decreased serum HLA-G level may be related with insulin resistance, ovarian hyperandrogenism and oxidative stress in women with PCOS. Nevertheless, the exact role of HLA-G in the pathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by lack of expression of both estrogen and progesterone receptor as well as lack of amplification of HER2. Patients with TNBC carry an unfavorable prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes given that endocrine or HER2 targeted therapies are not effective, rendering chemotherapy the sole effective treatment option to date. Therefore, there is a high demand for additional novel treatment options. Findings: We previously published a list of genes showing both higher gene expression rates in TNBC and, in addition, are known to encode targets of non-oncologic drugs. SRD5A1, which encodes the type-1 isoform of the steroid-5alpha-reductase, which is involved in androgen metabolism, was found to be one of these genes. Dutasteride is a dual blocker of both the type-1 and type-2 isoform of SRD5A1 and is indicated in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Treatment of TNBC cell lines with dutasteride was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, altered protein expression of VEGF and HIF-1α and increased chemosensitivity. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the SRD5A1-corresponding anti-androgenic drug dutasteride might act as a combinatorial therapeutic option besides standard chemotherapy in highly aggressive TNBC.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This review gives an overview of the mechanisms of action of oral emergency contraception pills (ECPs), focusing on the levonorgestrel (LNG) and ulipristal acetate (UPA) containing ECPs. In vivo and in vitro studies have addressed the effect of EC on various possible targets. Based on these studies as well as on clinical trials it is clear that the efficacy of ECPs to prevent an unintended pregnancy depends on their mechanism of action as well as on their use in relation to the fertile window. While the main effect of both available ECPs is to prevent or delay ovulation the window of action for UPA is wider than that of LNG. This provides the biological explanation for the difference observed in clinical trials and the higher efficacy of UPA. Neither LNG nor UPA impairs endometrial receptivity or embryo implantation. Correct knowledge on the mechanism of action of ECPs is important to avoid overestimating their effectiveness and to advise women on correct use.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated patients' knowledge on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and their perception of this risk when it is presented as a relative risk (RR), absolute risk (AbR) or attributable risk (AR). This was a cross-sectional study involving 159 users or potential users of COCs. The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire in which the risk of VTE associated with COCs was presented as RR, AbR and AR. The degree of concern expressed regarding this risk and the women's changes of opinion when the information was communicated through a different risk model were evaluated. Most of the women (67.9%) expressed concern when the risk was presented as an RR. Conversely, they showed no concern when the risk was presented as an AbR (14.5%) or AR (10.7%). A significant number of women changed their opinion regarding their level of concern when the risk was presented as an AbR or AR (p < 0.001). In conclusion, concerns about thrombotic complications from the use of combined hormonal contraception is reduced when incidence rather than relative risk is presented. Presentation of thrombosis complications in terms of incidence rather than RR may improve communication of side effects during counseling for combined hormonal contraception initiation.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study assessed the relief of uterine bleeding and clinical symptoms during cyclic administration of dienogest for the treatment of endometriosis. Methods: In total, 25 patients undergoing ovarian cyst enucleation and given dienogest participated in this study. Dienogest 2 mg/day was administered for 3 weeks, and the drug was then withdrawn for 1 week (cyclic administration of dienogest). This 4-week cycle was repeated six times. Patients’ records were prospectively analyzed for the number of days on which any uterine bleeding occurred, as well as menstrual pain before and after the start of dienogest administration were evaluated with a view to using the data obtained herein as the basis. Results: During the period of cyclic administration of dienogest, uterine bleeding occurred on 5.8 to 7.7 days per 4-week period on an average through cycles. Of uterine bleeding episodes, menstruation-like uterine bleeding was present in about 80% of patients. The visual analog scale (VAS) value for menstrual pain significantly decreased from 3.8 before dienogest administration after surgery to 1.5 at the completion of cycle 1, VAS remained low thereafter. Conclusion: These results raise the possibility that cyclic administration of dienogest may relieve lessen uterine bleeding, a major adverse event and menstrual pain.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Germ cell ovarian tumors (malignant ovarian germ cell tumors – MOGCT) affect young women and are treated by surgery plus chemotherapy. It is well known that cytotoxic treatment may accelerate depletion of the primordial follicle pool leading to impaired fertility and premature menopause. Aim of this study is to identify patient candidates for fertility preservation strategies. We report our experience in preservation of fertility for four patients affected by MOGCT, referred to San Raffaele Hospital Oncofertility Unit. All patients received fertility sparing surgery plus platinum-based chemotherapy. Two patients were affected by mixed germ cell tumors and two by disgerminomas. After 24 months from the end of treatment, serum AMH levels have been measured. We report lower serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in our patients than in healthy general population as serum AMH levels were under the 25th age-specific percentiles. Fertility preservation, in terms of oocytes cryopreservation, was offered to those two patients with serum AMH levels predictive of significantly poor ovarian reserve (1st and 2nd patients). Using the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol for ovarian stimulation, we obtained two and six oocytes, respectively. Therefore, serum AMH, as a marker of ovarian function, can improve the identification of patients that need to be referred to fertility preservation strategies.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: 17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by CYP17 gene mutations. This disease is clinically characterised by hypertension, hypokalaemia, sexual infantilism in females or pseudohermaphroditism in males, and adrenal hyperplasia. This study aims to investigate a rare case of 17OHD accompanied by both cystic ovaries and massive adrenal mass. Methods: This study performed clinical, hormonal, radiological and genetic analyses. Blood samples were collected from the patient for the genetic test. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the coding sequence abnormalities of CYP17 were assessed using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing analysis. Results: The genetic analysis of CYP17 revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the individual. One was a mis-sense mutation of c.1226 C > G, which changes codon 409 in exon 7 from proline (CCG) to arginine (CGG). Another was a mutation of p.Val311Asp,fs,330X, which was first reported in a compound heterozygote mutation of Y329fs and V311fs from a Chinese patient. Conclusion: This study presented a rare case of 17OHD accompanied by both cystic ovaries and massive adrenal mass. This study obtained significant information on the genotype–phenotype correlation of 17OHD.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective observational cohort study was performed to examine patient satisfaction after one Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment cycle in moderate to severe endometriosis patients. From May 2012 till September 2013, 25 patients with surgically proven endometriosis stage III-IV were included per group and received intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF preceded by long-term pituitary down-regulation (IVF-ultralong). The median patient satisfaction scores were 8.3, 7.9 and 8.0 in patients receiving IUI (n = 22), IVF (n = 24) and IVF-ultralong (n = 23), respectively (p = 0.89). Both deterioration in pain and quality-of-life could not be identified as determinants of decreased patient satisfaction scores. Satisfaction was higher in women receiving their first ART treatment attempt (p = 0.002), after treatment accomplishment (p = 0.04) and after a positive pregnancy test (p = 0.04). A median satisfaction score concerning preceding long term pituitary down-regulation of 6.1 (IVF-ultralong n = 25, IUI n = 8) was reported. Only three patients would refrain from this preceding therapy in a next treatment attempt. We concluded that patient satisfaction scores were comparable between the three different ART treatments. Since patient satisfaction was in particular dependent on treatment outcomes, it is recommended to compare those three ART treatments in a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare serum chemerin levels between women with classic hyperandrogenic PCOS, euandrogenic PCOS and matched control subjects. Research design and methods: This study was carried out at the Second XiangYa Hospital between July 2012 and April 2013. Sixty-seven women with PCOS and 20 controls were included. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose and blood serum hormone and blood lipid were measured. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed. Serum chemerin was measured by ELISA. Results: Serum chemerin was significantly higher in classic hyperandrogenic PCOS compared with euandrogenic PCOS and controls (311.07 ± 141.87 ng/mL versus 228.03 ± 119.66 ng/mL and 225.87 ± 86.44 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Serum chemerin was positively related to follicle count, ovarian volume, the level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fasting blood insulin, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, WHR and BMI, while negatively related to the level of high-density lipoprotein. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed ovarian volumes and WHR were the significant influencing factors of chemerin (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for chemerin reached a value of 0.684 (0.572–0.796, 95% confidence interval). The best compromise between sensitivity (80.0%) and specificity (47.6%) was obtained with a cutoff value of 200.94 ng/mL. Conclusions: Serum chemerin level was increased in Chinese women with classic hyperandrogenic PCOS. Serum chemerin measurement offers a relatively moderate diagnostic potency with a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 47.6% at 200.94 ng/mL. This suggested that chemerin may be involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome of classic PCOS.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: A woman with phenylketonuria (PKU) was diagnosed through neonatal screening, her PAH mutation was p.V388M/p.I65T, for which she received treatment with phenylalanine restriction, and was administered oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4) from the age of thirty. The purpose of this article is to describe the treatment with BH4 during her pregnancy and to evaluate a plan for its use. Methods: The patient had an unplanned pregnancy at 34 years of age, for which she received a phenylalanine-free supplement enriched with essential fatty acids, vitamins and trace elements. Results: The dose of 6R-BH4 was reduced from 500 mg/day to 100 mg/day until its suspension in the 28th week of gestation, and was well tolerated. Blood phenylalanine control was easily accomplished during this pregnancy, and no nutritional deficiency was seen. Conclusion: The pregnancy had a normal outcome, and so we consider that adaptation of the dose of 6R-BH4 to the prenatal periods aided a greater efficiency and a lower risk in the treatment of maternal PKU.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this randomized controlled trial, we aimed to examine whether differences exist among patients who underwent assisted reproductive technology treatment with a long-GnRH-agonist compared to a GnRH-antagonist protocol in terms of levels of follicular fluid (FF) and serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glycodelin and interleukin (IL)-1β on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU). In 80 infertile couple with male factor or unexplained infertility, 40 women stimulated with GnRH-antagonist protocol and 40 women with the long-GnRH-agonist protocol. FF and blood serum samples were obtained simultaneously from 80 women during the OPU procedure and the concentrations of VEGF, IL-1β and glycodelin were measured with commercially available kits. Concentrations of FF VEGF, IL-1β and glycodelin were not significantly different in the long-GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist groups, and neither were serum concentrations of VEGF, IL-1β and glycodelin. According to our results in at least, we can say that minor differences between these protocols in terms of clinical pregnancy do not depend on VEGF, glycodelin or IL-1β.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: PCOS patients were frequently characterized by lower plasma vitamin D levels. The mechanisms involved in this dysfunction remains still debated, therefore we evaluated the role of androgen, insulin and body weight on the serum VitD levels in women with or without PCOS. Eighty one patients 18–42 yrs old were studied into “SUMMER” and “WINTER” seasonal period: thirty seven PCOS, seventeen no-ovarian hyperandrogenic (noPCOS), twelve functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and finally fifteen healthy (Con). Patients were further divided into: lean (L), obese (O), normo- (nINS) and hyperinsulinemic (hINS). All hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured at 1-7 days of the menstrual cycle. Our results show that VitD levels were lower in PCOS and in noPCOS than in FHA and Con, in particular in (O) and (hINS) PCOSs. Both in summer and in winter, PCOSs had basal VitD levels significantly lower than FHA and Con, whereas they were similar to noPCOS. Yet, LhINS and OPCOS had VitD levels lower than Con and noPCOS. VitD levels were comparable in LnINS PCOS and Con. In conclusion, PCOSs had levels of VitD lower than controls. Weight and hyperinsulinemia had a significant influence on these values. Finally, over 70% of our healthy patients had VitD deficiency.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome seem to have a larger ovarian reserve. However, regardless of a greater reserve, diminished ovarian reserve has been reported after laparoscopic diathermy. The aim of this article was to determine whether the doses adjusted unilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling with diathermy (ULOD) diminishes ovarian reserve to compare with bilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling with diathermy (BLOD). Ninety-six women were assigned in two groups. One group underwent ULOD receiving thermal doses (0–840 J per ovary) adjusted to volume one ovary. The other group underwent BLOD receiving fixed doses (600 J per ovary). Ovarian reserve markers [anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH); antral follicle count (AFC) and ovarian volume] were measured before and after surgery (1 and 6 months). Both groups showed a decrease in AMH after surgery, but it was significantly more distinct in the BLOD versus ULOD group (2.0 ng/mL versus 1.3 ng/mL; p = 0.018) in the first follow-up month and remained significantly different through the sixth follow-up month (1.9 ng/mL versus 1.15 ng/mL; p = 0.023). In contrast, in the sixth month, the ULOD versus BLOD showed a significantly greater increase AFC (p < 0.001) and volume (p = 0.013). Our findings evidenced that the dose-adjusted unilateral diathermy (60 J/cm3) does not have significant and long-term effects on ovarian reserve.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns for negative effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in long-term users have been raised, since OCs suppress the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis. However, there have been still limited data regarding the effects of long-term OC use on BMD in young women in the twenties. We investigated the effects of long-term OC use for the prevention of endometrioma recurrence on BMD in young women. Ninety-two women aged 20–30 years who underwent conservative surgery for endometrioma and used postoperative OC for at least 12 months to prevent the recurrence were included for this cross-sectional study, and BMDs after OC use were analyzed. The mean age at starting OC and duration of OC use was 25.6 ± 2.9 years and 40.7 ± 28.5 months, respectively. No correlation was found between BMDs and age at starting OC at all sites. In addition, BMDs were also not correlated with the duration of OC use, and were comparable according to the dose of OC (20 versus 30 μg). In conclusion, long-term use of OCs has no adverse effect on BMD in post-adolescent young women.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this single-center, prospective, randomized, parallel-group study was to compare desogestrel and danazol as preoperative endometrial preparation for hysteroscopic surgery. We enrolled 200 consecutive eligible patients, in reproductive age, with endouterine diseases. Pre- and post-treatment characterization of endometrium was performed by hysteroscopic visual observation and histologic confirmation. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 100 were treated with 75 μg of desogestrel/die, 100 with 100 mg of danazol/die, both orally for 5 weeks, starting on Day 1 of menstruation. We recorded intraoperative data (cervical dilatation time, operative time, infusion volume and severity of bleeding) and drugs' side effects. Post-treatment comparison of endometrial patterns showed a significant more marked effect of desogestrel, respect to danazol, in atrophying endometrium (“normotrophic non-responders” versus “hypotrophic”—“atrophic”, p = 0.031). Intraoperative data showed no significant differences between the two groups for cervical dilatation time (p = 0.160), while in the desogestrel group we found a significant reduction of operative time (p = 0.020), infusion volume (p = 0.012), and severity of bleeding (p = 0.004). Moreover, desogestrel caused less side effects (p = 0.031). According to our data analysis, desogestrel showed most marked effect in inducing endometrial atrophy, allowed a better intraoperative management and caused less side effects during treatment.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To observe the influence on metabolism and body composition of two oral contraceptives containing non-androgenic progestins in association with estradiol or ethinyl estradiol (EE). Study design: Women on hormonal contraception with estradiol valerate (E2V)/dienogest (DNG) in a quadriphasic regimen (n = 16) or 30 μg EE/2 mg chlormadinone acetate (CMA) (n = 16) in a monophasic regimen were evaluated at the third cycle for modifications in lipoproteins, apoproteins and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and at the sixth cycle for body composition and the markers of bone turnover osteocalcin and C-telopeptide X. Results: During E2V/DNG lipoprotein, apoproteins and HOMA-IR remained stable. During EE/CMA, total-cholesterol (p = 0.003), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.003) Apoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1; p = 0.001) and Apo B (p = 0.04) increased, low-density lipoprotein/HDL (p = 0.039) decreased and total-cholesterol/HDL and Apoprotein-B/Apo-A1 ratio did not vary. HOMA-IR slightly increased from 1.33 ± 0.87 to 1.95 ± 0.88 (p = 0.005). There was a reduction of markers of bone metabolism in both groups with no modification of body composition. Conclusions: Administration of E2V/DNG does not influence lipid and glucose metabolism, while mixed effect are exerted by EE/CMA. Both preparations reduce bone metabolism without influencing short-term effect on body composition.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2014;