International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (INT J CLIN PHARM TH )

Description

The International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics appears monthly and publishes manuscripts containing original material with emphasis on the following topics: Clinical trials, Pharmacoepidemiology - Pharmacovigilance, Pharmacodynamics, Drug disposition and Pharmacokinetics, Quality assurance, Pharmacogenetics, Biotechnological drugs such as cytokines and recombinant antibiotics. Case reports on adverse reactions are also of interest.

  • Impact factor
    1.20
    Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.36
  • Cited half-life
    8.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.33
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.35
  • Website
    International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics website
  • Other titles
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
  • ISSN
    0946-1965
  • OCLC
    29934177
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Experimental studies have shown that liposomal curcumin can exert a reduction in tumor growth in pancreatic and colorectal cancer. In this phase I clinical trial we investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of intravenously administered liposomal curcumin in healthy subjects. Material and methods: 50 male and female participants were included in this randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind phase I dose escalation study. Subjects received a single dose of liposomal curcumin (10 - 400 mg/m2; n = 2 - 6 per group) or placebo over 2 hours intravenously. Results: Dose-dependent increases in the plasma concentrations of curcumin and its metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) were detected. After the end of drug infusion, curcumin and THC plasma concentrations decreased within 6 - 60 minutes below the limit of quantification. Mean urinary excretion was ~ 0.1% of total systemic clearance. Liposomal curcumin was tolerated well, but a transient red blood cell echinocyte formation with concomitant increase in mean cellular volume was observed at dosages ≥ 120 mg/m2. Conclusion: Short-term intravenous dosing of liposomal curcumin appears to be safe up to a dose of 120 mg/m2. Changes in red blood cell morphology may represent a dose limiting sign of toxicity.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of oral canagliflozin and its Oglucuronide metabolites (M7 and M5) after single and multiple doses in healthy adult participants. The pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of canagliflozin were also evaluated. Methods: In this open-label, single- (day 1) and multiple-dose (days 4 – 9), parallelgroup, phase 1 study, 27 healthy participants were randomized into three groups (1 : 1 : 1) to receive 50, 100, or 300 mg canagliflozin. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed at pre-pecified timepoints on days 1, 9, and 10. Results: Mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and the maximum observed plasma concentration of canagliflozin, M7, and M5 increased in a dose-dependent manner, across all the 3 doses, following single- and multiple-dose administration. The mean apparent elimination halflives of canagliflozin, M7, and M5 were independent of the dose. Canagliflozin decreased the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) and increased the urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in a concentration- and dose-dependent manner. The relationship between drug concentrations and RTG was described by a sigmoidal relationship with RTGmin (minimum value of RTG) of 37.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 34.3, 40.8) and half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 21 ng/mL (95% CI: 18.3, 23.8). No deaths, serious adverse events, hypoglycemic events, or discontinuations due to adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin and its metabolites (M7 and M5) were linear, and no time-dependent changes were observed after single- and multiple-dose administration. Similarly, pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin on RTG and UGE were found to be dose- and concentration-dependent. Overall, canagliflozin was well-tolerated in healthy participants.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Hemodynamic stability is one of the most critical concerns during induction of anesthesia. Whether the pharmacokinetic model by Marsh or the one by Schnider will produce better hemodynamic stability remains unclear. This study compared hemodynamic changes during induction between the two models. Methods: 60 patients who underwent elective surgery were randomly assigned to plasma target-controlled infusion by Marsh's (n = 30) or Schnider's (n = 30) model with an initial target concentration of 4 μg×mL-1. The target was then reset and gradually titrated to a sedation level with a narcotrend index (NI) below 64. Stroke volume, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, arterial pressure, target, and effect site concentration, and dose of propofol infused were recorded every minute during the first 25 minutes of infusion. Results: Throughout the first 25 minutes, stroke volume index and cardiac index were decreased significantly in both Marsh and Schnider groups, but no statistical difference was detected between the groups (p > 0.05). Central venous pressure (CVP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and heart rate (HR) did not significantly change during induction (p > 0.05). Time to loss of responsiveness (LOR), and time for NI to decrease to 64 was faster in Marsh than in Schnider (1.51 ± 0.8 minutes vs. 2.8 ± 1.2 min, p < 0.001; 3.3 ± 2.0 minutes vs. 5.2 ± 2.3 minutes, p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: When target concentrations are titrated according to NI during induction of anesthesia, Marsh's model could induce sedation faster than Schnider's. Meanwhile, hemodynamic changes were not observed to be statistically different between the two models. Hypotension induced by plasma target-controlled infusion of propofol could mainly be attributed to decreased stroke volume instead of vascular dilation.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: A new twice daily sustained-release (SR) paracetamol formulation was developed to improve convenience and enhance patient compliance for treatment of pain from chronic diseases. This research aimed to evaluate bioavailability and compare pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the new SR paracetamol formulation (2 — 1,000 mg) with those of immediaterelease (IR) paracetamol (2 — 500 mg) and existing extended-release (ER) paracetamol (2 — 665 mg). Methods: Two randomized, single-dose, 4-way crossover studies were conducted. A total of 28 healthy male and female volunteers participated in each study. The relative bioavailability, partial extent of absorption, overall elimination, food effect, and safety were evaluated. Results: The estimates of relative bioavailability of new SR with IR formulation based on dose-adjusted AUC0-inf were 91% (0.86 - 0.96) for the fasted state and 99% (0.95 - 1.02) for the fed state, while these estimates comparing new SR with ER formulation were 99% (0.96 - 1.03) in the fasted state and 98% (0.95 - 1.02) in the fed state. The accumulated mean time period at or above the minimal therapeutic plasma paracetamol concentration for the new SR was from 90% to 112% longer than that of the IR formulation, in fasted and fed state, respectively. Food significantly increased Cmax of SR formulation, with ratios fast vs. fed 0.79 (p < 0.0001) and 0.77 (p < 0.0001) in study I and II, respectively. Conclusions: The new SR formulation was well absorbed, with more than 90% relative bioavailability as compared to the currently marketed IR and ER products and better sustained-release PK characteristics, which make it suitable for twice-daily paracetamol treatment.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80 - 125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and ARC124910XX at early timepoints.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was performed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and relative bioavailability of two isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) sustained-release drugs in healthy Korean subjects under fasting and fed conditions. Methods: A total of 60 healthy volunteers (30 each in the fasting and fed arms of the study) were enrolled in the study and were randomized to treatment. After the administration of a single dose of one of the investigational products, blood samples were collected at specific time intervals from 0 to 36 hours. The plasma concentrations of 5-ISMN were measured by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratio (test/reference) of the parameters were obtained by analysis of variance on logarithmically transformed data. Results: The corresponding 90% CIs of AUClast and Cmax for the test/reference geometric mean ratio were 90.75 – 98.44% and 92.28 - 98.33%, respectively, under fasting conditions. In the fed state study, the 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratio of test to reference drugs were 94.79 - 103.33% for AUClast and 99.86 - 108.02% for Cmax. Conclusion: The test product is equivalent to the reference product in subjects under fasting and fed conditions within the Korean regulatory bioequivalence criteria. Both formulations were safe and well tolerated, and there were no noteworthy differences in the safety profiles between the test and reference drugs.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the genotype/allele frequencies of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) gene in Jordanian rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In addition, the association between MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and response to and toxicity of methotrexate (MTX) was evaluated. Methods: 159 adult rheumatoid arthritis ent Rheumatology Clinic at The Jordan University Hospital, between December, 2011 and April, 2012 were recruited into the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes using Wizard Genomic DNA extraction Kit. The DNA extracts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were subjected to restriction enzymes to identify the C677T and A1298C genotypes. Genotype frequencies were identified and their relationship to some measures of MTX response and toxicity were evaluated. Results: The 677 TT genotype frequency was higher in RA patients (15.1%) compared to the healthy control group (5.9%) (odds ratio 3.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 - 6.87, p-value = 0.0056). No such differences were seen with the A1298C genotypes. The frequencies of 677T and 1298C variant alleles were 0.346 and 0.296, respectively. None of the change-in-disease-activity measurements in MTX-treated patients has a significant association with the various genotypes. There was no significant association between A1298C genotypes and "any MTX toxicity", but there was an association between C677T polymorphism and "any MTX toxicity" (p = 0.037). In addition, there was no association between both SNPs and specific MTX adverse effects. However, some haplotypes or combinations of the C677T and A1298C genotypes were associated with certain MTX side effects. Conclusions: More data from a larger number of RA patients are needed to evaluate the role of pharmacogenetic studies of MTHFR gene in predicting MTX response and toxicity.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: A patient presented with convulsive seizures when sodium valproate (VPA) and tebipenem pivoxil (Orapenem) were co-administered accidentally. The seizures were suspected to be caused by a reduced concentration of VPA in the blood. Case summary: A 6-year-old boy (weight: 16 kg, at the start of treatment) began sodium valproate (valproate syrup 5%) treatment for epilepsy in February 2012. At a dose of 350 mg/day, he experienced no convulsive seizures and maintained stable symptoms for the past 9 months. In December, he was prescribed 160 mg/day tebipenem pivoxil by an otolaryngologist for inflammation of the tympanic membrane. He experienced convulsive seizures the day after beginning co-administration. The concentration of VPA in his blood at this time was 30.0 μg/mL, which was lower than the optimal blood concentration. Discussion: Marked reduction of VPA concentration in the blood due to co-administration of VPA and injectable carbapenem antibiotics has been well-documented; however, this is the first report of such an interaction with tebipenem, which is an orally-administered carbapenem antibiotic. Although the mechanism of drug interaction between VPA and carbapenem antibiotics is not fully understood, it is thought that VPA blood concentrations decrease due to production of valproic acid glucuronic acid conjugates (VPA-Gluc) being promoted directly or indirectly by carbapenem antibiotics. When we assessed the patient according to the DIPS system, we calculated a score of +4 (possibility of interaction). Conclusions: The results suggest that co-administration of oral carbapenem antibiotics and VPA should be avoided.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the efficacy of the Anticonvulsant Screening Program (ASP) of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) in identifying new anti-seizure drugs with new mechanisms of action (MOA). The ASP does not itself identify the nature of the MOA, but on further basic investigation, many of these drugs prove eventually to have a wide variety of new and novel MOA. Methods: Data were tabulated from multiple sources, including the ASP and the literature. Results: Since it was established in 1975, the ASP has contributed to the identification of at least 9 new anti-seizure drugs. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated by ascertaining the number of MOA of the anti-seizure drugs discovered by the ASP screening techniques. Considering the MOA of drugs marketed after 1975 - and the MOA of investigational compounds not yet marketed - the ASP has contributed to the identification of anti-seizure drugs that possess 16 distinctly different MOA. Conclusion: The ever-evolving screening approach of the ASP has many characteristics of a final common pathway for anti-seizure drug discovery.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM), is metabolized by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Canagliflozin exposures may be affected by coadministration of drugs that induce (e.g., rifampin for UGT) or inhibit (e.g. probenecid for UGT; cyclosporine A for P-gp) these pathways. The primary objective of these three independent studies (single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence) was to evaluate the effects of rifampin (study 1), probenecid (study 2), and cyclosporine A (study 3) on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in healthy participants. Methods: Participants received; in study 1: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 and 10), rifampin 600 mg (days 4 - 12); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 - 17), probenecid 500 mg twice daily (days 15 - 17); and study 3: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 - 8), cyclosporine A 400 mg (day 8). Pharmacokinetics were assessed at prespecified intervals on days 1 and 10 (study 1); on days 14 and 17 (study 2), and on days 2 - 8 (study 3). Results: Rifampin decreased the maximum plasma canagliflozin concentration (Cmax) by 28% and its area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. Probenecid increased the Cmax by 13% and the AUC by 21%. Cyclosporine A increased the AUC by 23% but did not affect the Cmax. Conclusion: Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, probenecid, and cyclosporine A was well-tolerated. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed for probenecid or cyclosporine A, while rifampin coadministration modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and could necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of our study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for 25-hydroxyvitamin D clearance in a healthy young adult population in Serbia. Methods: Study sample consisted of 70 healthy young students of the Faculty of Medical Science, University of Kragujevac, Serbia, with a mean age and body mass index of 22.39 ± 1.82 years and 21.31 ± 2.69 kgm-2, respectively. Non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) software was used for data analysis. A validation set of 16 participants was used to estimate the predictive performance of the pharmacokinetic model. Results: In the base model (without covariates), we had parameter estimates of 0.01 L/h for apparent clearance, 0.25 L for apparent volume of distribution, while value of minimum objective function (MOF) was 383.468. The full regression model was established by estimating the effects of 12 covariates. Mean intake of vitamin D from foods (DD) and value of phosphate in serum (PHO) were covariates included in the final model, while others were excluded in this process. The estimated value in the final MOF model was 274.555. The final regression model formula was: clearance (CL) (L/h) = 0.0711 + 0.738 x DD + 0.618 x PHO. Conclusions: The PPK model obtained determined clearance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy young adult population in Serbia. Mean intake of vitamin D from foods and serum phosphate level are the most important covariates that influence value of 25-hydroxyvitamin D clearance in healthy young adults.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine as a tocolytic agent has not been studied in great detail in pregnant women and has instead focused on immediate release tablets and gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablets. The aim of this study was to determine nifedipine slowrelease half-life and distribution volume in pregnant women and to compare these with pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine in non-pregnant subjects described in the literature. Materials: This is a study parallel to a trial studying women with threatened preterm labor between 26 + 0 and 32 + 2 weeks after initial tocolysis and a completed course of corticosteroids, who were randomly allocated to maintenance nifedipine (slow-release tablets 20 mg 4 times daily) or placebo. Exclusion criteria for the pharmacokinetic study were contra-indications for nifedipine, impaired liver function, and concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme. Blood samples for measuring nifedipine plasma concentrations were drawn at t = 0, t = 12 hours, t = 24 hours, t = 48 hours, t = 72 hours, t = 7 days, and t = 9 days. Methods: Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using iterative two-stage Bayesian population pharmacokinetic analysis by MWPharm© software. The study was designed to establish a correlation between body weight and nifedipine plasma level. Results: The pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine slow-release tablets were determined from the data of 8 pregnant women. Nifedipine slow-release had a half-life of 2 - 5 hours, a mean distribution volume of 6.2 ± 1.9 L/kg (calculated while using a fixed biological availability of 0.45 taken from the literature due to lack of intravenous data in this population) compared to a half-life of 6 - 11 hours, and a distribution volume of 1.2 - 1.3 L/kg described in non-pregnant subjects in the literature. None of the women delivered during study medication. Study medication was continued for the duration of the pharmacokinetic study (9 days) in all women. A correlation between nifedipine plasma levels and maternal body weight was not demonstrated. This may have been caused by lack of power. Conclusion: Pregnant subjects in this study, using nifedipine slow-release tablets, showed a larger volume of distribution and a shorter elimination half-life than for non-pregnant subjects as published in the literature.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Drug effects on the function of smell and taste are occasionally mentioned in prescription information however, most originate from anecdotal reports without even distinguishing between gustatory or olfactory deteriorations. This includes the antifungal fluconazole. Material and methods: In a randomized, placebocontrolled, double-blind, two-way crossover study, 12 healthy men and 9 healthy women (age 26.8 ± 3.7 years) took oral doses of 400 mg fluconazole or placebo once daily for 8 days. Gustatory and olfactory functions were tested before and after the treatment using clinically validated tests ("Taste Strips" and "Sniffin' Sticks", respectively). Results: Baseline taste scores of 12.3 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 1.7 for the fluconazole and placebo conditions, respectively, corresponded to normative values. Similarly, baseline (pretreatment) composite olfactory TDI scores (odor "threshold discrimination identification") of 35.0 ± 3.2 and 35.7 ± 4.3 for men and 34.8 ± 4.2 and 35.5 ± 2.8 for women during the fluconazole or placebo conditions, respectively, corresponded to normative values. Neither gustation nor olfaction was significantly affected by the fluconazole treatment. Conclusions: The present study provided a negative result regarding fluconazole effects contrasting, for example, with those of sildenafil in a comparatively powered study [1]. Up to the tested dose of 400 mg/d, fluconazole does not have general and reproducible effects on taste and smell in healthy humans. However, it was unlikely to detect rare disturbances with the present study cohort size, and, therefore, rare fluconazole side effects on human chemosensation, as occasionally reported, remain a possibility.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 61-year old woman was admitted with increasing dyspnea and deranged liver function tests. A chest X-ray revealed small volume lungs with reticulo-nodular shadowing. High resolution computed tomography of the chest revealed interlobular septal thickening. The patient subsequently underwent an open lung biopsy and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy, which were consistent with a hypersensitivity pneumonitis and drug-induced liver injury respectively. The patient had previously been commenced on lansoprazole 10 days before the onset of symptoms; this had been stopped at diagnosis. High dose prednisolone was commenced, and the patient went on to make a full recovery. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a form of interstitial lung disease that is rarely associated with lansoprazole; this is the first report of it causing an idiosyncratic reaction affecting the lung and liver simultaneously. This case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a full drug history, as early identification of the offending agent will improve outcomes.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To discuss the available data regarding the off-label uses of anti-TNF agents in non-infectious uveitis. Data source: A literature search was performed in Medline through PubMed from January 2001 to January 2014. Study selection and data extraction: English-language articles about uveitis treatment with anti-TNF drugs in adult patients were reviewed. Data synthesis: The use of anti-TNF-α drugs for treatment of several refractory manifestations of refractory uveitis in adult patients is increasing. However, due to the lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials, the use of anti-TNF in uveitis remains "off-label"in most countries. There is no trial-based evidence to support it except for the experience provided by cases and case series. This experience, which is continuously increasing, has yielded encouraging results. Anti-TNF-α drugs, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab, are reasonably effective for controlling ocular inflammation and sparing patients corticosteroid treatment in non-infectious refractory uveitis. Approximately 80% of patients on infliximab, adalimumab, or golimumab were able to achieve sustained control of inflammation by 6 months. Conclusion: Anti-TNF-α therapy is effective in inducing clinical remission for refractory uveitis, with a relatively low rate of treatment-ending adverse events. However, randomized and controlled trials are required to adequately assess the maintained clinical efficacy and safety profile in the long term of anti-TNF agents for non-infectious refractory uveitis.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The formulation investigated as reference contains thioctic acid which is known to be poorly soluble in water and have some instability during storage at high temperature. To overcome these limitations, a new piperazine dithioctate (PDT) tablet formulation was developed by a domestic pharmaceutical company in Korea. Objective: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of PDT in healthy volunteers. Methods: This study consisted of two clinical trials. In the part 1 study, a randomized, singledose, parallel study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers. All of the subjects were administered one of the three study formulations, Thioctacid® HR (High Release) as the reference, PDT-1 or PDT-2 (each containing thioctic acid 600 mg), respectively. To determine the harmacokinetic characteristics, blood samples were serially collected at pre-dose and at pre-defined timepoints after dosing. In the part 2 study, a randomized, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted with 48 subjects. All of the subjects were administered both the reference and PDT-2 formulations, with a 7-day washout period between the two medications. Blood samples were collected at the same timepoints as in the part 1 study. Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study. Results: 23 volunteers completed the part 1 study. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of thioctic acid after administration of the reference tablet was 4.08 ± 2.35 μg/mL (means ± SD), and the Cmax of PDT-1 and PDT-2 was 3.53 ± 2.87 μg/mL and 4.15 ± 1.62 μg/mL, respectively. The AUClast value was 2.96 ± 1.13 μg x h/mL for the reference, 2.84 ± 1.12 μg x h/mL for PDT-1, and 3.30 ± 1.32 μg x h/mL for PDT-2. 42 volunteers completed the part 2 study. The Cmax of reference and PDT-2 was 5.59 ± 3.07 μg/mL and 5.14 ± 3.18 μg/mL, respectively. The AUClast value was 4.01 ± 1.65 μg x h/mL for the reference and 3.96 ± 1.47 μg x h/mL for PDT-2. The geometric mean ratios (PDT-2/reference) and the 90% CI for Cmax and AUClast were 0.93 (0.78 - 1.11) and 1.01 (0.94 - 1.09), respectively. Conclusion: Both studies suggested that the pharmacokinetic profile of the newly developed piperazine dithioctate formulation was comparable to the pharmacokinetic profile of the reference tablet. Both study tablets were well tolerated in all of the subjects.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Drug-drug interactions between canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor approved for the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, and an oral contraceptive (OC), warfarin, and digoxin were evaluated in three phase 1 studies in healthy participants. Methods: All studies were open-label; study 1 included a fixed-sequence design, and studies 2 and 3 used a crossover design. Regimens were: study 1: OC (levonorgestrel (150 μg) + ethinyl estradiol (30 μg))/day (day 1), canagliflozin 200 mg/day (days 4 - 8), and canagliflozin with OC (day 9); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 12) with warfarin 30 mg/day (day 6) in period 1, and only warfarin 30 mg/day (day 1) in period 2, or vice versa; study 3: digoxin alone (0.5 mg/day (day 1) + 0.25 mg/day (days 2 - 7)) in period 1, and with canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 7) in period 2, or vice versa. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed at prespecified intervals; OC: days 1 and 9, canagliflozin: days 8 - 9 (study 1); warfarin: days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2) (study 2); and digoxin: days 5 - 7 (periods 1 and 2) (study 3). Warfarin's pharmacodynamics (PD; International Normalized Ratio (INR)) was assessed on days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2). Results: Canagliflozin increased the plasma exposure of OC (maximum plasma concentration (Cmax): 22%, area under the curve (AUC): 6%) and digoxin (Cmax: 36%, AUC: 20%); but did not alter warfarin's PK and PD. No clinically relevant safety findings (including hypoglycemia) were noted. Conclusion: Canagliflozin can be coadministered with OC, warfarin, or digoxin without dose adjustments. All treatments were welltolerated.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Peramivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor having activity against various influenza A and B subtypes. The main route of elimination is the kidney and a dose reduction is justified for multipleday therapy when the creatinine clearance is < 50 mL/min. Before the 2009 influenza pandemic, dosing guidelines did not exist for patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This case report provides data on the dialysis membrane saturation coefficient (SA) and pharmacokinetic parameters of peramivir in a 29-year-old female receiving continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), a mode of CRRT. Methods: Plasma and effluent samples were collected to calculate the saturation coefficient, plasma half-life, maximum and minimum plasma concentrations, and area under the plasma drug concentrationtime curve (AUC) for peramivir. CVVHDF was performed using a Prisma pump and an AN69 filter. During peramivir sampling, the dialysate flow rate was 16.7 mL/min. The mean total ultrafiltrate produced was 14.2 mL/min. To calculate a saturation coefficient (SA), simultaneous sampling of blood and effluent was performed. Pre- and post-filter as well as effluent samples were obtained 4.5 and 8.5 hours following the 3rd dose of 480 mg. Plasma concentrations were also obtained at several time points and the AUC estimated from 0 to 24 hours (AUC0-24). Results: The maximum plasma concentration (C30min,) was 19,477 ng/mL, the minimum plasma concentration (Cmin) 2,750 ng/mL, and AUC0-24 196,166 ng x h/mL. The estimated plasma half-life was 8.2 hours with a log-linear decrease over the 24-hour period suggesting significant extracorporeal clearance. The calculated SA was 0.98, similar to an estimated SA of 1. Conclusion: Peramivir is readily cleared by CVVHDF having a calculated SA close to 1. The maximum and minimum plasma concentrations, AUC0-24, and plasma half-life was similar to those previously reported. These data will be useful in determining appropriate peramivir dosing regimens for severely ill influenza patients with acute renal impairment managed by CVVHDF.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To better characterize the risk profile of the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intratect®, a non-interventional study was undertaken to systematically collect large-scale safety information under real-life conditions in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency. Secondary objectives were data on treatment modalities. Methods: A prospective, non-interventional study was performed at 95 centers. Results of an interim analysis are reported here. Intratect® (50 g/L) was administered at the physician's discretion. Data were captured from patients with different causes of immunodeficiency (61.5% with malignancy) at routine clinic visits, with a particular focus on the frequency and causality of adverse events. Results: 1,313 patients were followed for a median of 294 days. At study entry, 836 patients (63.7%) were receiving therapy, most frequently IVIG treatment (37.2%). In total, 21,995 Intratect® infusions were documented (median 11 infusions per patient, median dose 200 mL). Median serum IgG level increased from 5.78 (interquartile range 3.70, 8.87) g/L at month 1 to 6.58 (4.82, 9.48) g/mL at month 12. Altogether, 689 adverse events were collected, irrespective of causality. From these, 225 (32.7%) were assessed as related to Intratect® and thus considered suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Thus, the ADR rate was 1.0% per infusion. Seven ADRs (7/225, 3.1%) were graded serious. In all cases, the patients had recovered or were recovering at the time of reporting. Conclusions: Use of Intratect® for immunoglobulin substitution in primary and secondary immunodeficiency under real-life conditions is associated with a low rate of suspected ADRs. Serious ADRs are rare and manageable.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Clinical information on tigecycline use in serious nosocomial infections is limited, and the efficacy is uncertain. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the utilization pattern and the effectiveness of tigecycline in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan. Methods: A retrospective study of the clinical and microbiological outcome of all patients treated with tigecycline for at least 72 hours over a 2-year period was conducted in a 730-bed teaching hospital. Results: Data from 133 patients with 149 cases of nosocomial infection were analyzed in this assessment. The mean APACHE II score at the initiation of tigecycline therapy was 22.5 ± 8.8, and the mean duration of treatment was 11.4 ± 5.6 days. Pneumonia was the most frequently diagnosed clinical indication for tigecycline use (113 cases, 76%). An overall positive clinical outcome was observed in 75 cases (50%). Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is the most common organism for tigecycline therapy (n = 59), with a positive clinical outcome of 38% in tigecycline monotherapy, 66% in dualtherapy, and 17% in triple-therapy (p = 0.031). The most commonly used combining agents with tigecycline to treat MDRAB infections were intravenous colistin, inhaled colistin, and cepoferazone/sulbactam, with positive clinical outcome rates of 53%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. Admission to intensive care unit was identified as a predictive factor for negative clinical outcome. Conclusion: Our pneumonia-dominated study population demonstrated a lower clinical improvement rate of tigecycline compared to previous published data. Tigecycline monotherapy is not recommended for MDRAB infection, but colistin or cephoperazone/ sulbactam combined with tigecycline seemed to yield a good clinical outcome for MDRAB infection.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 10/2014;