International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (INT J CLIN PHARM TH )

Description

The International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics appears monthly and publishes manuscripts containing original material with emphasis on the following topics: Clinical trials, Pharmacoepidemiology - Pharmacovigilance, Pharmacodynamics, Drug disposition and Pharmacokinetics, Quality assurance, Pharmacogenetics, Biotechnological drugs such as cytokines and recombinant antibiotics. Case reports on adverse reactions are also of interest.

  • Impact factor
    1.20
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.36
  • Cited half-life
    8.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.33
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.35
  • Website
    International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics website
  • Other titles
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
  • ISSN
    0946-1965
  • OCLC
    29934177
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Once-daily darunavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg), plus other antiretrovirals, is recommended for HIV-1-infected patients. Low therapy adherence is linked with poor outcomes. Pill burden can impact adherence. An 800-mg darunavir tablet would reduce pill burden.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 09/2014; 52(9):805-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Tianeptine is widely used for controlling depressive symptoms.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 09/2014; 52(9):817-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of GSK1070806, a novel IgG1 mAb that neutralizes human interleukin (IL)-18. Methods: In this first-timein-human (FTIH) study, cohorts of healthy and obese subjects were randomly allocated to receive single doses of GSK1070806 (0.008 - 10 mg/kg) or placebo. Blood was sampled ≤ 274 days post-dosing, and safety monitored. Results: GSK1070806 was generally well tolerated. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis and headache, arising as frequently in the placebo as in the active drug groups; most AEs were mild to moderate and unrelated to dose level. There were no allergic, delayed-type hypersensitivity, or infusion-related reactions and the incidence of immunogenicity was low. GSK1070806 plasma pharmacokinetic profiles were comparable in healthy and obese subjects; there was no major deviation from dose proportionality for AUCinfž and Cmax although a trend for dose-dependent increase in t1/2 was observed. Serum drug-bound IL-18 levels increased post-dosing and were sustained for a long time-period following GSK1070806 administration. Ex-vivo whole blood assay demonstrated prolonged pharmacological activity of GSK1070806 as determined by its primary immunological mechanism of action, inhibition of IL-18-induced IFN-gamma production.Conclusion: GSK1070806 warrants clinical investigation in patients.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. As part of the clinical development of GXR, and to further explore the effect of guanfacine on QT intervals, a thorough QT study of guanfacine was conducted (ClinicalTrials. gov identifier: NCT00672984). Methods: In this double-blind, 3-period, crossover trial, healthy adults (n = 83) received immediaterelease guanfacine (at therapeutic (4 mg) and supra-therapeutic (8 mg) doses), placebo, and 400 mg moxifloxacin (positive control) in 1 of 6 randomly assigned sequences. Continuous 12-lead electrocardiograms were extracted, and guanfacine plasma concentrations were assessed pre-dose and at intervals up to 24 hours post-dose. QT intervals were corrected using 2 methods: subject-specific (QTcNi) and Fridericia (QTcF). Time-matched analyses examined the largest, baseline-adjusted, drug-placebo difference in QTc intervals. Results: In the QTcNi analysis, the largest 1-sided 95% upper confidence bound (UCB) through hour 12 was 1.94 ms (12 hours postdose). For the 12-hour QTcF analysis, the largest 1-sided 95% UCB was 10.34 ms (12 hours post-supratherapeutic dose), representing the only 1-sided 95% UCB > 10 ms. Following the supra-therapeutic dose, maximum guanfacine plasma concentration was attained at 5.0 hours (median) post-dose. Assay sensitivity was confirmed by moxifloxacin results. Among guanfacine-treated subjects, most treatment-emergent adverse events were mild (78.9%); dry mouth (65.8%) and dizziness (61.8%) were most common. Conclusions: Neither therapeutic nor supra-therapeutic doses of guanfacine prolonged QT interval after adjusting for heart rate using individualized correction, QTcNi, through 12 hours postdose. Guanfacine does not appear to interfere with cardiac repolarization of the form associated with pro-arrhythmic drugs.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the influence of CYP2C19*2/*3 and MDR1 C3435T polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole (LPZ) in healthy Chinese subjects. Methods: All 24 subjects were from a study of bioequivalence. Plasma concentrations of LPZ were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19*2/*3 and multidrug resistance transporter gene 1 (MDR1) C3435T of the subjects were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Significant differences were found in the area under the concentration-time curve from predose to T (AUC0-T), area under the concentration-time curve from predose to infinity (AUC0-inf, t1/2), and apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of LPZ between CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers and intermediate metabolizers (p < 0.05). The AUC0-T, AUC0-inf, maximum plasma concentration, and CL/F of LPZ were significantly different between subjects with the MDR1 C3435T C/C, C/T, and T/T polymorphisms (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CYP2C19*2/*3 and MDR1 C3435T polymorphisms are important determinants of LPZ pharmacokinetics.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Most asthmatics have been found to have rhinosinusitis (RS). Patients with ethmoid sinusitis, in particular, often suffer from an impaired sense of smell; this is clinically important and necessitates concurrent treatment for both asthma and RS. As a rational therapeutic strategy, we focused on a fine particle HFA-134abeclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) metered-dose inhaler. Because of its small size, the medication is still present in the exhaled breath after inhalation. Methods: Five mild-to-moderate asthmatics with ethomoidpredominant sinusitis characterized by an impaired sense of smell and mild peripheral blood eosinophilia received a single-agent treatment with orally-inhaled HFA-BDP which was then exhaled through the nose. In addition, the stained small particles were created by an ultrasonic nebulizer and flow image of them during oral inhalation and nasal exhalation was evaluated by using nasal endoscopy. Results: After treatment, the sense of smell was restored in all cases with a concomitant improvement in sinusitis as confirmed by computerized tomography. In addition, amelioration of peripheral blood eosinophilia as well as small airway obstruction as indicated by pulmonary function tests was observed. Macroscopical imaging revealed that small particles flow toward olfactory cleft during both the inhalation and exhalation phases. Conclusion: We have presented 5 cases of asthmatic patients with RS treated with a concurrent single therapy, HFA-BDP exhaled through the nose (ETN). A clinical trial must be considered to establish this new therapeutic strategy based on the concept of "one airway, one disease."
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Finasteride, a selective inhibitor of type 2 5-alpha reductase isoenzyme, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and is indicated in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia. The study objective was to evaluate a newly developed finasteride 0.25% topical solution in comparison to the marketed finasteride 1 mg tablet, with respect to finasteride pharmacokinetics and suppressive effects on plasma DHT. Methods: 24 healthy men with androgenetic alopecia were randomized in a single center, open-label, parallel-group, exploratory study, and received either multiple scalp applications of the topical solution b.i.d. or oral doses of the reference tablet o.d. for 7 days. Plasma finasteride, testosterone and DHT concentrations were determined. Results: After multiple doses, mean (± SD) finasteride Cmax and AUC00-t corresponded to 0.46 ± 0.28 ng/mL and 6.64 ± 7.50 ng/mL x h for the topical solution and to 6.86 ± 1.78 ng/mL and 57.93 ± 29.38 ng/mL x h for the tablet. Plasma DHT was reduced by ~ 68 - 75% with the topical solution and by ~ 62 - 72% with the tablet. No relevant changes occurred for plasma testosterone with either treatment. No clinically significant adverse events occurred. Conclusions: A strong and similar inhibition of plasma DHT was found after 1 week of treatment with the topical and tablet finasteride ormulations, albeit finasteride plasma exposure was significantly lower with the topical than with the oral product (p < 0.0001).
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aims of this study were to observe the apoptosis effects of tetrandrine on human gallbladder carcinoma cell line (SGC-996), and to explore its related mechanism. Methods: First, the anti-proliferative activities of tetrandrine on SGC-996 cells were determined by using the MTT assays. Then, cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The apoptosis of cells was detected by the annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining assay. Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential was used to validate the ability of tetrandrine on inducing apoptosis. Finally, the expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, PARP, Bcl-2, and Bax) were analyzed by western blot. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t-test for comparison of the results obtained from cells with or without treatment of tetrandrine. Results: The MTT assay revealed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cells treated with tetrandrine were arrested at the S phase, according to the flow cytometric analysis. Tetrandrine produced a dose-dependent increase in the apoptotic cell population compared with control cells. Tetrandrine can also affect mitochondrial function by changing the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, western blot assay demonstrated that the tetrandrine induced apoptosis in SGC-996 cells by regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and activating the expression of cleaved caspase-3. Conclusions: The results indicate that tetrandrine may be a potential agent for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic polymorphisms of reduced folate carrier (RFC1 G80A) and multi-drug resistance-1 (MDR1 C3435T) might affect MTX response and/or toxicity. The aim of this study was to find out if there is an association between those polymorphisms and MTX toxicity and/or response in Jordanian RA patients. Method: A genotyping approach was used to determine the studied polymorphisms in 159 RA patients. Results: There was an association between RFC1 G80A and MDR1 C3435T polymorphisms with MTX toxicity. Patients with RFC1 80GG genotype were at higher risk for gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.036). Patients carrying at least one MDR1 3435T variant allele were at higher risk for MTX overall toxicity (p = 0.04), especially hepatotoxicity (p = 0.028). Furthermore, the distribution of RFC1 G80A polymorphism between males and females was significantly different. The variant genotype 80AA was found to be more in males than in females (60% vs. 31%) (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in methotrexate transporters affect the toxicity but not the response of MTX treatment. Further studies should be performed to have more conclusive results.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are considered at least as effective as H2-receptors antagonists for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in critically ill patients, there is no data on whether there is also the proof of no difference among these agents. Methods: The clinical material was the same as that reported in previous meta- analyses and included all trials comparing intravenous PPIs vs. H2-receptor antagonists for SUP in critically ill patients. Our methodology was a combination of meta-analysis and equivalence testing based on confidence intervals (CIs). The end-point was the rate of overt bleeding. All PPIs evaluated in the included trials were separately studied. The equivalence margins were derived from power calculation data of the original trials. Results: Our analysis involved 8 randomized trials for 851 patients. Two comparisons were made (pantoprazole vs. H2-receptor antagonists and omeprazole vs. H2-receptor antagonists). The following RDs were estimated: pantoprazole, RD = -1.2%, 95% CI: -3.5% to +1.2%; omeprazole, RD = -3.0%, 95% CI: -7.2% to +1.3%. The 95% CIs confidence intervals for RDs remained within the ± 6% margin. These results indicate that intravenous pantoprazole and intravenous omeprazole are equivalent, Conclusion: These two PPIs, when administered by intravenous route, are equivalent according to reasonable equivalence margins. This conclusion can be the basis to develop local acquisition tenders on these drugs. One advantage of this approach is that the feasibility of administrative decisions can directly be tested on clinical grounds and on the basis of standard evidence-based methods.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide-2 (GLP-2) that was recently approved by the US and European regulatory agencies FDA and EMA for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). The objectives of this work were, firstly, to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model based on the available PK data of the entire clinical development program and, secondly, to utilize the model for the justification of the proposed dosing regimen. The exploratory analysis was based on a previously established structural PK model and focused primarily on the investigation of covariate effects. Results: The plasma concentrationtime profiles of teduglutide after subcutaneous application were adequately described by a 1-compartment model with first order absorption and elimination. The area under the curve (AUC) was lower for male subjects, for subjects with higher creatinine clearance, for overweight subjects, and for SBS patients. However, except for subjects with severe renal impairment no clinically relevant effects on AUC were identified. Conclusion: Our model-based analysis supports the approved dose adjustment for SBS patients with and without renal impairments maintaining the exposure in a value range with acceptable variance for the target population.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and type of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and identify risk factors for ADRs in elderly patients within 30 days following discharge from an internal medicine clinic. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at the Internal Medicine Clinic of University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia, between September 1st and November 30th 2012. Patients aged ≥ 65 years discharged from the clinic during the study period were eligible for inclusion in the study. The follow-up visit was scheduled ~ 30 days after discharge. During the visit, the patients were assessed for the occurrence of ADRs. Two independent physicians evaluated each possible ADR by using the Naranjo ADR probability scale. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predisposing factors for ADRs. Results: There were 209 patients included in this study. A total of 72 ADRs were detected in 63 (30.1%) patients. The most frequent ADRs were bleeding disorders associated with warfarin therapy, followed by hypoglycemia associated with antidiabetics. Five (6.9%) ADRs, which resulted in hospital admission, were classified as serious. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated number of prescribed drugs ≥ 4 and prescription of furosemide and warfarin to be associated with increased risk of ADRs. Conclusions: Our study showed that ADRs are an important cause of morbidity in elderly patients after hospital discharge. Judicious prescription of drugs and careful and frequent monitoring of drug therapy are necessary to reduce the risk of ADRs.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim: Atopic dermatitis is often associated with atopic comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and food allergy. The aim of the present study was to analyze treatment data pertaining to atopic dermatitis patients in Germany with regard to the presence of other atopic comorbidities in the primary care and to investigate whether the presence of atopic codiagnoses has an impact on the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Methods: We used data from the Disease Analyzer database (IMS HEALTH, Germany) including 1,631 physicians (general practitioners, dermatologists and pediatricians) and 3.3 million patients. 39,642 (7.5%) of these patients were treated by dermatologists, 17,124 (5.2%) by pediatricians and 15,774 (0.9%) by general practitioners and had a documented diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. Results: 46.4% of AD patients treated by general practitioners, 42.5% by dermatologists and 32.0% by pediatricians were codiagnosed with one defined atopic diseases (allergic asthma, urticaria, allergic rhinitis and food allergy). In patients without AD, the proportion of atopic diseases was significantly smaller (41.4% for those treated by general practitioners, 38.4% for those treated by dermatologists, 26.4% for those treated by pediatricians). AD patients with another atopic comorbidity received topical corticosteroids (CS) (42.5%) more frequently than those without comorbidity (46.4% vs. 41.4% for patients treated by general practitioners, 42.5% vs. 38.4% for patients treated by dermatologists, 32.0% vs. 26.4% for patients treated by pediatricians). The general practitioners and pediatricians prescribed systemic corticosteroids to 13.2% and 7.8% of AD patients with additional atopic diseases, while the rate was only 5.1% and 3.0% in patients without comorbidities. Conclusion: In AD patients, the share of patients diagnosed with atopic diseases is significantly higher than in patients without AD. AD outpatients with concomitant atopic comorbidities receive topical, but also systemic corticosteroid prescriptions more frequently.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the variety of therapeutic options for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, many patients fail to meet glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) targets. The relative contribution of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) to overall HbA1c is estimated at 40 - 60%, with the effect of PPG on HbA1c being prominent in patients on basal insulin.The development of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) has been an important achievement in diabetes management and has become an established treatment. Of available GLP-1RAs, lixisenatide is a once-daily prandial GLP-1RA that has been shown to produce a reduction in HbA1c with a pronounced postprandial effect, suggesting a complementary effect between lixisenatide and basal insulin on PPG and fasting plasma glucose, resulting in a beneficial effect on body weight in all populations. Therefore, lixisenatide will make an important addition to current options for treating diabetes, especially for patients not achieving glycemic targets with basal insulin therapy.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: A starting dose in first-in-human (FIH) studies has been determined carefully to guarantee the safety of participants in the study but sometimes it seems to be too conservative. The objective of the present study is to investigate a reasonable safety factor to enable effective drug development without serious safety problems in study participants. Methods: No-observedadverse- effect levels (NOAELs) in nonclinical studies, starting doses in FIH studies, and approved doses in Japan were reviewed by documents disclosed by health authorities, and the relationships among each parameter were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The present study suggested that the starting doses in the past FIH studies had been determined very prudently, and revealed that there were significant differences between the starting dose and approved dose. Conclusion: It would be possible to develop new drugs effectively without serious safety risks if a reasonable safety factor had been applied to determine a starting dose in FIH studies.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare pharmacokinetic characteristics of fixed-dose combination (FDC) of two different salt form of amlodipine, amlodipine adipate/valsartan and amlodipine besylate/ valsartan, in healthy Korean volunteers under fasting conditions. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-treatment, two-way crossover study with a 14-day wash-out period was conducted. Plasma samples were collected for up to 144 hours for amlodipine and 24 hours for valsartan. Plasma concentrations of amlodipine and valsartan were analyzed using a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. A non-compartmental method was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Vital signs and adverse events were monitored and physical examinations, laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms were conducted to evaluate safety. 44 subjects completed the study. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratio of Cmax and the AUC0-t were 93.5 - 100.4% and 93.2 - 98.3% for amlodipine, and 92.1 - 121.3% and 94.1 - 115.2% for valsartan, respectively. 17 adverse events occurred in 15 subjects during the study; 5 and 7 adverse drug reactions from the 5 and 6 subjects were considered to probably be related to the test and reference treatments respectively. All adverse drug reactions were in line with those known for the reference drug. All subjects recovered fully with no sequelae. A FDC of amlodipine adipate/valsartan and amlodipine besylate/ valsartan combination tablets met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence. In addition, no significant difference was observed in the safety assessments between two treatments. Thus, the newly developed FDC of amlodipine adipate/valsartan seems to be interchangeable with amlodipine besylate valsartan combination.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The efficacy and safety of statins have been studied in a number of clinical trials and epidemiological studies. In recent years, the Medicine and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has assessed the evidence available on the following adverse reactions associated with the use of statins: sleep disturbances, memory loss, micturition disorders (problems with urination), sexual disturbances, depression, and interstitial pneumopathy. However, the association between statin use and the risk of these adverse reactions remains unclear. To examine the association between statin use and the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or the disorder causing LUTS, we carried out data mining using a prescription database. Methods: A large organized database of prescriptions constructed by a database vendor was used in the study. Symmetry analysis was used to identify the risk of LUTS after using statins over the period January 2006 to August 2013. Statin use in combination with drugs administered for storage LUTS was examined by prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA). Results: A significant association between statins and drugs for storage LUTS was found, with adjusted sequence ratios (ASRs) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.00 - 1.46), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.04 - 1.38), and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05 - 1.30) for intervals of 91, 182, and 365 days, respectively. In the analyses of individual statins, significant associations were found only for pravastatin. Significant associations with individual drugs for storage LUTS were found for solifenacin succinate with ASRs of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02 - 1.81), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.19 - 1.84), and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.25 - 1.73) for intervals of 91, 182, and 365 days, for flavoxate hydrochloride with an ASR of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.13 - 2.17) at an interval of 182 days, and for oxybutynin hydrochloride with ASRs of 2.06 (95% CI, 1.11 - 3.94) and 1.71 (95% CI, 1.09 - 2.72) at intervals of 182 and 365 days. Significant associations with gender were found only in females with ASRs of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.04 - 1.51) and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.07 - 1.41) at intervals of 182 and 365 days, respectively. Conclusions: Analysis of the prescription database showed significant association for storage LUTS in statin users.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
  • International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Glycopyrronium (NVA237), a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the effect of glycopyrronium on the QT interval and other cardiac parameters in healthy subjects. Methods: This randomized, partially blinded, single-dose, placebo- and positive- (moxifloxacin) controlled, three-way cross-over study investigated the effect of a single inhaled supra-therapeutic dose (8-fold clinical dose in COPD patients) of 400 µg glycopyrronium on the Fridericia-corrected QT interval (QTcF; primary objective), Bazettcorrected QT interval (QTcB), heart rate, blood pressure, pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability. Results: A total of 73 healthy male (n = 35) and female (n = 38) subjects, aged between 18 and 45 years, were randomized. Glycopyrronium did not cause significant QTcF prolongation compared to placebo. The largest time-matched mean difference to placebo was 2.97 ms at 5 minutes, with the upper limit of the two-sided 90% confidence interval (CI) being 4.80 ms, excluding a relevant QT effect as defined by the ICH E14 guideline. Glycopyrronium had a slight bradycardic effect with a mean change of -2.88 (90% CI: -3.78, -1.99) beats per minutes (bpm) and a maximum of -5.87 (90% CI: -7.82, -3.92) bpm at 5 hours post-inhalation. No clinically relevant effects were seen on QTcB, other electrocardiogram (ECG) intervals, or blood pressure. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of glycopyrronium was achieved shortly after inhalation (median tmax = 7 minutes). All the treatments were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Conclusion: A supra-therapeutic dose of glycopyrronium had a favorable cardiovascular safety profile with no clinically relevant effect on QT interval.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 07/2014;

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