Matrix Biology (MATRIX BIOL)
Regular Papers: Matrix Biology will review for publication studies utilizing most scientific technologies including molecular biology, cell biology, immunochemistry, structural biology, computational biology, theoretical biology, and macromolecular chemistry where the subject is extracellular matrix or is substantially related to matrix and its biological role. The journal will publish articles that are scientifically rigorous, complete within some logical framework, address molecular or cellular mechanisms, and present results that are timely and above average significance. Methods without application to a significant project and data on a new species or system similar to results already in the literature will not be accepted as a regular paper but may be suitable as a Short Note. Short Notes: Matrix Biology will also review for publication brief reports that meet the same standards of quality and field of interest as regular papers but have a narrower scope and more focused interest. Examples are: DNA sequence from a new species of special interest where the sequence from another species is in the literature; a probe, assay or method that is particularly novel and useful; a new mutation that broadens understanding in a genetic disease where other mutations are known; and brief results of more than usual interest that will be followed by a more detailed study. Mini Reviews: The aims of the reviews are to: (a) summarize the general concepts in the field; (b) provide a brief summary of the new information in the field; and (c) define unresolved questions and disagreements about currently available data. The mini-reviews will be aimed at the general reader and employ simple but informative diagrams and drawings. The mini-reviews will be of two different types, single mini-reviews that will summarize some new and important discovery in the field, and cluster mini-reviews on a topic that has been under investigation for some time. To ensure that the mini-reviews reflect a consensus to the scientists in the field, they will be published in one or two issues as a series of articles consisting of (a) an Introductory Review by a Special Editor selected for the series; (b) two or more specialized reviews from two or more additional experts in the field and (c) Letters-to-the-Editor by additional experts in the field who will be invited to comment or volunteer to comment on specific issues raised in the reviews. Announcements: Announcements of national or international meetings may be published in Matrix Biology.
- Impact factor3.3Show impact factor historyHide impact factor history
- WebsiteMatrix Biology website
Other titlesMatrix biology (Online), Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Material typeDocument, Periodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper
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Publications in this journal
Article: Keratan sulphate in the interglobular domain has a microstructure that is distinct from keratan sulphate elsewhere on pig aggrecan.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The microstructure of keratan sulphate purified from the interglobular domain, the keratan sulphate-rich region and total aggrecan was compared using fluorophore-assisted-carbohydrate-electrophoresis. Keratan sulphate in the interglobular domain was substantially less sulphated than keratan sulphate elsewhere on aggrecan, based on the ratio of unsulphated: monosulphated disaccharides generated by endo-beta-galactosidase digestion, and the ratio of monosulphated: disulphated disaccharides generated by keratanase II digestion. The ratio of unsulphated: monosulphated: disulphated disaccharides was 1:4:5 for keratan sulphate from total aggrecan and the keratan sulphate-rich region, but only 1:0.9:0.8 for the interglobular domain. These results show that keratan sulphate in the interglobular domain of pig aggrecan has a microstructure that is distinct from keratan sulphate in the keratan sulphate-rich region.Matrix Biology 12/2008; 28(1):53-61.
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ABSTRACT: Decorin (DCN) is one of the major matrix proteoglycans in bone. To investigate the role of DCN in matrix mineralization, the expression of DCN in MC3T3-E1 (MC) cell cultures and the phenotypes of MC-derived clones expressing higher (sense; S-DCN) or lower (antisense; AS-DCN) levels of DCN were characterized. DCN expression was significantly decreased as the mineralized nodules were formed and expanded in vitro. In S-DCN clones, in vitro matrix mineralization was inhibited, whereas in AS-DCN clones, mineralization was accelerated. At the microscopic level, collagen fibers in S-DCN clones were thinner while those of AS-DCN clones were thicker and lacked directionality compared to the controls. At the ultrastructural level, the collagen fibrils in S-DCN clones were markedly thinner, whereas those of AS-DCN clones were larger and irregular in shape. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that in AS-DCN cultures the mineral content was greater but the crystallinity of mineral was poorer than that of the controls at early stage of mineralization. The in vivo transplantation assay demonstrated that no mineralized matrices were formed in S-DCN transplants, whereas they were readily detected in AS-DCN transplants at 3 weeks of transplantation. The areas of bone-like matrices in AS-DCN transplants were significantly greater than the controls at 3 weeks but became comparable at 5 weeks. The bone-like matrices in AS-DCN transplants exhibited woven bone-like non-lamellar structure while the lamellar bone-like structure was evident in the control transplants. These results suggest that DCN regulates matrix mineralization by modulating collagen assembly.Matrix Biology 12/2008; 28(1):44-52.
Matrix Biology 11/2008; 27(8):651-2.
Article: The differential amino acid requirement within osteopontin in alpha4 and alpha9 integrin-mediated cell binding and migration.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) contains at least two major integrin recognition domains, Arg159-Gly-Asp161 (RGD) and Ser162-Val-Val-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg168 (SVVYGLR), recognized by alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 and alpha4 and alpha9 integrins, respectively. OPN is specifically cleaved by thrombin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 or MMP-7 at a position of Arg168/Ser169 (R/S) and Gly166/Leu167 (G/L), respectively. We in this study examined the requirement of residues within SVVYGLR for the alpha4 and alpha9 integrin recognition and how MMP-cleavage influences the integrin recognition. The residues, Val164, Tyr165, and Leu167 are critical for alpha4 and alpha9 integrin recognition in both cell adhesion and cell migration. The residue Arg168 is additionally required for alpha9 integrin recognition in cell adhesion and this explains why alpha9 integrin binds to only thrombin cleaved form of OPN. alpha4 integrin is able to bind to SVVYG (MMP-cleaved form of RAA OPN-N half), while alpha9 integrin is not, supporting the above notion that Arg168 is additionally required for alpha9 integrin-mediated cell adhesion. The residue Val163 is important for alpha4, but not for alpha9 integrin recognition in cell migration. Importantly, we found that the replacement of Arg168 by Ala (R168A mutant) induces the augmentation of cell migration via alpha4 and alpha9 integrins.Matrix Biology 11/2008; 28(1):11-9.
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ABSTRACT: Determining the specific role(s) of proteases in cell migration and invasion will require high-resolution imaging of sites of protease activity during live-cell migration through extracellular matrices. We have designed a novel fluorescent biosensor to detect localized extracellular sites of protease activity and to test requirements for matrix metalloprotease (MMP) function as cells migrate and invade three-dimensional collagen matrices. This probe fluoresces after cleavage of a peptide site present in interstitial collagen by a variety of proteases including MMP-2, -9, and -14 (MT1-MMP) without requiring transfection or modification of the cells being characterized. Using matrices derivatized with this biosensor, we show that protease activity is localized at the polarized leading edge of migrating tumor cells rather than further back on the cell body. This protease activity is essential for cell migration in native cross-linked but not pepsin-treated collagen matrices. The new type of high-resolution probe described in this study provides site-specific reporting of protease activity and insights into mechanisms by which cells migrate through extracellular matrices; it also helps to clarify discrepancies between previous studies regarding the contributions of proteases to metastasis.Matrix Biology 11/2008; 28(1):3-10.
Article: Zebrafish collagen XII is present in embryonic connective tissue sheaths (fascia) and basement membranes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Connective tissues ensure the cohesion of the tissues of the body, but also form specialized structures such as tendon and bone. Collagen XII may enhance the stability of connective tissues by bridging collagen fibrils, but its function is still unclear. Here, we used the zebrafish model to visualize its expression pattern in the whole organism. The zebrafish col12a1 gene is homologous to the small isoform of the tetrapod col12a1 gene. In agreement with the biochemical data reported for the small isoform, the zebrafish collagen XII alpha1 chain was characterized as a collagenase sensitive band migrating at approximately 200 kDa. Using newly generated polyclonal antibodies and anti-sense probes, we performed a comprehensive analysis of its expression in developing zebrafish. Collagen XII exhibited a much broader expression pattern than previously thought: it was ubiquitously expressed in the connective tissue sheaths (fascia) that encase the tissues and organs of the body. For example, it was found in sclera, meninges, epimysia and horizontal and vertical myosepta. Collagen XII was also detected in head mesenchyme, pharyngeal arches and within the spinal cord, where it was first expressed within and then at the lateral borders of the floor plate and at the dorsal midline. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence staining with laminin and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that collagen XII is associated with basement membranes. These data suggest that collagen XII is implicated in tissue cohesion by stabilizing fascia and by linking fascia to basement membranes.Matrix Biology 11/2008; 28(1):32-43.
Article: MMP-1 (collagenase-1) and MMP-13 (collagenase-3) differentially regulate markers of osteoblastic differentiation in osteogenic cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between constitutive or stimulated collagenase expression and osteoblastic phenotype of osteogenic cells. However, the direct effects of cell-secreted collagenases on osteoblastic differentiation, and the precise contributions of the key collagenolytic MMPs, MMP-1 and -13 to the modulation of specific osteoblastic markers have not been elucidated. Early passage osteogenic human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were exposed to exogenous collagenase-1 in the presence and absence of dexamethasone. Alternatively, endogenous collagenases were modulated by transfecting the cells with cDNA or siRNA to MMP-1 and/or -13. Specific osteoblastic markers and collagenase expression and activity were then assayed. Increasing concentrations of exogenous collagenase or endogenous MMP-1 and -13 produced a dose-dependent decrease in AP activity. Conversely, a dose-dependent increase in AP activity was observed with increasing concentrations of MMP-1 or MMP-13 siRNA. Overexpression of MMP-1 resulted in a significant decrease in Runx2, osteonectin (ON), osteopontin (OP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC), but an increase in osterix (Osx) mRNA levels. In contrast, knockdown of MMP-1 caused a significant increase in Runx2, ON, OP, BSP and OC levels and a decrease in Osx levels. MMP-13 overexpression resulted in diminished levels of Osx, OP and BSP, while its knockdown caused a significant increase in Osx and OP levels and a significant decrease in ON levels. The accretion of matrix molecules including collagen I(alpha1) in cell-matrix extracts paralleled the changes in their respective mRNAs. Simultaneous suppression of both MMP-1 and -13 resulted in significant increases in all osteoblastic markers assayed. MMP-1 and -13 differentially regulate osteoblastic markers and their combined suppression is important for the elaboration of an osteoblastic phenotype in PDL cells.Matrix Biology 09/2008; 27(8):682-92.
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ABSTRACT: Hyaluronidases are endoglycosidases that initiate the breakdown of hyaluronan (HA), an abundant component of the vertebrate extracellular matrix. In humans, six paralogous genes encoding hyaluronidase-like sequences have been identified on human chromosomes 3p21.3 (HYAL2-HYAL1-HYAL3) and 7q31.3 (SPAM1-HYAL4-HYALP1). Mutations in one of these genes, HYAL1, were reported in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IX. Despite the broad distribution of HA, the HYAL1-deficient patient exhibited a mild phenotype, suggesting other hyaluronidase family members contribute to constitutive HA degradation. Hyal3 knockout (Hyal3-/-) mice were generated to determine if HYAL3 had a role in constitutive HA degradation. Hyal3-/- mice were viable, fertile, and exhibited no gross phenotypic changes. X-ray analysis, histological studies of joints, whole-body weights, organ weights and the serum HA levels of Hyal3-/- mice were normal. No evidence of glycosaminoglycan accumulation, including vacuolization, was identified in the Hyal3-/- tissues analyzed. Remarkably, the only difference identified in Hyal3-/- mice was a subtle change in the alveolar structure and extracellular matrix thickness in lung-tissue sections at 12-14 months-of-age. We conclude that HYAL3 does not play a major role in constitutive HA degradation.Matrix Biology 09/2008; 27(8):653-60.
Article: A robust method for proteomic characterization of mouse cartilage using solubility-based sequential fractionation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Identification of protein expression differences using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC)-based proteomics depends critically on reproducibility throughout sample preparation and analysis. This applies particularly where sample fractionation is used to remove high abundance or interfering components to facilitate deeper mining of the proteome. Here we present a procedure for solubility-based cartilage fractionation using sequential extraction with 1 M sodium chloride followed by 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride. We characterized the extracts by 1-D electrophoresis and immunoblotting for individual cellular and matrix components and more globally by 2-DE. In general, NaCl extracts were highly enriched for cellular proteins and GuHCl extracts were predominantly matrix components, with some interesting exceptions. Importantly, we observed high inter-sample reproducibility and strong correlation between targeted and global analysis, indicating that our method can be applied to differential proteomic analysis of normal and pathological cartilage sub-proteomes.Matrix Biology 09/2008; 27(8):709-12.
Article: VEGF enhancement of osteoclast survival and bone resorption involves VEGF receptor-2 signaling and beta3-integrin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: VEGF dependent angiogenesis is required for normal bone development and has been implicated in cancer metastasis to bone. These processes, while dependent on osteoclastic bone resorption, are reportedly mediated by endothelial cells, stromal osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and/or tumor cells. We demonstrate here that VEGF treatment of purified murine bone marrow osteoclast precursors directly enhances their survival, differentiation into mature osteoclasts, and resorptive activity. The actions of VEGF on mature osteoclasts principally involve the receptor VEGFR2 (Flk1, KDR), and the receptor signaling utilizes both the PI3-kinase-->Akt and MEK-->ERK pathways. Increased osteoclast survival and resorptive activity is correlated with VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of multiple downstream targets of activated Akt [glycogen synthase kinase, GSK-3beta; forkhead transcription factor, FKHR; and the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death, Bad (Ser136)] and activated ERK1/2 [ribosomal S6 kinase, p90RSK; and Bad (Ser112)]. Expression of the VEGFR2 gene increases 20-fold during the 6 day in vitro differentiation of mature osteoclasts from mononuclear precursors, while alternate receptors VEGFR1 and neuropilin-1, decrease 30- and 3-fold respectively. Additionally, VEGF enhancement of osteoclast survival is diminished in cells prepared from beta3 integrin-deficient mice, thus associating VEGF signaling in osteoclasts with their attachment to extracellular matrix. Our results indicate that VEGF directly targets osteoclasts, thereby playing a novel role in bone development, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis.Matrix Biology 09/2008; 27(7):589-99.
Article: Specific expression of Cre recombinase in hypertrophic cartilage under the control of a BAC-Col10a1 promoter.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previously we have shown that insertion of a LacZ reporter gene into the Col10a1 gene in the context of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) drives strong and specific expression of LacZ in hypertrophic cartilage of transgenic mice [Gebhard S., Hattori T., Bauer E., Bosl M.R., Schlund B., Poschl E., Adam N., de Crombrugghe B., von der Mark K., 2007 Histochem. Cell Biol. 19 127:183-194]. BAC constructs in transgenic reporter mouse lines control efficient and specific LacZ expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes under the complete Col10a1 promoter. Here we report on the generation of Col10a1-specific Cre deleter mice using a BAC recombineering technique based on homologous recombination in E. coli. Sixteen BAC-Col10-Cre transgenic lines were generated containing between 1 and 5 copies of the BAC-Col10-Cre gene. All lines tested so far expressed Cre specifically in hypertrophic chondrocytes of E16.5 and P1 growth plates of long bones, ribs, vertebrae and sternum as examined by crossing with ROSA26 reporter mice. Cre activity was detected as early as E13.5 when hypertrophic cartilage develops in the diaphysis of femur and humerus. The data confirm that expression of Cre under the control of the complete BAC-Col10a1 promoter occurs with high efficiency and specificity in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The BAC-Col10-Cre lines should thus provide a valuable tool to get further insight into the role of genes involved in endochondral ossification by allowing their specific deletion in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate.Matrix Biology 08/2008; 27(8):693-9.
Article: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in liver regeneration from oval cells in rat.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oval cells participate in liver regeneration when hepatocyte replication is impaired. These precursor cells proliferate in periportal regions and organize in ductules. They are surrounded by a basement membrane, the degradation of which by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) might trigger their terminal differentiation into hepatocytes. We studied the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and that of one of their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1) in a model of hepatic regeneration from precursor cells. Regeneration was induced by treating rats with 2-acetylaminofluorene followed by partial hepatectomy. MMP-2 and MMP-9 hepatic expression paralleled oval cell number with a peak at day 9-14 after hepatectomy. They were mainly detected in oval cells. TIMP-1 mRNA and oncostatin M receptor mRNA, a major regulator of TIMP-1 synthesis, markedly increased from day 1 after surgery until day 9 and then declined; they were mainly detected in interlobular bile duct cells and oval cells until day 14. In agreement with the in vivo data, the WB-F344 liver precursor cell line expressed MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as TIMP-1 and oncostatin M receptor. These data suggest that (a) early increased TIMP-1 synthesis by biliary and oval cells favors basement membrane deposition around proliferating ductular structures through MMP inhibition, (b) delayed increased MMP expression, concomitant to decreased TIMP-1 synthesis, leads to basement membrane degradation, preceding oval cell differentiation, (c) the oncostatin M pathway might play a major role in increased TIMP-1 synthesis.Matrix Biology 08/2008; 27(8):674-81.
Article: Assay to mechanically tune and optically probe fibrillar fibronectin conformations from fully relaxed to breakage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In response to growing needs for quantitative biochemical and cellular assays that address whether the extracellular matrix (ECM) acts as a mechanochemical signal converter to co-regulate cellular mechanotransduction processes, a new assay is presented where plasma fibronectin fibers are manually deposited onto elastic sheets, while force-induced changes in protein conformation are monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Fully relaxed assay fibers can be stretched at least 5-6 fold, which involves Fn domain unfolding, before the fibers break. In native fibroblast ECM, this full range of stretch-regulated conformations coexists in every field of view confirming that the assay fibers are physiologically relevant model systems. Since alterations of protein function will directly correlate with their extension in response to force, the FRET vs. strain curves presented herein enable the mapping of fibronectin strain distributions in 2D and 3D cell cultures with high spatial resolution. Finally, cryptic sites for fibronectin's N-terminal 70-kD fragment were found to be exposed at relatively low strain, demonstrating the assay's potential to analyze stretch-regulated protein-protein interactions.Matrix Biology 07/2008; 27(5):451-61.
Article: Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha have opposite effects on fibroblasts and epithelial cells during basement membrane formation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are typical proinflammatory cytokines that influence various cellular functions, including metabolism of the extracellular matrix. We examined the roles of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in basement membrane formation in an in vitro model of alveolar epithelial tissue composed of alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary fibroblasts. Formation of the basement membrane by immortalized rat alveolar type II epithelial (SV40-T2) cells, which ordinarily do not form a continuous basement membrane, was dose-dependently upregulated in the presence of 2 ng/ml IL-1beta or 5 ng/ml TNF-alpha. IL-1beta or TNF-alpha alone induced increased secretion of type IV collagen, laminin-1, and nidogen-1/entactin, all of which contributed to this upregulation. In contrast, while SV40-T2 cells cultured with a fibroblasts-embedded type I collagen gel were able to form a continuous basement membrane, they failed to form a continuous basement membrane in the presence of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. Fibroblasts treated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2, and these MMPs inhibited basement membrane formation and degraded the basement membrane architecture. Neither IL-1beta- nor TNF-alpha-treated SV40-T2 cells increased the secretion of MMP-9 and MMP-2. These results suggest that IL-1beta participates in basement membrane formation in two ways. One is the induction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion by fibroblasts, which inhibits basement membrane formation, and the other is induction of basement membrane component secretion from alveolar epithelial cells to enhance basement membrane formation.Matrix Biology 07/2008; 27(5):429-40.
Article: Modification and functional inactivation of the tropoelastin carboxy-terminal domain in cross-linked elastin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The carboxy-terminus of tropoelastin is a highly conserved, atypical region of the molecule with sequences that define both cell and matrix interactions. This domain also plays a critical but unknown role in the assembly and crosslinking of tropoelastin during elastic fiber maturation. Using a competitive ELISA with an antibody to an elastase-resistant epitope in the carboxy-terminus of tropoelastin (domain-36), we quantified levels of the domain-36 sequence in elastase-derived peptides from mature, insoluble elastin. We found that the amount of carboxy-terminal epitope in elastin is approximately 0.2% of the expected value, assuming each tropoelastin monomer that is incorporated into the insoluble polymer has an intact carboxy-terminus. The low levels suggest that the majority of domain-36 sequence is either removed at some stage of elastin assembly or that the antigenic epitope is altered by posttranslational modification. Biochemical evidence is presented for a potential lysine-derived cross-link in this region, which would alter the extractability and antigenicity of the carboxy-terminal epitope. These results show that there is little or no unmodified domain-36 in mature elastin, indicating that the cell and matrix binding activities associated with this region of tropoelastin are lost or modified as elastin matures. A crosslinking function for domain-36 may serve to help register the multiple crosslinking sites in elastin and explains why mutations that alter the domain-36 sequence have detrimental effects on elastic fiber assembly.Matrix Biology 07/2008; 27(7):631-9.
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ABSTRACT: In bone, hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals are deposited onto the type I collagen scaffold by a mechanism that has yet to be elucidated. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein that is expressed at high levels in mineralized tissues, capable of binding type I collagen, and nucleating HA. Both bone-extracted and recombinant BSP (rBSP) bind with equal affinity to collagen. The nature of the BSP-collagen interaction and its role in HA nucleation are not known. We have used a solid-phase binding assay and affinity chromatography to characterize the BSP-collagen interaction. rBSP-binding affinities of triple-helical and fibrillar type I collagen were similar (K(D) approximately 13 nM), while that of heat-denatured type I collagen was lower (K(D) approximately 44 nM), indicating the importance of triple-helical structure in binding BSP. Pepsin treatment of collagen had no effect on rBSP binding, demonstrating that the telopeptides of collagen are not involved. The majority of collagen-bound rBSP was eluted by acetonitrile, indicating that hydrophobic interactions are principally responsible for binding. Using an HA-nucleation assay, it was shown that rBSP is ten-fold more potent in reconstituted fibrillar collagen gels than in agarose gels. Nucleating potency of a non-collagen-binding, HA-nucleating peptide [rBSP(134-206)] showed no difference in the two gel systems. The work here shows that optimal binding of rBSP requires collagen to be in a native, triple-helical structure, does not require the telopeptides, and is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. Upon binding to collagen, rBSP displays an increase in nucleation potency, implying a co-operative effect of BSP and collagen in mineral formation.Matrix Biology 07/2008; 27(7):600-8.
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ABSTRACT: Osteopontin is a primary cytokine and matrix-associated protein involved in medial thickening and neointima formation. Osteopontin binds integrin receptors, activates cell migration and matrix metalloproteinases, and mediates arteriosclerotic lesion formation and vessel calcification. To understand the complex biology of osteopontin, computational methodology was employed to identify sets of genes whose transcriptional states were predictive of osteopontin gene expression based on the transcriptional states of 12,400 genes and ESTs across 235 independent Affymetrix Murine Genome Array MG_U74Av2 hybridizations. Arginase [GenBank: U51805] and Mac-2 antigen [GenBank: X16834] were identified as primary attractors within the gene-gene interaction network of osteopontin. Resolution of molecular interactions among these genes indicated that the majority of predictor genes could be linked through redox regulated transcription by nuclear factor kappa-B and transforming growth factor beta inducible early gene 1 regulatory elements. Subsequent molecular analyses established redox sensitivity of a 200 bp region within the 5' UTR of opn promoter and implicated nuclear factor kappa-B and transforming growth factor beta inducible early gene 1 cis-acting elements in the regulation of osteopontin.Matrix Biology 07/2008; 27(5):462-74.
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