Microbiological Research (MICROBIOL RES )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Microbiological Research is an international journal devoted to publishing original research papers, reviews and short communications on prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, Bacteria, Archaea, Mycota and uni-cellular organisms. Microbiological Research covers articles from many facets of microbiology: antimicrobial drugs - biochemistry - biotechnology - environmental microbiology - genetics - molecular biology - molecular diagnosis - phylogeny - physiology - phytopatholgy - systematics and taxonomy.

  • Impact factor
    1.99
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.22
  • Cited half-life
    5.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.18
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.56
  • Website
    Microbiological Research website
  • Other titles
    Microbiological research (Online)
  • ISSN
    0944-5013
  • OCLC
    51232007
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In filamentous fungi, the pathogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (PMK) pathway performs an important function in plant infection. STE12-like genes found in higher eukaryotes encode transcription factors and are regulated by the PMK pathway. However, the functions of STE12-like genes in foliar pathogens remain poorly understood. In this study, we cloned StSTE12 from Setosphaeria turcica and investigated its functions by RNA interference. Transformants ste12-3, ste12-2 and, ste12-1, in which the StSTE12 silencing efficiency increased in order, were confirmed by real time PCR. Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the transformants showed reduced growth rate, lighter colony color, and obviously decreased conidium production. More importantly, different to WT strain and ste12-3 with lower StSTE12silencing efficiency, ste12-1 and ste12-2 with higher StSTE12 silencing efficiency were nonpathogenic on intact leaves, but pathogenic on wounded leaves. However, the biological activity of HT-toxin from all transformants showed no difference on corn leaves. Furthermore, ste12-1 and ste12-2 did not penetrate artificial cellophane membrane and showed abnormal and delayed development appressoria. Although it could penetrate the cellophane membranes, ste12-3 formed appressoria after 48 h of inoculation more than WT. Therefore, StSTE12 was involved in vegetative growth, conidiation, appressorial development, penetration as well as the pathogenicity, but it was not related to HT-toxin biosynthesis. More interestingly, all the results suggested that StSTE12 was crucial for pathogenicity due to involvement in regulating appressoria development and penetration.
    Microbiological Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Iron–sulfur ([Fe–S]) cluster is an essential cofactor of proteins involved in various physiological processes including cellular defense against oxidative stress. In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), IscR plays a negative role in regulation of the transcription of [Fe–S] assembly genes, iscR-sufBCDS. The expression level of sufBCDS was up-regulated in an Xcc iscR mutant. In addition, the iscR promoter activity in an Xcc iscR mutant was also higher than the wild-type strain, indicating an autoregulatory circuit. Purified IscR was shown to bind at the iscR promoter region and three putative IscR binding sites were identified. The expression of iscR-suf operon was highly induced by oxidant treatments and iron limited conditions. The iscR mutant showed increased sensitivity toward hydrogen peroxide phenotype but, surprisingly, had hyper-resistant phenotype toward plumbagin compared to the wild-type strain. Most importantly, the iscR mutant was impaired in its ability to cause lesion on leaves of a compatible host plant, Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus). These results demonstrate that a transcription regulator gene, iscR, negatively regulates genes involved in [Fe–S] biosynthesis and plays a role in oxidative stress response and pathogenesis of Xcc.
    Microbiological Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors, and biofilms of this bacterium are much more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. Thirty-six metal ions have been investigated to identify antivirulence and antibiofilm metal ions. Zinc ions and ZnO nanoparticles were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation and the production of pyocyanin, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), pyochelin, and hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa without affecting the growth of planktonic cells. Transcriptome analyses showed that ZnO nanoparticles induce the zinc cation efflux pump czc operon and several important transcriptional regulators (porin gene opdT and type III repressor ptrA), but repress the pyocyanin-related phz operon, which explains observed phenotypic changes. A mutant study showed that the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on the control of pyocyanin production and biofilm formation require the czc regulator CzcR. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles markedly increased the cellular hydrophilicity of P. aeruginosa cells. Our results support that ZnO nanoparticles are potential antivirulence materials against recalcitrant P. aeruginosa infections and possibly other important pathogens.
    Microbiological Research 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Natural product drug discovery has regained interest due to low production costs, structural diversity, and multiple uses of active compounds to treat various diseases. Attention has been directed towards medicinal plants as these plants have been traditionally used for generations to treat symptoms of numerous diseases. It is established that plants harbour microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel compounds. The concept of natural products targeting microbial pathogens has been applied to isolate novel antimycobacterial compounds, and the rapid development of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has significantly increased the need for new treatments against this pathogen. It remains important to continuously screen for novel compounds from natural sources, particularly from rarely encountered microorganisms, such as the endophytes. This review focuses on bioprospecting for polyketides and small peptides exhibiting antituberculosis activity, although current treatments against tuberculosis are described. It is established that natural products from these structure classes are often biosynthesised by microorganisms. Therefore it is hypothesised that some bioactive polyketides and peptides originally isolated from plants are in fact produced by their endophytes. This is of interest for further endophyte natural product investigations (Figure 1).
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The recently isolated fungal strain Phomopsis liquidambari B3 can degrade high concentrations of indole, indicating its potential for the bioremediation of indole-contaminated soil. In this study, a specific real-time PCR was developed to detect the survival of P. liquidambari B3 in soil. Subsequently, degradation activity of strain B3 and its effects on indigenous microbial community were analyzed. Results showed the amount of P. liquidambari B3 genomic DNA increased to a maximum 5.67 log (pg g−1 dry soil) 10 days after inoculation of 5.04 log (pg g−1 dry soil), and then gradually decreased with time and after 40 days it was below the detection limit. By the end of the experiment (day 40), bioaugmented microsoms showed a 93.7% decrease in indole, while the values for biostimulated and control microcosms were much lower. Higher microbial biomass and enzyme activities were observed in bioaugmented soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed bioaugmentation increased richness of resident microbial community. These results indicate that P. liquidambari B3 is effective for the remediation of indole-contaminated soil and also provides valuable information about the behavior of the inoculant population during bioremediation, which could be directly used in the risk assessment of inoculant population and optimization of bioremediation process.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the first survey of microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digester using swine manure as sole feedstock was performed by multiple approaches including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library and pyrosequencing techniques. The integrated analysis of 21 DGGE bands, 126 clones and 8506 pyrosequencing read sequences revealed that Clostridia from the phylum Firmicutes account for the most dominant Bacteria. In addition, our analysis also identified additional taxa that were missed by the previous researches, including members of the bacterial phyla Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Armatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Nitrospira which might also play a role in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Most archaeal 16S rRNA sequences could be assigned to the order Methanobacteriales instead of Methanomicrobiales comparing to previous studies. In addition, this study reported that the member of Methanothermobacter genus was firstly found in thermophilic anaerobic digester.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we reported a molecular characterization of a novel proto-type galectin-1 from the striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsGal-1). The full length CsGal-1 was identified from an established striped murrel cDNA library and further we confirmed the sequence by cloning. The complete cDNA sequence of CsGal-1 is 590 base pairs (bp) in length and its coding region encoded a poly peptide of 135 amino acids. The polypeptide contains a galactoside binding lectin domain at 4-135. The domain carries a sugar binding site at 45-74 along with its signatures (H45-X-Asn47-X-Arg49 and Trp69-X-X-Glu72-X-Arg74). CsGal-1 shares a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with galectin-1 from other proto-type galectin of teleosts. The mRNA expressions of CsGal-1 in healthy and various immune stimulants including Aphanomyces invadans, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherchia coli lippopolysaccharde and poly I:C injected tissues of C. striatus were examined using qRT-PCR. CsGal-1 mRNA is highly expressed in kidney and is up-regulated with different immune stimulants at various time points. To understand its biological activity, the coding region of CsGal-1 gene was expressed in an E. coli BL21 (DE3) cloning system and its recombinant protein was purified. The recombinant CsGal-1 protein was agglutinated with mouse erythrocytes at a concentration of 4 μg/mL in a calcium independent manner. CsGal-1 activity was inhibited by D-galactose at 25 mM−1and D-glucose and D-fructose at 100 mM−1. The results of microbial binding assay showed that the recombinant CsGal-1 protein agglutinated only with the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, we observed no agglutination against Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, the study showed that CsGal-1 is an important immune gene involved in the recognition and elimination of pathogens in C. striatus.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Induction of homologous recombination in Rhizobium etli to repair the DNA damage caused by hexavalent chromium (Cr) was evaluated. Mutants in recombination genes such as addA, recF, recA, ruvB, recG, and a double mutant ruvBrecG showed different sensitivity levels to Cr. As expected, the recA mutant showed the highest susceptibility, while complementation restored the Cr-resistant phenotype, similar to the wild-type strain. Small plasmid recombination increased up to 30-fold in the presence of Cr (0.05 mM) in the wild-type strain, while no change was observed in the recA mutant. A 20-fold increase in small plasmid recombination was also observed in the addA mutant in the presence of Cr. In addition, the ruvB mutant showed similar increases with Cr exposure to the wild-type strain, suggesting that other genetic elements may substitute its important role during recombination. Interestingly, continuous Cr exposure (0.05 mM) clearly induced the genetic expression of addA, recA, and ruvB genes. Finally, recombination mutants also showed susceptibility to other DNA-damaging agents such as tellurite and selenite. Together, these results confirm the induction and significance of the R. etli homologous recombination system to repair DNA damage caused by hexavalent Cr.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of life-threatening infections in pigs and humans. Tran, a novel transcriptional regulator which was identified to be an infection-related factor in S. suis serotype 2 using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), has been reported by our group. In this study, a tran deletion mutant was constructed to compare with the wild-type ZY05719 in some biological characteristics. It is suggested that longer chains and relatively slower growth could be observed in tran deletion mutants. In order to identify gene transcription profiles, microarray analysis was performed. It indicated that the inactivation of Tran led to 130 differentially expressed genes spread throughout the genome. Among these, 21 genes were upregulated, and 109 genes were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in bacterial metabolism, such as the phosphotransferase system (PTS), and heat shock proteins. In the case of glucose scarcity, the growth characteristics of tran deletion mutants was impacted significantly, meanwhile Δtran mutant was highly sensitive to environmental stresses. Moreover, cell adherence decreased by 22.2%, and virulence in zebrafish declined to more than 5 times in Δtran mutants. These data demonstrate the role of Tran in regulation in S. suis serotype 2, that is affect bacterial virulence by influencing bacterial metabolism and stress tolerance of external environment.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chromium toxicity is one of the major causes of environmental pollution due to its heavy discharge in industrial wastewaters. Chromate reduction is a viable method to detoxify hexavalent chromium to nontoxic trivalent species mediated by enzymes and metabolites. A new Bacillus methylotrophicus strain was isolated from tannery sludge and was an efficient candidate for chromate reduction. An initial chromate reductase activity of 212.84 U/mg protein was obtained at 48 h in a low-cost defined medium formulation with 0.25 mM chromate. The extracellular enzyme was inducible at 12 h substrate addition with 312.99 U/mg at 48 h. Reduced glutathione was required for enhanced specific activity of 356.48 U/mg. Enzyme activity was optimum at pH 7.0 and at 30 °C, and was stable in the presence of EDTA, DTT and metal ions. The enzyme exhibited a Vmax of 59.89 μM/min/mg protein and a Km of 86.5 μM, suggesting feasibility of the reaction with K2Cr2O7 as substrate. Application of the crude reductase in tannery effluent resulted in 91.3% chromate reduction at 48 h. An enzyme-mediated chromate reduction process has therefore been developed for bioremediation of toxic chromium sp. in industrial effluents.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of gene expression is one of the mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms. In this context, we would like to understand the gene regulation of acetamidase enzyme of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is the first reported inducible enzyme in mycobacteria. The acetamidase is highly inducible and the expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is added. The acetamidase structural gene (amiE) is found immediately downstream of three predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Three of these genes along with a divergently expressed ORF are predicted to form an operon and involved in the regulation of acetamidase enzyme. Here we report expression, purification and functional characterization of AmiA which is one of these predicted ORFs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AmiA binds to the region between the amiA and amiD near the predicted promoter (P2). Over-expression of AmiA significantly lowered the expression of acetamidase compared to the wild type as demonstrated by qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. We conclude that AmiA binds near P2 promoter and acts as a repressor in the regulation of acetamidase operon. The described work is a further step forward toward broadening the knowledge on understanding of the complex gene regulatory mechanism of Mycobacterium sp.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Calpains are intracellular, cysteine proteases found in plants, animals and fungi functioning as signal transduction components in different cellular pathways including sporulation and alkaline adaptation in fungi. Calpains-related MoCAPN1 (MGG_14872), MoCAPN3 (MGG_15810) and MoCAPN4 (MGG_04818) genes from M. oryzae genome which are 2604, 3513 and 771-bp in length and encoding identical proteins of 867, 1170 and 256 amino acids were functionally characterized for different phenotypes through gene disruption method. All the mutants except those for MoCAPN1 showed normal phenotypes. In pathogenicity test, the mutants did not lead to any visible changes in phenotypes causing similar blast lesions on blast susceptible rice and barley leaves as those of the Guy-11 strain suggesting no major role in pathogenicity. Germ tubes formation, appressorium formation, mycelium radial growth and mating with 2539 strain were indistinguishable among the mutants and Guy-11 strains. Cell wall integrity (congo red) test, stress response under chemical pressure (ZnSO4, CuSO4 and CdCl2), osmotic and oxidative (NaCl and H2O2) stress response, growth response on glucose and nitrogen deficient media resulted in similar results in the mutants and Guy-11 strains. However, mutants for ΔMoCAPN1 gene produced reduced (0.57 ± 0.15B and 0.54 ± 0.05B) conidia compared to that (1.69 ± 0.13A) of the Guy-11 strain showing its involvement in conidiation.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora meadii, causes various diseases in Hevea brasiliensis at different stages of its life cycle. The study reports the structural characterization of the active principle from the culture filtrate of Alcaligenes sp. EIL-2 (GenBank ID: HQ641257) offering antagonistic activity against P. meadii. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis showed the similarity of the compound with phenazine derivatives. The specific representations of FT-IR spectrum such as 3200cm(-1) (OH stretching, NH stretching and presence of aromatic ring), 1737cm(-1) (carboxylic acid), 2200-2400cm(-1) (conjugated dienes) and 1467cm(-1), and 1422cm(-1) (CN bonds) were an indicative of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The structure of the compound was further confirmed by (1)H NMR/(13)C NMR spectroscopy, DEPT experiments, and two-dimensional NMR spectral studies, including (1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC as PCA with the molecular formula of C13H8N2O2. P. meadii was sensitive to purified PCA extract from the endophyte and a concentration of 5μg/ml completely inhibited the mycelia growth. PCA also showed zoosporicidal activity against P. meadii zoospores. This is the first study of this kind where PCA from an endophyte of H. brasiliensis is being confirmed to carry antagonistic activity against P. meadii.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy nine isolates of B. cinerea were collected from different host plants and different locations of India and Nepal. All the isolates were identified as B. cinerea based on morphological features and were confirmed using B. cinerea specific primers. Differentiation among the isolates was assessed using morphological, genetic and biochemical approaches. To analyze morphological variability, differences in conidial size, presence or absence of sclerotia and their arrangement were observed. Genetic variability was characterized using RAPD analysis, presence or absence of transposons and mating type genes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD markers was used for defining groups on the basis of geographical region and host. The biochemical approach included determining differences in concentration of oxalic acid and activity of lytic enzymes. All the isolates were categorized into different pathogenic groups on the basis their variable reaction towards chickpea plants. Isolates with higher concentration of oxalic acid and greater activity of lytic enzymes were generally more pathogenic. Pathogenicity was also correlated to transposons. Isolates containing transposa group showed some degree of correlation with pathogenic behavior. However, isolates could not be grouped on the basis of a single approach which provides evidence of their wide diversity and high evolution potential. Sensitivity of sampled isolates was also tested against five botryticides. Most of the isolates from same region were inhibited by a particular fungicide. This feature provided interesting cues and would assist in devising novel and more effective measures for managing the disease.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Annual ryegrass is a fast-growing cool-season grass broadly present in the Portuguese “montado”, a typically Mediterranean agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem. A culture-dependent approach was used to investigate natural associations of this crop with potentially beneficial bacteria, aiming to identify strains suitable for biofertilization purposes. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap bacteria from three different soils in laboratory conditions. Using a nitrogen-free microaerophilic medium, 147 isolates were recovered from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and surface-sterilized plant tissues, which were assigned to 12 genera in classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. All isolates were able to grow in the absence of nitrogen and several of them were able to perform in vitro activities related to plant growth promotion. Isolates of the genera Sphingomonas and Achromobacter were found to be the most effective stimulators of annual ryegrass growth under nitrogen limitation (47–92% biomass increases). Major enhancements were obtained with isolates G3Dc4 (Achromobacter sp.) and G2Ac10 (Sphingomonas sp.). The latest isolate was also able to increment plant growth in nitrogen-supplemented medium, as well as the phosphate solubiliser and siderophore producer, G1Dc10 (Pseudomonas sp.), and the cellulose/pectin hydrolyser, G3Ac9 (Paenibacillus sp.). This study represents the first survey of annual ryegrass-associated bacteria in the “montado” ecosystem and unveiled a set of strains with potential for use as inoculants.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to analyze the response of Phycomyces blakesleeanus to glucose starvation and acetate growth stress. At the onset of the exponential growth phase, the fungus shows a high tolerance to both stresses, being higher for the glucose starvation. In both stresses we have found higher activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and a decrease of the pools of D-erythroascorbate (D-erythroascorbate + D-erythroascorbate monoglucoside) and glutathione (GSH + GSSG), while the intracellular GSH/GSSG redox balance becomes more reducing. Gallic acid was not detected under both stresses. Glycogen breakdown and the high levels of trehalose seem to be part of the stress response. Both stress, under the conditions of this study, seem to lead to a qualitatively similar response in P. blakesleeanus, with regard to the behavior of antioxidant system, the content of secondary metabolites and the role of the reserve carbohydrates.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;