Microbiological Research (MICROBIOL RES )

Publisher: Elsevier


Microbiological Research is an international journal devoted to publishing original research papers, reviews and short communications on prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, Bacteria, Archaea, Mycota and uni-cellular organisms. Microbiological Research covers articles from many facets of microbiology: antimicrobial drugs - biochemistry - biotechnology - environmental microbiology - genetics - molecular biology - molecular diagnosis - phylogeny - physiology - phytopatholgy - systematics and taxonomy.

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    Microbiological Research website
  • Other titles
    Microbiological research (Online)
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calpains are intracellular, cysteine proteases found in plants, animals and fungi functioning as signal transduction components in different cellular pathways including sporulation and alkaline adaptation in fungi. Calpains-related MoCAPN1 (MGG_14872), MoCAPN3 (MGG_15810) and MoCAPN4 (MGG_04818) genes from M. oryzae genome which are 2604, 3513 and 771-bp in length and encoding identical proteins of 867, 1170 and 256 amino acids were functionally characterized for different phenotypes through gene disruption method. All the mutants except those for MoCAPN1 showed normal phenotypes. In pathogenicity test, the mutants did not lead to any visible changes in phenotypes causing similar blast lesions on blast susceptible rice and barley leaves as those of the Guy-11 strain suggesting no major role in pathogenicity. Germ tubes formation, appressorium formation, mycelium radial growth and mating with 2539 strain were indistinguishable among the mutants and Guy-11 strains. Cell wall integrity (congo red) test, stress response under chemical pressure (ZnSO4, CuSO4 and CdCl2), osmotic and oxidative (NaCl and H2O2) stress response, growth response on glucose and nitrogen deficient media resulted in similar results in the mutants and Guy-11 strains. However, mutants for ΔMoCAPN1 gene produced reduced (0.57 ± 0.15B and 0.54 ± 0.05B) conidia compared to that (1.69 ± 0.13A) of the Guy-11 strain showing its involvement in conidiation.
    Microbiological Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy nine isolates of B. cinerea were collected from different host plants and different locations of India and Nepal. All the isolates were identified as B. cinerea based on morphological features and were confirmed using B. cinerea specific primers. Differentiation among the isolates was assessed using morphological, genetic and biochemical approaches. To analyze morphological variability, differences in conidial size, presence or absence of sclerotia and their arrangement were observed. Genetic variability was characterized using RAPD analysis, presence or absence of transposons and mating type genes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD markers was used for defining groups on the basis of geographical region and host. The biochemical approach included determining differences in concentration of oxalic acid and activity of lytic enzymes. All the isolates were categorized into different pathogenic groups on the basis their variable reaction towards chickpea plants. Isolates with higher concentration of oxalic acid and greater activity of lytic enzymes were generally more pathogenic. Pathogenicity was also correlated to transposons. Isolates containing transposa group showed some degree of correlation with pathogenic behavior. However, isolates could not be grouped on the basis of a single approach which provides evidence of their wide diversity and high evolution potential. Sensitivity of sampled isolates was also tested against five botryticides. Most of the isolates from same region were inhibited by a particular fungicide. This feature provided interesting cues and would assist in devising novel and more effective measures for managing the disease.
    Microbiological Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In filamentous fungi, the pathogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (PMK) pathway performs an important function in plant infection. STE12-like genes found in higher eukaryotes encode transcription factors and are regulated by the PMK pathway. However, the functions of STE12-like genes in foliar pathogens remain poorly understood. In this study, we cloned StSTE12 from Setosphaeria turcica and investigated its functions by RNA interference. Transformants ste12-3, ste12-2 and, ste12-1, in which the StSTE12 silencing efficiency increased in order, were confirmed by real time PCR. Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the transformants showed reduced growth rate, lighter colony color, and obviously decreased conidium production. More importantly, different to WT strain and ste12-3 with lower StSTE12silencing efficiency, ste12-1 and ste12-2 with higher StSTE12 silencing efficiency were nonpathogenic on intact leaves, but pathogenic on wounded leaves. However, the biological activity of HT-toxin from all transformants showed no difference on corn leaves. Furthermore, ste12-1 and ste12-2 did not penetrate artificial cellophane membrane and showed abnormal and delayed development appressoria. Although it could penetrate the cellophane membranes, ste12-3 formed appressoria after 48 h of inoculation more than WT. Therefore, StSTE12 was involved in vegetative growth, conidiation, appressorial development, penetration as well as the pathogenicity, but it was not related to HT-toxin biosynthesis. More interestingly, all the results suggested that StSTE12 was crucial for pathogenicity due to involvement in regulating appressoria development and penetration.
    Microbiological Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we reported a molecular characterization of a novel proto-type galectin-1 from the striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsGal-1). The full length CsGal-1 was identified from an established striped murrel cDNA library and further we confirmed the sequence by cloning. The complete cDNA sequence of CsGal-1 is 590 base pairs (bp) in length and its coding region encoded a poly peptide of 135 amino acids. The polypeptide contains a galactoside binding lectin domain at 4-135. The domain carries a sugar binding site at 45-74 along with its signatures (H45-X-Asn47-X-Arg49 and Trp69-X-X-Glu72-X-Arg74). CsGal-1 shares a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with galectin-1 from other proto-type galectin of teleosts. The mRNA expressions of CsGal-1 in healthy and various immune stimulants including Aphanomyces invadans, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherchia coli lippopolysaccharde and poly I:C injected tissues of C. striatus were examined using qRT-PCR. CsGal-1 mRNA is highly expressed in kidney and is up-regulated with different immune stimulants at various time points. To understand its biological activity, the coding region of CsGal-1 gene was expressed in an E. coli BL21 (DE3) cloning system and its recombinant protein was purified. The recombinant CsGal-1 protein was agglutinated with mouse erythrocytes at a concentration of 4 μg/mL in a calcium independent manner. CsGal-1 activity was inhibited by D-galactose at 25 mM−1and D-glucose and D-fructose at 100 mM−1. The results of microbial binding assay showed that the recombinant CsGal-1 protein agglutinated only with the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, we observed no agglutination against Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, the study showed that CsGal-1 is an important immune gene involved in the recognition and elimination of pathogens in C. striatus.
    Microbiological Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Annual ryegrass is a fast-growing cool-season grass broadly present in the Portuguese “montado”, a typically Mediterranean agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem. A culture-dependent approach was used to investigate natural associations of this crop with potentially beneficial bacteria, aiming to identify strains suitable for biofertilization purposes. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap bacteria from three different soils in laboratory conditions. Using a nitrogen-free microaerophilic medium, 147 isolates were recovered from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and surface-sterilized plant tissues, which were assigned to 12 genera in classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. All isolates were able to grow in the absence of nitrogen and several of them were able to perform in vitro activities related to plant growth promotion. Isolates of the genera Sphingomonas and Achromobacter were found to be the most effective stimulators of annual ryegrass growth under nitrogen limitation (47–92% biomass increases). Major enhancements were obtained with isolates G3Dc4 (Achromobacter sp.) and G2Ac10 (Sphingomonas sp.). The latest isolate was also able to increment plant growth in nitrogen-supplemented medium, as well as the phosphate solubiliser and siderophore producer, G1Dc10 (Pseudomonas sp.), and the cellulose/pectin hydrolyser, G3Ac9 (Paenibacillus sp.). This study represents the first survey of annual ryegrass-associated bacteria in the “montado” ecosystem and unveiled a set of strains with potential for use as inoculants.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of life-threatening infections in pigs and humans. Tran, a novel transcriptional regulator which was identified to be an infection-related factor in S. suis serotype 2 using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), has been reported by our group. In this study, a tran deletion mutant was constructed to compare with the wild-type ZY05719 in some biological characteristics. It is suggested that longer chains and relatively slower growth could be observed in tran deletion mutants. In order to identify gene transcription profiles, microarray analysis was performed. It indicated that the inactivation of Tran led to 130 differentially expressed genes spread throughout the genome. Among these, 21 genes were upregulated, and 109 genes were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in bacterial metabolism, such as the phosphotransferase system (PTS), and heat shock proteins. In the case of glucose scarcity, the growth characteristics of tran deletion mutants was impacted significantly, meanwhile Δtran mutant was highly sensitive to environmental stresses. Moreover, cell adherence decreased by 22.2%, and virulence in zebrafish declined to more than 5 times in Δtran mutants. These data demonstrate the role of Tran in regulation in S. suis serotype 2, that is affect bacterial virulence by influencing bacterial metabolism and stress tolerance of external environment.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to analyze the response of Phycomyces blakesleeanus to glucose starvation and acetate growth stress. At the onset of the exponential growth phase, the fungus shows a high tolerance to both stresses, being higher for the glucose starvation. In both stresses we have found higher activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and a decrease of the pools of D-erythroascorbate (D-erythroascorbate + D-erythroascorbate monoglucoside) and glutathione (GSH + GSSG), while the intracellular GSH/GSSG redox balance becomes more reducing. Gallic acid was not detected under both stresses. Glycogen breakdown and the high levels of trehalose seem to be part of the stress response. Both stress, under the conditions of this study, seem to lead to a qualitatively similar response in P. blakesleeanus, with regard to the behavior of antioxidant system, the content of secondary metabolites and the role of the reserve carbohydrates.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1,000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the composition and structure of skin microbiota differ with age, cutaneous bacteria were isolated from the axillary fossa of 37 healthy human adults in two age groups (old people and young adults). Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted and characterized by nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with primers specifically targeting V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The excised gel bands were sequenced to identify bacterial categories. The total bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium spp. were further enumerated by quantitative PCR. There were no significant differences in the species diversity profiles between age groups. The similarity index was lower across age groups than that it was intra-group. This indicates that the composition of skin flora is more similar to others of the same age than across age groups. While Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. were the dominant bacteria in both groups, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that skin bacterial composition differed by age. The copy number of total bacteria and Corynebacterium spp. were significantly lower in younger subjects, whereas there were no statistical differences in the quantity of Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These results suggest that the skin flora undergo both quantitative and qualitative changes related to aging.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antisense strategy is an attractive substitute for knockout mutations created for gene silencing. mce genes have been shown to be involved in mycobacterial uptake and intracellular survival. Here we report reduced expression of mce4A and mce1A genes of M. tuberculosis using antisense technology. For this, 1.1 kb region of mce4A and mce1A was cloned in reverse orientation in pSD5 shuttle vector, resulting into antisense constructs pSD5-4AS and pSD5-1AS respectively. In M. tuberculosis H37Rv approximately 60% reduction in Mce4A and 66% reduction in expression of Mce1A protein were observed. We also observed significantly reduced intracellular survival ability of both antisense strains in comparison to M. tuberculosis containing pSD5 alone. RT-PCR analysis showed antisense did not alter the transcription of upstream and downstream of mceA genes of the respective operon. The colony morphology, in vitro growth characteristics and drug susceptibility profile of the antisense construct remained unchanged. These results demonstrate that antisense can be a promising approach to assign function of a gene in a multiunit operon and could be suitably applied as a strategy.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious diseases in pigs and humans. GdpP protein is a recently discovered specific phosphodiesterase that degrades cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP). It is widely distributed among the firmicutes phylum and is related to several phenotypes in various bacterial strains. We investigated the role of GdpP in physiology and virulence in SS2 HA9801. The in-frame mutant of gdpP was constructed using homologous recombination and bacterial growth, biofilm formation, hemolytic activity, cell adherence and invasion, expression of virulence factors, and virulence were evaluated. Disruption of gdpP increased intracellular c-di-AMP level and affected growth and increased biofilm formation of SS2. Simultaneously, the gdpP mutant strain exhibited a significant decrease in hemolytic activity and adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells compared with the parental strain. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction indicated significantly reduced expression of the known virulence genes cps2, sly, fpbs, mrp, ef and gdh in the gdpP mutant. In murine infection models, the gdpP mutant strain was attenuated, and impaired bacterial growth was observed in specific organs. All these findings revealed a significant contribution of gdpP and its substrate (c-di-AMP) to the biology and virulence of SS2.
    Microbiological Research 09/2014;