Microbiological Research (MICROBIOL RES )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Microbiological Research is an international journal devoted to publishing original research papers, reviews and short communications on prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, Bacteria, Archaea, Mycota and uni-cellular organisms. Microbiological Research covers articles from many facets of microbiology: antimicrobial drugs - biochemistry - biotechnology - environmental microbiology - genetics - molecular biology - molecular diagnosis - phylogeny - physiology - phytopatholgy - systematics and taxonomy.

  • Impact factor
    1.99
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.22
  • Cited half-life
    5.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.18
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.56
  • Website
    Microbiological Research website
  • Other titles
    Microbiological research (Online)
  • ISSN
    0944-5013
  • OCLC
    51232007
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The class 1 integron is an important driver of the nosocomial dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, such as Acinetobacters. In this study, we characterized the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integrons in Acinetobacter baumannii, where the detailed structure of these integrons for 38 clinical strains was analyzed. The results showed that there are three types of gene cassette arrays that are carried by different class 1 integrons, among them the aac(6’)-IId -catB8-aadA1 array was the most prevalent. For detailed analysis of the integron structure, whole genome sequencing was carried out on strain AB16, and it was found that a single integron on its chromosome has a partial Tn21 transposon in its 5′ flanking region and two complete copies of the insertion element IS26 in both the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions, indicating that the integron could be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Furthermore, there is one resistance island AbaR22, one bla gene containing a transposon, four intrinsic resistant genes and one efflux pump that together confer six types of antibiotic resistance.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Natural product drug discovery has regained interest due to low production costs, structural diversity, and multiple uses of active compounds to treat various diseases. Attention has been directed towards medicinal plants as these plants have been traditionally used for generations to treat symptoms of numerous diseases. It is established that plants harbour microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel compounds. The concept of natural products targeting microbial pathogens has been applied to isolate novel antimycobacterial compounds, and the rapid development of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has significantly increased the need for new treatments against this pathogen. It remains important to continuously screen for novel compounds from natural sources, particularly from rarely encountered microorganisms, such as the endophytes. This review focuses on bioprospecting for polyketides and small peptides exhibiting antituberculosis activity, although current treatments against tuberculosis are described. It is established that natural products from these structure classes are often biosynthesised by microorganisms. Therefore it is hypothesised that some bioactive polyketides and peptides originally isolated from plants are in fact produced by their endophytes. This is of interest for further endophyte natural product investigations (Figure 1).
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The recently isolated fungal strain Phomopsis liquidambari B3 can degrade high concentrations of indole, indicating its potential for the bioremediation of indole-contaminated soil. In this study, a specific real-time PCR was developed to detect the survival of P. liquidambari B3 in soil. Subsequently, degradation activity of strain B3 and its effects on indigenous microbial community were analyzed. Results showed the amount of P. liquidambari B3 genomic DNA increased to a maximum 5.67 log (pg g−1 dry soil) 10 days after inoculation of 5.04 log (pg g−1 dry soil), and then gradually decreased with time and after 40 days it was below the detection limit. By the end of the experiment (day 40), bioaugmented microsoms showed a 93.7% decrease in indole, while the values for biostimulated and control microcosms were much lower. Higher microbial biomass and enzyme activities were observed in bioaugmented soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed bioaugmentation increased richness of resident microbial community. These results indicate that P. liquidambari B3 is effective for the remediation of indole-contaminated soil and also provides valuable information about the behavior of the inoculant population during bioremediation, which could be directly used in the risk assessment of inoculant population and optimization of bioremediation process.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptomyces commonly produce ectoines as compatible solutes to prevent osmotic stresses. Fine structure of the genes producing ectoine (ectC) and hydroxyectoine (ectD) enzymes in Streptomyces rimosus C-2012 as a slightly halophilic bacterium is reported in this study. Deduced amino acid sequences of ectC and ectD genes from strain C-2012 and some other related species were compared and 72-90% and 13–81% identities were detected for ectC and ectD, respectively. High similarity of ectC between closely or distantly related Streptomyces to the strain C-2012 may indicate horizontal transfer of this gene. However, phylogenetic relationships of ectD were correlated with phylogenetic affiliation of the strains. It suggests that the ability of Streptomyces to produce hydroxyectoine has been the result of a vertical transfer event. HPLC analysis showed that strain C-2012 was able to produce ectoine and hydroxyectoine both in the presence and absence of external salinity (up to 0.45 M NaCl). Accordingly, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that ectABCD operon in this strain is positively affected by salt. Also, inductive effect of the salt was increased when it was applied with 1 mM of ectoines. Transcription level of ectC was increased 2.7 and 2.9-fold in the medium supplied with salt and ectoine and salt and hydroxyectoine, respectively. The effect of salinity with or without ectoines was more on ectD transcription level than that of ectC. In S. Rimosus under salt stress, ectoine and hydroxyectoine biosynthesis primarily depends on the stimulation of ectABCD operon transcription. However, drastic accumulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine without increase in ectC and ectD transcripts was observed in the medium supplied with salt and ectoines and that suggest there might be additional posttranscriptional level of control. Increases in ratio of some intracellular free amino acids in salt stressed to unstressed conditions were observed in cells grown with ectoines. Our results suggest the possibility of a supplementary role of ectoines to improve structure and function of the cells in stressful environments as well as their important role as osmoprotectants.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
  • Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious diseases in pigs and humans. GdpP protein is a recently discovered specific phosphodiesterase that degrades cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP). It is widely distributed among the firmicutes phylum and is related to several phenotypes in various bacterial strains. We investigated the role of GdpP in physiology and virulence in SS2 HA9801. The in-frame mutant of gdpP was constructed using homologous recombination and bacterial growth, biofilm formation, hemolytic activity, cell adherence and invasion, expression of virulence factors, and virulence were evaluated. Disruption of gdpP increased intracellular c-di-AMP level and affected growth and increased biofilm formation of SS2. Simultaneously, the gdpP mutant strain exhibited a significant decrease in hemolytic activity and adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells compared with the parental strain. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction indicated significantly reduced expression of the known virulence genes cps2, sly, fpbs, mrp, ef and gdh in the gdpP mutant. In murine infection models, the gdpP mutant strain was attenuated, and impaired bacterial growth was observed in specific organs. All these findings revealed a significant contribution of gdpP and its substrate (c-di-AMP) to the biology and virulence of SS2.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A strain of Bacillus subtilis IARI-SP-1 isolated from soil long term irrigated with effluents of paper and pulp mill showed high β-1, 4-endoglucanase (2.5 IU/ml) but low activity of β-1,4-exoglucanase (0.8IU/ml) and β-glucosidase (0.084IU/ml). The β-1, 4-endoglucanase gene of IARI-SP-1 was amplified using degenerate primers designed based on sequences already available in NCBI GenBank. A full length gene of β- 1, 4-endonuclease consisting of 1499 nucleotides was identified through sequence analysis of the amplified product. The ORF encoded for a protein of 500 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 55 kDa. The gene was cloned in pET-28a and over expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). In comparison to wild strain (B. subtilis), the transformed E. coli exhibited four times increase in cellulase production. Higher enzyme activity was observed in supernatant (8.2 IU/ml) than cell pellet (2.8 IU/ml) suggesting more extracellular production of β-1, 4-endoglucanase. SDS-PAGE and CMC plate assay also confirmed the overproduction by the transformed E. coli. The pH and temperature optima of expressed β-1, 4-endoglucanase enzyme was identical to that of wild strain and was 8 and 50-60 °C respectively.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antisense strategy is an attractive substitute for knockout mutations created for gene silencing. mce genes have been shown to be involved in mycobacterial uptake and intracellular survival. Here we report reduced expression of mce4A and mce1A genes of M. tuberculosis using antisense technology. For this, 1.1 kb region of mce4A and mce1A was cloned in reverse orientation in pSD5 shuttle vector, resulting into antisense constructs pSD5-4AS and pSD5-1AS respectively. In M. tuberculosis H37Rv approximately 60% reduction in Mce4A and 66% reduction in expression of Mce1A protein were observed. We also observed significantly reduced intracellular survival ability of both antisense strains in comparison to M. tuberculosis containing pSD5 alone. RT-PCR analysis showed antisense did not alter the transcription of upstream and downstream of mceA genes of the respective operon. The colony morphology, in vitro growth characteristics and drug susceptibility profile of the antisense construct remained unchanged. These results demonstrate that antisense can be a promising approach to assign function of a gene in a multiunit operon and could be suitably applied as a strategy.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the composition and structure of skin microbiota differ with age, cutaneous bacteria were isolated from the axillary fossa of 37 healthy human adults in two age groups (old people and young adults). Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted and characterized by nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with primers specifically targeting V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The excised gel bands were sequenced to identify bacterial categories. The total bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium spp. were further enumerated by quantitative PCR. There were no significant differences in the species diversity profiles between age groups. The similarity index was lower across age groups than that it was intra-group. This indicates that the composition of skin flora is more similar to others of the same age than across age groups. While Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. were the dominant bacteria in both groups, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that skin bacterial composition differed by age. The copy number of total bacteria and Corynebacterium spp. were significantly lower in younger subjects, whereas there were no statistical differences in the quantity of Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These results suggest that the skin flora undergo both quantitative and qualitative changes related to aging.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora meadii, causes various diseases in Hevea brasiliensis at different stages of its life cycle. The study reports the structural characterization of the active principle from the culture filtrate of Alcaligenes sp. EIL-2 (GenBank ID: HQ641257) offering antagonistic activity against P. meadii. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis showed the similarity of the compound with phenazine derivatives. The specific representations of FT-IR spectrum such as 3200cm(-1) (OH stretching, NH stretching and presence of aromatic ring), 1737cm(-1) (carboxylic acid), 2200-2400cm(-1) (conjugated dienes) and 1467cm(-1), and 1422cm(-1) (CN bonds) were an indicative of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The structure of the compound was further confirmed by (1)H NMR/(13)C NMR spectroscopy, DEPT experiments, and two-dimensional NMR spectral studies, including (1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC as PCA with the molecular formula of C13H8N2O2. P. meadii was sensitive to purified PCA extract from the endophyte and a concentration of 5μg/ml completely inhibited the mycelia growth. PCA also showed zoosporicidal activity against P. meadii zoospores. This is the first study of this kind where PCA from an endophyte of H. brasiliensis is being confirmed to carry antagonistic activity against P. meadii.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Calpains are intracellular, cysteine proteases found in plants, animals and fungi functioning as signal transduction components in different cellular pathways including sporulation and alkaline adaptation in fungi. Calpains-related MoCAPN1 (MGG_14872), MoCAPN3 (MGG_15810) and MoCAPN4 (MGG_04818) genes from M. oryzae genome which are 2604, 3513 and 771-bp in length and encoding identical proteins of 867, 1170 and 256 amino acids were functionally characterized for different phenotypes through gene disruption method. All the mutants except those for MoCAPN1 showed normal phenotypes. In pathogenicity test, the mutants did not lead to any visible changes in phenotypes causing similar blast lesions on blast susceptible rice and barley leaves as those of the Guy-11 strain suggesting no major role in pathogenicity. Germ tubes formation, appressorium formation, mycelium radial growth and mating with 2539 strain were indistinguishable among the mutants and Guy-11 strains. Cell wall integrity (congo red) test, stress response under chemical pressure (ZnSO4, CuSO4 and CdCl2), osmotic and oxidative (NaCl and H2O2) stress response, growth response on glucose and nitrogen deficient media resulted in similar results in the mutants and Guy-11 strains. However, mutants for ΔMoCAPN1 gene produced reduced (0.57 ± 0.15B and 0.54 ± 0.05B) conidia compared to that (1.69 ± 0.13A) of the Guy-11 strain showing its involvement in conidiation.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of gene expression is one of the mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms. In this context, we would like to understand the gene regulation of acetamidase enzyme of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is the first reported inducible enzyme in mycobacteria. The acetamidase is highly inducible and the expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is added. The acetamidase structural gene (amiE) is found immediately downstream of three predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Three of these genes along with a divergently expressed ORF are predicted to form an operon and involved in the regulation of acetamidase enzyme. Here we report expression, purification and functional characterization of AmiA which is one of these predicted ORFs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AmiA binds to the region between the amiA and amiD near the predicted promoter (P2). Over-expression of AmiA significantly lowered the expression of acetamidase compared to the wild type as demonstrated by qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. We conclude that AmiA binds near P2 promoter and acts as a repressor in the regulation of acetamidase operon. The described work is a further step forward toward broadening the knowledge on understanding of the complex gene regulatory mechanism of Mycobacterium sp.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy nine isolates of B. cinerea were collected from different host plants and different locations of India and Nepal. All the isolates were identified as B. cinerea based on morphological features and were confirmed using B. cinerea specific primers. Differentiation among the isolates was assessed using morphological, genetic and biochemical approaches. To analyze morphological variability, differences in conidial size, presence or absence of sclerotia and their arrangement were observed. Genetic variability was characterized using RAPD analysis, presence or absence of transposons and mating type genes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD markers was used for defining groups on the basis of geographical region and host. The biochemical approach included determining differences in concentration of oxalic acid and activity of lytic enzymes. All the isolates were categorized into different pathogenic groups on the basis their variable reaction towards chickpea plants. Isolates with higher concentration of oxalic acid and greater activity of lytic enzymes were generally more pathogenic. Pathogenicity was also correlated to transposons. Isolates containing transposa group showed some degree of correlation with pathogenic behavior. However, isolates could not be grouped on the basis of a single approach which provides evidence of their wide diversity and high evolution potential. Sensitivity of sampled isolates was also tested against five botryticides. Most of the isolates from same region were inhibited by a particular fungicide. This feature provided interesting cues and would assist in devising novel and more effective measures for managing the disease.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Annual ryegrass is a fast-growing cool-season grass broadly present in the Portuguese “montado”, a typically Mediterranean agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem. A culture-dependent approach was used to investigate natural associations of this crop with potentially beneficial bacteria, aiming to identify strains suitable for biofertilization purposes. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap bacteria from three different soils in laboratory conditions. Using a nitrogen-free microaerophilic medium, 147 isolates were recovered from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and surface-sterilized plant tissues, which were assigned to 12 genera in classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. All isolates were able to grow in the absence of nitrogen and several of them were able to perform in vitro activities related to plant growth promotion. Isolates of the genera Sphingomonas and Achromobacter were found to be the most effective stimulators of annual ryegrass growth under nitrogen limitation (47–92% biomass increases). Major enhancements were obtained with isolates G3Dc4 (Achromobacter sp.) and G2Ac10 (Sphingomonas sp.). The latest isolate was also able to increment plant growth in nitrogen-supplemented medium, as well as the phosphate solubiliser and siderophore producer, G1Dc10 (Pseudomonas sp.), and the cellulose/pectin hydrolyser, G3Ac9 (Paenibacillus sp.). This study represents the first survey of annual ryegrass-associated bacteria in the “montado” ecosystem and unveiled a set of strains with potential for use as inoculants.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chromium toxicity is one of the major causes of environmental pollution due to its heavy discharge in industrial wastewaters. Chromate reduction is a viable method to detoxify hexavalent chromium to nontoxic trivalent species mediated by enzymes and metabolites. A new Bacillus methylotrophicus strain was isolated from tannery sludge and was an efficient candidate for chromate reduction. An initial chromate reductase activity of 212.84 U/mg protein was obtained at 48 h in a low-cost defined medium formulation with 0.25 mM chromate. The extracellular enzyme was inducible at 12 h substrate addition with 312.99 U/mg at 48 h. Reduced glutathione was required for enhanced specific activity of 356.48 U/mg. Enzyme activity was optimum at pH 7.0 and at 30 °C, and was stable in the presence of EDTA, DTT and metal ions. The enzyme exhibited a Vmax of 59.89 μM/min/mg protein and a Km of 86.5 μM, suggesting feasibility of the reaction with K2Cr2O7 as substrate. Application of the crude reductase in tannery effluent resulted in 91.3% chromate reduction at 48 h. An enzyme-mediated chromate reduction process has therefore been developed for bioremediation of toxic chromium sp. in industrial effluents.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of life-threatening infections in pigs and humans. Tran, a novel transcriptional regulator which was identified to be an infection-related factor in S. suis serotype 2 using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), has been reported by our group. In this study, a tran deletion mutant was constructed to compare with the wild-type ZY05719 in some biological characteristics. It is suggested that longer chains and relatively slower growth could be observed in tran deletion mutants. In order to identify gene transcription profiles, microarray analysis was performed. It indicated that the inactivation of Tran led to 130 differentially expressed genes spread throughout the genome. Among these, 21 genes were upregulated, and 109 genes were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in bacterial metabolism, such as the phosphotransferase system (PTS), and heat shock proteins. In the case of glucose scarcity, the growth characteristics of tran deletion mutants was impacted significantly, meanwhile Δtran mutant was highly sensitive to environmental stresses. Moreover, cell adherence decreased by 22.2%, and virulence in zebrafish declined to more than 5 times in Δtran mutants. These data demonstrate the role of Tran in regulation in S. suis serotype 2, that is affect bacterial virulence by influencing bacterial metabolism and stress tolerance of external environment.
    Microbiological Research 01/2014;

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