Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (SOC PSYCH PSYCH EPID)
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology is intended to provide a medium for the prompt publication of scientific contributions concerned with all aspects of the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders - social biological and genetic. In addition the journal has a particular focus on the effects of social conditions upon behaviour and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the social environment. Such contributions may be of a clinical nature provided they relate to social issues or they may deal with specialised investigations in the fields of social psychology sociology anthropology epidemiology health service research health economies or social administration. Original work and review articles may be submitted. Fields of interest: Social psychology sociology anthropology epidemiology health service research health economies social administration.
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Other titlesSocial psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology (Online), Soc psychiatry psychiatr epidemiol
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Publications in this journal
Article: Factors associated with incomplete recovery in major depression. A six month prospective studySocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 02/2013; 33.
Article: Factors associated with incomplete recovery in major depression. A six monthprospective studySocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 02/2013; 33:Desde 552 hasta 557.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 02/2013;
Article: Profiling disordered eating patterns and body mass index (BMI) in the English general population[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: Little national evidence exists on disordered eating patterns in the UK. This study examined the prevalence and nature of disordered eating patterns in the national Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. Method: Responses to the SCOFF (a screening tool for eating disorders) and body mass index were analysed using latent class analysis (n=7001). Multinomial logistic regression explored the associations between latent classes and mental health comorbidities. Results: The prevalence of possible eating disorders in England using the SCOFF was 6.3%; this decreased to 1.6% when accounting for the negative impact feelings about food had on the respondent’s life. Five latent classes were identified: classes 1 and 2 resembled known eating disorders (‘marginal anorexia’ relating to anorexia nervosa and ‘binge eaters’ relating to bulimia nervosa/binge eating disorder); class 3 consisted of people who were obese, but did not experience eating problems; class 4 were morbidly obese, with an elevated risk of anxiety disorders; class 5 were labelled as ‘normal eaters’, with a low probability of eating problems and a normal BMI. Conclusions: Adults assigned to eating-disorder type classes are at increased risk for mental health comorbidities and poorer social functioning. Information presented herein on clustering of disordered eating patterns may help clinicians identify those men and women risk for an eating disorder.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 01/2013;
Article: Stability of latent classes in group-based trajectory modeling of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with epilepsy: an internal validation study using a bootstrapping procedure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to utilize bootstrapping to investigate the robustness of latent class trajectories and risk factors of depressive symptoms among mothers of children with epilepsy. METHODS: Data were obtained from a national prospective cohort study (2004-09) of children newly diagnosed with epilepsy and their families in Canada (n = 339). Latent classes of depressive symptom trajectories were modeled using a semi-parametric group-based trajectory modeling approach. Multinomial logistic regression identified risk factors predicting trajectory group membership. RESULTS: Four trajectories were identified: low stable, borderline, moderate increasing, and high decreasing. Goodness of fit, posterior probabilities, and parameter estimates obtained with bootstrapping were not significantly different from the original sample. Calculation of the root mean square error demonstrated minimal non-ignorable bias for three parameter estimates, which was subsequently removed with additional sampling. Risk factors identified were identical for the original sample and the bootstrap, and differences in odds ratios, as calculated with the method of variance estimation recovery, were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: As examined using a bootstrapping procedure, group-based trajectory modeling offers a robust methodology to uncover potential heterogeneity in populations and identify high-risk individuals.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 11/2012;
Article: The course of posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment following a disaster: what is the lasting influence of acute disaster-related exposures?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Ongoing traumatic events and stressors, rather than acute sources of trauma, may shape long-term post-disaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of acute hurricane-related exposures and ongoing post-hurricane exposures on the short- and long-term course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and functional impairment (FI). METHODS: A random sample of adults (n = 658) in Galveston and Chambers Counties, Texas, was selected 2-6 months after Hurricane Ike and interviewed 3 times over 18 months. Hurricane-related exposures included traumatic events such as death of a family member due to the hurricane and stressors such as loss/damage to personal property due to the hurricane. Post-hurricane exposures included traumatic events such as sexual assault and stressors such as divorce or serious financial problems. RESULTS: Experiencing an acute hurricane-related traumatic event or stressor was associated with initial post-hurricane PTSS [RR = 1.92 (95 % CI = 1.13-3.26) and RR = 1.62 (1.36-1.94), respectively] and FI [RR = 1.76; (1.05-2.97) and RR = 1.74 (1.46-2.08)], respectively, and acute hurricane-related stressors were associated with a higher rate of increase in FI over time [RR = 1.09; (1.01-1.19)]. In contrast, ongoing post-hurricane daily stressors were not associated within initial PTSS and FI, but were associated with PTSS and FI at the second and third interviews. CONCLUSIONS: While immediate postdisaster interventions may influence short-term mental health, investment in the prevention of ongoing stressors may be instrumental to manage long-term mental health status.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 08/2012;
Article: Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BackgroundCommunity violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the relations among violence exposure, parental warmth, positive school climate, and post-traumatic stress reactions among youth in The Republic of The Gambia, Africa. MethodsA school-based survey of youth behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions was administered to 653 students at senior secondary schools in four Gambian communities. ResultsStudents reported high levels of exposure to violence. Over half of students reported witnessing someone threatened with serious physical harm, beaten up or mugged, attacked or stabbed with a knife/piece of glass, or seriously wounded in an incident of violence. Nearly half of students reported being beaten up or mugged during the past year, and nearly a quarter reported being threatened with serious physical harm. There were no sex differences in levels of exposure. Traumatic stress symptoms were common, especially among females. Both violence witnessing and violent victimization significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms, and positive school climate moderated the relationship. Among youth victimized by violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at low levels of exposure. Among youth who had witnessed violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at high levels of exposure. ConclusionCommunity-based programs that bring together parents, schools, and youth may play an important role in combating the negative effects of some types of violence exposure among Gambian youth. Youth experiencing high levels of violent victimization represent a sample of particular concern and merit special research and clinical attention. KeywordsCommunity violence–Trauma–Youth–Africa–SchoolSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 05/2012; 46(1):59-67.
Article: Evaluating the impact of direct and indirect contact on the mental health stigma of pharmacy students[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PurposeContact with mental health consumers has shown to be a promising strategy to address mental health stigma, particularly in the context of pharmacy education. This research aimed to compare the effectiveness of a direct (face-to-face) contact intervention with an indirect (film based) contact intervention in reducing the mental health stigma of pharmacy students. MethodA two-group, non-randomized, comparative study was conducted with third year pharmacy students (n=198) allocated to the direct contact arm and fourth year pharmacy students (n=278) allocated to the indirect contact arm. Baseline and immediate post-intervention data were collected using a validated 39 item survey instrument to assess the impact of the interventions on mental health stigma as well as attitudes towards providing mental health pharmaceutical services. ResultsParticipants in the direct contact group showed a significant improvement in 37 out of 39 survey items and participants in the indirect contact group showed a significant improvement in 27 out of 39 items (P<0.05). While direct contact had a stronger impact than indirect contact for 22 items (P<0.05), for numerous key measures of mental health stigma the impact of the two contact interventions was equivalent. ConclusionBoth indirect and direct contact may positively impact mental health stigma. While the strength of the stigma-change process may be heightened by face-to-face interactions, the largely positive impact of indirect contact suggests that stigma reduction may depend less on the medium of contact but more on the transcendent messages contributed by the consumers facilitating the contact experience. KeywordsStigma–Mental health–Contact interventions–Consumer–PharmacySocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012;
Article: Non-fatal suicidal behaviour in Padua, Italy, in two different periods: 1992–1996 and 2002–2006[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PurposeThe WHO/EURO multicentre study on suicidal behaviour showed the lowest rates of suicide attempts in the Italian centre of Padua. Present study aims to discover changes in non-fatal suicidal behaviour rates and characteristics by comparing hospital-admitted subjects in two study periods (1992–1996 and 2002–2006). MethodsData were obtained from the University Hospital of Padua. The crude prevalence rates of events and persons by year per 100,000 (subjects aged 15+years) were calculated. Rate ratios, Chi-square tests and t tests were calculated. ResultsThe mean prevalence rate per year showed a significant increase during the second study period from 59.2 to 93.6 per 100,000 (RR=1.58, 95%CI=1.24–2.02). Changes were significant for both genders, but the increase was stronger in males. The proportion of subjects with non-fatal suicidal behaviour was highest in the youngest age group (15–29years) in the first period and in adults (30–44years) in the second period. The absolute number of subjects with non-fatal suicidal behaviour increased more than two times for adults aged 30–44years. Changes in other age groups were minor. The absolute numbers of non-Italian-born subjects with non-fatal suicidal behaviour increased from 11 to 135 persons. The proportion of poisoning was significantly lower in the second period. ConclusionsWhen comparing the time periods 1992–1996 and 2002–2006, there was a significant increase in suicidal events in Padua. There have been remarkable changes in the characteristics of suicide attempt(er)s. The most remarkable change was in the number of non-Italian-born subjects, who should be specifically targeted by suicide prevention activities. KeywordsSuicide attempt–Gender–Immigrants–ItalySocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 46(9):805-811.
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundDepression is a major public health problem in both China and Australia. To improve services, we need to ensure health professionals have an appropriate understanding of depression and its treatments. This study compares the level of awareness of depression between Chinese and Australian medical students. MethodsThe International Depression Literacy Survey assessing the public health impact, recognition and treatment of depression was completed by pre-psychiatric training medical students in China (n=220) and Australia (n=177). ResultsChinese students were far less likely to consider mental health conditions and depression as major public health problems (P<0.001). Depression symptom recognition was similar with four of the top five symptoms of depression the same in both groups of students. Chinese students were more likely to consider some psychological symptoms such as “thinking life is not worth living”, but less likely to consider somatic features such as “sleep disturbance” as typical for people with depression. Chinese students were more likely to claim that they would seek help from mental health professionals if experiencing depression whilst Australian students were more likely to seek help from a general or family doctor. ConclusionsChinese medical students recognise depression similarly to Australian students but do not consider it a major public health problem. These results challenge the stereotype that depression is characterised by somatic symptoms in China. Increasing awareness of the public health impact of depression should be incorporated into the medical curriculum in China.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 44(8):636-642.
Article: Cognitive ability, neighborhood deprivation, and young children’s emotional and behavioral problems[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PurposeTo examine if cognitive ability moderates the effect of area (neighborhood) deprivation on young children’s problem behavior. MethodsData from the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the UK were used. Children were clustered in small areas in nine strata in the UK and were aged 9months at Sweep 1 and 3years at Sweep 2. Neighborhood deprivation was measured with the Index of Multiple Deprivation at Sweep 1. Overall and specific problem behavior was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Sweep 2. To explore moderator specificity we used three indices of ability (verbal cognitive ability, non-verbal cognitive ability, and attainment of developmental milestones). Adjustment was made for child’s age and sex, and for Sweep 1 family adversity (number of adverse life events), family structure, mother’s social class and psychological distress, and family socio-economic disadvantage. ResultsWe found both support for our main hypothesis, and evidence for specificity. Neighborhood deprivation was, even after adjustment for covariates, significantly associated with children’s peer problems. However, verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability moderated this association. ConclusionsNeighborhood deprivation was related to peer problems even at preschool age. Although the effect of neighborhood deprivation on externalizing problems was mediated by family poverty and parental socio-economic position and although its effect on internalizing problems was mediated by parental mental health, its effect on difficulties with peers was independent of both parental and child characteristics. Cognitive ability moderated the effect of neighborhood deprivation on preschoolers’ peer relationships difficulties. KeywordsNeighborhood deprivation–Emotional and behavioral problems–MCS–Area effects–ResilienceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012;
Article: Development of the PICMIN (picture of mental illness in newspapers): instrument to assess mental illness stigma in print media[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PurposeThe aim of this paper is to report on the development and applicability of a standardised and objective measure of stigma of mental illness in print media. Picture of mental illness in newspapers (PICMIN) instrument consists of eleven descriptive and five analytical categories. It is intended to allow comparison among countries and different studies over time. MethodsThe research team conducted a three-phase study to develop the instrument based on the principles of content analysis and test its inter-coder reliability (ICR). In the first phase, keyword search and ICR assessment was performed on articles from Croatia (75), Czech Republic (203), and Slovakia (172). The second phase consisted of instrument revision and training, along with ICR reassessment on 40 articles from USA and UK. In the third, main phase articles from Croatia (238), Czech Republic (226), and Slovakia (158) were analysed with the final version of the PICMIN instrument. ResultsAcross three countries, ICR was found acceptable to assess mental illness representations related to stigma in print media. Print media representations of the mental illness in Croatia, Czech Republic, and Slovakia significantly differed in the type of media distribution, whether headline of the article was positioned on the media cover, in the use of a sensationalistic style of writing, in the association of aggressive behaviour with persons with mental illness and in the distribution of the global impression of the headline. ConclusionsPICMIN instrument allows comparison among countries and different studies over time. KeywordsInstrument–Mental illness–Stigma–Print media–Content analysisSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012;
Article: Vulnerability, life events and depression amongst Moslem Malaysian women: comparing those married and those divorced or separated[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe experiences of married and single mothers were compared in an investigation of psychosocial vulnerability, stress and depression in a community-based study of Moslem mothers in Malaysia. For the first time, a model of vulnerability-provoking agent originally developed by Brown et al. in the UK was tested in a Malaysian context. MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out in the district of Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Of the 1,200 women approached from membership of community associations, 1,002 (84%) completed the questionnaires. Severe life events Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Brugha and Cragg in Acta Psychiatr Scand 82:77–81, 1990) and psychosocial vulnerability (VDQ) (Moran et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 40:411–427, 2001) were used to measure vulnerability factors. Depression was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) (Havenaar et al. in Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43:209–215, 2008). ResultsSingle mothers had significantly higher rates of depression than those married (60.5 vs. 39.5%), as well as higher rates of severe life events and Negative Elements in Close Relationships (lack of support and conflict with children). However, married mothers had greater Negative Evaluation of Self. The two vulnerability factors were correlated to each other and to severe life events and social adversity. Logistic regression showed an interaction between severe life events in the material and relationship domains and joint vulnerability for depression outcome. The results are discussed in relation to the low recognition of psychosocial risks for depression in single mothers in Malaysia, as well as lack of appropriate services. KeywordsDepression–Malaysia–Single mother–Vulnerability–Life eventsSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 46(9):853-862.
Article: An expert panel assessment of comprehensive medication reviews for clients of community mental health teams[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BackgroundFew studies have investigated strategies to identify and resolve drug-related problems among clients of community mental health teams (CMHTs). ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact and appropriateness of comprehensive medication reviews for clients of CMHTs. MethodsTrained pharmacists conducted interviews (30–45min each) with clients of CMHTs to identify actual and potential drug-related problems. The pharmacists prepared medication review reports that detailed their findings and recommendations to optimize drug therapy. An expert panel comprising a psychiatrist, general medical practitioner, mental health pharmacist and medication review pharmacist evaluated reviews for 48 clients of 5 CMHTs. Panelists independently assessed review findings, review recommendations, likelihood of recommendation implementation and the overall expected clinical impact. ResultsTwo hundred and nine medication review findings and 208 medication review recommendations were evaluated. Panelists agreed with 76% of findings and considered that 81% of recommendations were appropriate. Collectively, 69% of recommendations were considered likely to be implemented. Thirty-seven (77%) reviews were deemed potentially to have a positive clinical impact. The agreement between panelists was statistically significant (P<0.01) for the assessment of the findings, recommendations and likelihood of recommendation implementation. ConclusionsPharmacists’ findings and recommendations to optimize drug therapy were considered appropriate and likely to result in improved clinical outcomes. Comprehensive medication reviews may be a valuable strategy to identify and resolve drug-related problems among clients of CMHTs. KeywordsMedication review-Medicines management-Psychotropic drugs-Community mental health services-Community pharmacy servicesSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 45(11):1071-1079.
Article: The influence of stigma on young people’s help-seeking intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of various sources of help[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PurposeIn this study, we examined whether young people’s help-seeking intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of various sources of help are influenced by their own, and their parents’ stigmatising attitudes towards young people with mental disorders. MethodsA national telephone survey was conducted with 3,746 Australians aged 12–25years and 2,005 of their parents. Stigmatising attitudes, help-seeking intentions, and perceived helpfulness of various sources of help were assessed in relation to four vignettes of a young person with a mental disorder (psychosis, depression, depression with alcohol misuse or social phobia). ResultsUnlike ‘stigma perceived in others’, the ‘weak-not-sick’, ‘social distance’ and ‘dangerous/unpredictable’ dimensions of young people’s stigma were associated with both help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs about various sources of help. Attributing mental disorder to a personal weakness rather than an illness was associated with less intention to seek help from a doctor and less positive beliefs about professional sources (including doctors, counsellors, and psychologists). In contrast, young adults aged 18–25years who perceived the vignette character as more dangerous or unpredictable had greater intention to seek help from a psychiatrist and a helpline, and more positive beliefs about psychiatrists. Greater social distance was associated with less intention to seek help from informal sources and less positive beliefs about these sources. No consistent pattern of associations was found for parent stigma. ConclusionsThe findings suggest that different dimensions of youth stigma differentially influence help-seeking intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of different sources of help. KeywordsYoung people–Stigma–Help seeking–Beliefs–HelpfulnessSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 46(12):1257-1265.
Article: Involuntary admission may support treatment outcome and motivation in patients receiving assertive community treatment[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ObjectivePatients with severe mental illness who are treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams are sometimes involuntarily admitted when they are dangerous to themselves or others, and are not motivated for treatment. However, the consequences of involuntary admission in terms of psychosocial outcome and treatment motivation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that involuntary admission would improve psychosocial outcome and not adversely affect their treatment motivation. MethodsIn the context of routine 6-monthly outcome monitoring in the period January 2003–March 2008, we used the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and a motivation-for-treatment scale to assess 260 severely mentally ill patients at risk for involuntary admission. Mixed models with repeated measures were used for data analyses. ResultsDuring the observation period, 77 patients (30%) were involuntarily admitted. Relative to patients who were not involuntarily admitted, these patients improved significantly in HoNOS total scores (F=17,815, df=1, p<0.001) and in motivation for treatment (F=28.139, df=1, p<0.001). Patients who were not involuntarily admitted had better HoNOS and motivation scores at baseline, but did not improve. ConclusionsInvoluntary admission in the context of ACT was associated with improvements in psychosocial outcome and motivation for treatment. There are no indications that involuntary admission leads to deterioration in psychosocial outcome or worsening of motivation for treatment.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 45(2):245-252.
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe development of children of parents who are experiencing mental health difficulties is a continuing cause of concern for professionals working in health, social care and education as well as policy makers. In light of this interest our study investigates the interplay between the mental health of mothers and fathers and family socioeconomic resources, and the impact for children’s cognitive and social development. MethodsThe study uses survey data from the Millennium Cohort Study linked with the Foundation Stage Profile assessment for children in the primary year of school in England between 2005 and 2006. The study includes 4,781 families from England where both parents’ mental health had been assessed using the Kessler 6 scale. Associations between parents’ mental health and children’s cognitive and social development were estimated using regression models. Multivariate models were used to explore the mediating role of the families’ socioeconomic resources. Gender interaction models were used to explore whether effects of parents’ mental health differ for girls and boys. ResultsThe study finds lower attainment in communication, language and literacy, mathematical development and personal, social and emotional development among children whose parents were experiencing high levels of psychological distress. Parents’ age and qualifications and families’ socioeconomic resources strongly mediated the effects of parents’ psychological distress on children’s attainment, and although independent effects of mother’s mental health were maintained, effects of father’s mental health were not. Stronger effects of mothers’ mental health were found for boys than for girls. ConclusionsThese findings highlight the interplay between the mental health of parents, families’ socioeconomic resources and children’s development which speaks for the need for close integration of mental health and social interventions to improve the well being of families. KeywordsChildren’s cognitive development-Children’s social development-Mother’s mental health-Father’s mental health-Family socioeconomic situationSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2012; 45(11):1023-1035.
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