Biology of Metals Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Other titles Biology of metals
ISSN 0933-5854
OCLC 18777975
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The accumulation and physico-chemical forms of metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in the whole soft tissues of oysters, by histological and microanalytical techniques in tissue sections, by gel permeation chromatography of soft tissue homogenates. Oysters were reared according to four types of experimental conditions: exposed to silver (20 micrograms Ag/l) or unexposed, in sea water (33%) or brackish water (8%). Copper, zinc and silver accumulation in oysters are inversely related to salinity. Amoebocytes, which play a key role in accumulating copper and zinc in natural sea water, are able to sequester an important part of added silver as Ag2S. In brackish water an increase of the number of amoebocytes may be considered as responsible for the enhancement of Cu and Zn concentrations in the whole soft tissues. In such conditions, additional silver is concentrated in these cells rather than in the basement membranes which are target structures for Ag2S accumulation in sea water. If the global fluctuations of metal concentrations in the soft tissue are ascribable mainly to changes at the histological level, the fate of metals in the soluble fraction must not be neglected since the speciation of metals influences their toxicity. The freshening of sea water induced a change in the distribution of cytosolic silver and zinc but in no case were the molecular masses of compounds associated with each metal perfectly identical. From these results, it is concluded that the accumulation of silver by oysters is not mediated by the same mechanisms as those for copper and zinc.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(3):144-50.
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    ABSTRACT: The pigmentation phenotype (Pgm+) of Yersinia pestis refers to temperature-dependent storage of hemin as well as expression of a number of other physiological characteristics. Spontaneous mutation to a Pgm- phenotype occurs via a large chromosomal deletion event and results in the inability to express the Pgm+ characteristics. In this study, we have used transposon insertion mutants to define two regions of a hemin-storage (hms) locus. A clone (pHMS1) encompassing this locus reinstates expression of hemin storage (Hms+) in Y. pestis spontaneous Pgm- strains KIM and Kuma but not in Escherichia coli. Complementation analysis using subclones of pHMS1 in Y. pestis transposon mutants indicates that both regions (hmsA and hmsB), which are separated by about 4 kb of intervening DNA, are essential for expression of the Hms+ phenotype. The 9.1-kb insert of pHMS1 contains structural genes encoding 90-kDa, 72-kDa, and 37-kDa polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of cells from Pgm+, spontaneous Pgm-, and Hms- transposon strains, as well as a spontaneous Pgm- strain transformed with pHMS1, indicated that two families of surface-exposed polypeptides (of about 87 and 69-73 kDa) are associated with the Hms+ phenotype.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):41-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of the amino acids whose codons border introns in ferritin genes is novel; the disposition of these intron boundaries within the three-dimensional structure of the 24-subunit molecule differs significantly from that of other proteins. These observations are discussed in relation to the functions of isoferritins.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(2):95-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Iron is now recognized as playing a vital role in infection. Not only does it restricted availability in tissue fluids present microbial pathogens with the problem of acquiring sufficient for multiplication in vivo, but it also constitutes a major environmental signal which co-ordinately regulates the expression of a number of virulence and metabolic genes. Progress in understanding the strategies used by pathogens for acquiring iron in vivo, and their responses to iron restriction, is providing a fresh insight into microbial pathogenicity.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):7-13. DOI:10.1007/BF01135551
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    ABSTRACT: Rat aglycotransferrin (rAgTf) was produced from the disialosyl diantennary fraction of rat transferrin (rTf) by treatment with peptide: N-glycosidase F. Following removal of the enzyme by gel filtration and isolation of the deglycosylated protein by lectin chromatography, rAgTf was compared to rTf both in vitro and in vivo. No significant differences were found between the two proteins with respect to affinity for iron and kinetics of Fe release from the N-lobe and C-lobe. The fluorescence emission spectrum of apo-rTf was red-shifted by approximately 3 nm relative to diferric rTf; however, no spectral difference was detected between rTf and rAgTf when the analogous forms (apo or diferric) were compared. Plasma clearance of radioactive iron administered to rats as either rTf or rAgTf was comparable. Reticulocytes took up iron from rAgTf slightly faster than from rTf. In contrast, Fe acquisition by the liver from rAgTf was significantly reduced relative to rTf. This finding contrasts sharply with earlier observations with asialotransferrin (rAsTf) and provides a basis for discounting charge loss as the mechanism of enhanced hepatic Fe uptake from rAsTf. It is suggested that the glycan complement of rTf, while unimportant for interaction of the protein with specific receptors, probably plays a role in the interaction with low-affinity hepatic binding sites.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(2):90-4. DOI:10.1007/BF01135384
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of human erythroleukaemia K562 cells to take up aluminium from Al-transferrin and Al-citrate has been examined. Uptake from Al-transferrin was dose-dependent over the range 68-544 ng/ml of aluminium, and increased over a 12-day period. In contrast, uptake from Al-citrate was low even at an aluminium concentration of 6800 ng/ml and did not increase over time. Neither form of aluminium greatly affected cell growth. It is concluded that Al-transferrin, rather than Al-citrate, is the physiologically relevant form of this metal with respect to cellular uptake, but that any metabolic abnormalities induced by aluminium do not affect proliferation of this cell line.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(3):173-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Solar ultraviolet radiation has been associated with the induction of skin cancer. Recent studies have indicated that near-ultraviolet, especially UVB, is mutagenic. Exposure to trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds has also been associated with increased skin cancer prevalence. Trivalent arsenic compounds are not mutagenic per se, but are comutagenic with a number of cancer agents. Here, we test the hypothesis that arsenite enhances skin cancer via its comutagenic action with solar ultraviolet radiation. Irradiation of Chinese hamster V79 cells with UVA (360 nm), UVB (310 nm) and UVC (254 nm) caused a fluence-dependent increase in mutations at the hprt locus. On an energy basis, UVC was the most mutagenic and UVA the least. However, when expressed as a function of toxicity, UVB was more mutagenic than UVC. Nontoxic concentrations of arsenite increased the toxicity of UVA, UVB and UVC. Arsenite acted as a comutagen at the three wavelengths; however, higher concentrations of arsenite were required to produce a significant (P less than 0.05) comutagenic response with UVB. The increased mutagenicity of UVB and UVA by arsenite may play a role in arsenite-related skin cancers.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(4):197-200. DOI:10.1007/BF01141180
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    ABSTRACT: Iron stimulates ferritin synthesis in whole cells and animals, by increasing the entry of ferritin mRNA into polyribosomes. Dissection of the regulation at the molecular level has identified a 28-nucleotide, conserved, regulatory sequence (IRE = iron regulatory element) in the 5' non-coding region of ferritin mRNAs, plus trans-acting factor(s), one of which is a 90-kDa protein. The site of iron action is not entirely characterized but may involve heme; sequences in the 3' non-coding region of ferritin mRNA can modulate regulation. Ferritin mRNA is the first eukaryotic mRNA for which a conserved regulatory sequence and regulator protein have been identified. The same RNA-protein motif is used, through iron-dependent degradation of transferrin receptor mRNA, to decrease synthesis of the receptor and cellular iron uptake. The regulatory structure of the transferrin receptor mRNA is composed, in part, of five copies of the IRE in the 3' non-coding region. IRE structure, probed by cleavage with RNases T1, V1, 1,10-phenanthroline-Cu or modification with dimethyl sulfate, is a hairpin loop with conformational variations dependent on magnesium; a base-paired region flanking the IRE is also structurally sensitive to magnesium. Similar results were obtained with a synthetic 55-mer containing the IRE and with a full-length in vitro transcript with a G----A substitution in the loop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):56-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of cations of group IIIb elements (Sc, Y, La) with mycobactin S in ethanol leads to the formation of 1:1 complexes which closely resemble the known aluminium compound with respect to ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. Determination of molar stoichiometry by spectrophotometry shows that this method can be conveniently applied to the estimation of purity in mycobactin samples. Hydrolytic dissociation measurements based on aqueous extraction of the labelled complexes in heterogeneous phase indicate a pronounced gradation in cation-binding stability, which increases from La (rapid and complete dissociation) to sc (approximately 24% dissociation under similar conditions). The observed properties of the complexes are rationalized by semi-empirical model calculations, which suggest that ionic radius effects resulting from interaction of the IIIb cations with mycobactin S would not favour octahedral coordination of these elements as in the stable Fe(III) complex.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(4):207-10. DOI:10.1007/BF01141182
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of different nickel chloride doses upon blood and plasma glucose and essential metal homeostasis were studied in male and female rats. A definite sex-dependent response to injections of nickel has been observed for both the increase in plasma and blood glucose levels and the time at which these levels peak. Males showed a fast recovery from the rise in glucose levels and were much less affected by changes in the other parameters studied. In females, an extended rise in glucose levels was observed. All these effects are clearly nickel dose-dependent. Plasma, liver and kidney copper levels rose significantly in females while only a small decrease was observed in male kidneys. Zinc levels rose in all organs studied but males recovered to basal levels after the study period, whereas females maintained maximum levels at the end of the same period. An increase in urinary excretion of iron was observed. The present results show that the sex differences to acute nickel toxicity can be a helpful way to study metal interaction and discriminate between specific toxicity due to nickel or that induced by the associated hyperglucagonemia.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(3):136-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Transport of iron(III) hydroxamates across the inner membrane into the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli is mediated by the FhuC, FhuD and FhuB proteins and displays characteristics typical of a periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent transport mechanism. In contrast to the highly specific receptor proteins in the outer membrane, at least six different siderophores of the hydroxamate type and the antibiotic albomycin are accepted as substrates. A fhuB mutant (deficient in transport of substrates across the inner membrane) which overproduced the periplasmic FhuD 30-kDa protein, bound [55Fe] iron(III) ferrichrome. Resistance of FhuD to proteinase K in the presence of ferrichrome, aerobactin, and coprogen indicated binding of these substrates to FhuD. FhuD displays significant similarity to the periplasmic FecB, FepB, and BtuE proteins. The extremely hydrophobic FhuB 70-kDa protein is located in the cytoplasmic membrane and consists of two apparently duplicated halves. The N- and C-terminal halves [FhuB(N) and FhuB(C)] were expressed separately in fhuB mutants. Only combinations of FhuB(N) and FhuB(C) polypeptides restored sensitivity to albomycin and growth on iron hydroxamate as a sole iron source, indicating that both halves of FhuB were essential for substrate translocation and that they combined to form an active permease. In addition, a FhuB derivative with a large internal duplication of 271 amino acids was found to be transport-active, indicating that the extra portion did not disturb proper insertion of the active FhuB segments into the cytoplasmic membrane. A region of considerable similarity, present twice in FhuB, was identified near the C-terminus of 20 analyzed hydrophobic proteins of periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):23-32. DOI:10.1007/BF01135553
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    ABSTRACT: Copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L)X], where L = tridentate anion of 2-acetylpyridine N4-diethyl thiosemicarbazone and X = C1 or Br, were screened against seven fungal strains pathogenic to man viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Tricophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. The greater growth inhibition exhibited by the bromo complex can be explained on the basis of its lower Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple and greater covalent bonding. These compounds represent a novel class of metal-based antifungal agents which provide opportunities for a large number of synthetic variations for modulation of the activities.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(3):141-3.
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of chlorophyllin in reducing clastogenicity was studied against two concentrations of each of three potent metallic clastogens (cesium chloride, mercuric chloride and cobalt chloride) in bone marrow cells of mice in vivo. The respective salts and chlorophyllin were administered orally to mice by gavaging in different combinations. Simultaneous administration of chlorophyllin with both concentrations of each salt reduced the clastogenic effects in the order Cs greater than Hg greater than Co. Chlorophyllin could not decrease the clastogenic effects when administered 2 h before the salts.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(3):158-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of conjugates of microbial iron chelators (siderophores) and antibiotics for illicit transport of antibiotics into cells is a potentially powerful method for the rational design of therapeutic agents. The structural complexity of most natural siderophores has impeded progress in this area. Described here are the design, syntheses and preliminary biological studies of several siderophore-beta-lactam antibiotic conjugates. Both hydroxamic-acid-based and catechol-based conjugates with and without amino acid spacers to carbacephalosporins were synthesized and demonstrated to be effective inhibitors of Escherichia coli X580. Mutant selection was noted for each class of conjugates. Mutants selected from exposure of the E. coli to the hydroxamate conjugates were susceptible to the catechol conjugates and vice versa. Combinations of hydroxamate- and catechol-carbacephalosporin conjugates were most effective inhibitors of E. coli X580.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):62-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to accumulate copper from aqueous solutions was determined with different yeast species. Yeast cells did not show any significant differences in process kinetics. The uptake was very fast and was influenced by environmental factors. The metal-accumulating capacity differed among the tested strains. The yeast Candida tropicalis and Pichia guilliermondii were chosen for extensive research. Cells of the stationary growth phase were able to adsorb a high amount of copper. The uptake capacity decreased with increasing biomass concentration. Copper adsorption obeyed the Freundlich isotherm. Optimal pH range was between 5 and 7. The biomass could be used repeatedly for biosorption after desorption by mineral acids.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(4):233-7. DOI:10.1007/BF01141186
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to utilize siderophores of bacterial and fungal origin has been studied in wild-type and mutant strains of the enterobacterial genera Salmonella, Escherichia, Shigella, Moellerella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Hafnia, Pantoea, Ewingella, Tatumella, Yersinia, and in the non-enterics Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Aureobacterium. Although only a few representative strains were tested, the results show characteristic genus-specific differences in the utilization of hydroxamate and catecholate siderophores. Moreover, the different response to structural alterations of certain siderophore classes by some wild-type and mutant strains points to variable interacting receptor domains.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(4):244-50. DOI:10.1007/BF01141188
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    ABSTRACT: Iron is essential for bacterial growth and metabolism. In vertebrates this metal is complexed by high-affinity iron-binding proteins, such as transferrin in serum. The fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum possesses a very efficient iron-uptake system which is encoded in the virulence plasmid pJM1. This allows the bacterium to utilize the otherwise unavailable iron in the fish host, resulting in the septicemic disease vibriosis. This system includes the siderophore anguibactin and transport components. We have cloned this iron-uptake system and have defined several genetic units by transposition mutagenesis. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified four open reading frames in the transport region, one of these corresponding to the gene for the outer membrane protein OM2 and another to a 40-kDa polypeptide. Complementation analysis indicated that products from all four reading frames are required for the transport of iron-anguibactin complexes. We have also identified positive and negative-acting regulatory elements that modulate in concert the expression of anguibactin biosynthetic genes and iron transport. The deletion or mutation of the positive-acting regulatory genes results in an iron-uptake-deficient phenotype and leads to an attenuation of virulence, underscoring the importance of this iron-uptake system as a virulence attribute of V. anguillarum.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):33-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The growth and siderophore production of a fluorescent Pseudomonas species isolated from soil contaminated with chromium was found to be influenced by the presence of trivalent cations. Overproduction of pseudobactin occurred when the isolate was grown in media containing 1 mM Cr(III) under iron-limited conditions but not when Fe(III) was added at 10 microM. Pseudobactin synthesis was derepressed in iron-limited cultures containing 1 mM Sc(III) or Y(III), examples of group III-B elements. We found that Al(III), Ga(III) or In(III), representative metals from group III-A, repressed synthesis of pseudobactin under iron-deficient conditions. Analogs of Fe(III) were found to inhibit growth of the Pseudomonas isolate in iron-limited media and the trivalent metals listed in order of decreasing toxicity were as follows: Ga greater than In greater than Sc greater than Cr greater than Y greater than Al. The inhibition of growth by 1 mM In(III), Sc(III) and Ga(III) was greater during iron-limited growth than in media containing 10 microM Fe(III). These data show that, although the metal analogs of Fe(III) have similar chemical and physical characteristics, the physiological response of the fluorescent pseudomonad when grown in the presence of these metals varied markedly.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(4):211-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare quantitatively the capacity to transcytose (i.e. to uptake and release) transferrin (Tf) with the pinocytic activity of suspended adult rat hepatocytes. An oligodisperse preparation of 131I-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Mr 36,000) was used to measure the inward and outward aspects of the pinocytic process in separate experiments. Cell association of rat 125I-Tf was measured at Tf concentrations approaching physiological, where 59Fe uptake obeyed first-order kinetics. Release studies with both PVP and Tf were carried out under conditions which minimized the probability of de novo endocytosis of a molecule already released. Sets of experimental points representing cell-associated radioactivities were converted into continuous algebraic functions by fitting with two-term (release studies) or three-term (uptake studies) exponential equations. Transport of PVP and Tf through the cells was computed from these equations by deconvolution. This analysis showed that, under the present experimental conditions, the fractional transcytosis rates of Tf and PVP by hepatocytes were in the ratio of 1:0.77. These values imply that, in the physiological range of Tf concentrations, about 75% of the Fe taken up by hepatocytes may be due to a pinocytic mechanism (fluid-phase or mixed). Inclusion of chloroquine (1 mM) in the suspending medium, both in uptake and release experiments, resulted in more PVP and Tf passing through the cells, while Fe uptake was reduced. It is suggested that the base probably exerted its enhancing effect on transcytosis by shunting the subcellular transport of PVP and Tf to the outward leg through a shorter circuit.
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(3):166-72.