IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA J )

Publisher: International Association of Wood Anatomists


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    ABSTRACT: The wood anatomy of Quercus faginea, an oak native to the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb in Africa, is described and age trends of fibres and ray dimensions are recorded. The analysis was made on a total of 20 trees from two different sites in Portugal. The wood structure within both sites was similar. Quercus faginea shares its microscopic characteristics with other species of the white oak group; i.e., it was not easily distinguishable from other European oaks. The wood is ring porous with wide multiseriate rays and a high proportion of fibres and vasicentric tracheids. There was an increase of fibre and ray dimensions from the pith outwards. Fibre length started to stabilize around 30 years of age up to 50–60 years and decreased afterwards under a traditional rotation period (100–150 years). Linear and polynomial adjustments fitted better the fibre variation at younger and older ages, respectively. Rays were quite homogeneous within the trees. Cambial age accounted less to total variation than individual trees at both sites; i.e., tree-to-tree variation is greater than variation related to maturation or cambial age. The average dimensions of fibres and rays were similar between sites.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 35(3):293-306.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the first record of Peltophoroxylon (Ramanujam) Müller-Stoll et Mädel 1967 from the late Pleistocene of Argentina. The fossil specimens were recovered from the Colonia Ayuí and Punta Viracho fossil localities of the El Palmar Formation, located in the middle part of the Uruguay Basin, eastern Argentina. The diagnostic features are: growth ring boundaries demarcated by marginal parenchyma, medium-sized vestured intervessel pits, vessel-ray parenchyma pits similar in size and shape to intervessel pits, vasicentric to lozenge type aliform axial parenchyma, biseriate (70%) and uniseriate (30%) homocellular rays, non-septate and septate fibers, and long chains (10+) of prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells. These features suggest a relationship with Peltophorum (Vogel) Benth. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae). The vessel diameter and vessel density of the El Palmar woods are consistent with the temperate-warm, humid-semiarid climate inferred for this region during the late Pleistocene.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 04/2014; 35(2):199-212.
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    ABSTRACT: The microdistribution of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in epithelial cells of axial resin canals was investigated in Norway spruce xylem using immunolocalization methods combined with monoclonal antibodies specific for (1→4)-β-galactan (LM5), (1→5)-α-arabinan (LM6), homogalacturonan (LM19, LM20), xyloglucan (LM15), xylan (LM10, LM11) and mannan (LM21, LM22). The ultrastructure and lignin distribution of epithelial cell walls was also examined after cytochemical staining for lignin. Compared with tracheids, epithelial cells showed several different ultrastructural characteristics, such as the thickness of three layers forming the cell wall, the boundary structure between layers and the lamellate structure of cell walls, with slightly stronger reaction with chemical staining for lignin than tracheids. After staining with potassium permanganate, the layer of the epithelial cell wall adjacent to the canal showed typical characteristics of middle lamella (C-ML). However, C-ML regions showed completely different chemical characteristics from E-ML (middle lamella between epithelial cells) regions of epithelial cells and compound middle lamella (CML) regions of tracheids. Unlike tracheids, epitopes of pectic polysaccharides were detected in the epithelial cell wall with variations in amounts between cell wall layers. Epitopes of hemicelluloses were also detected in the epithelial cells with differences in distribution patterns from tracheids, particularly xyloglucan (LM15) and low substituted xylan (LM10) epitopes. Together, our results suggest that the ultrastructure and chemistry of epithelial cells including C-ML regions significantly differ from tracheids.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 01/2014; 35(3):236-252.
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    ABSTRACT: Axial resin canals in wood are distinguished into two types based on the morphology of epithelial cells; resin canals with narrow canals and thick-walled epithelial cells (Type I), and resin canals with wide canals and thin-walled epithelial cells (Type II). Following studies on Norway spruce (Type I), the distribution of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in axial resin canals of Scots pine (Type II) is reported here using cytochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The distribution of (1→4)-β-galactan (LM5), (1→5)-α-arabinan (LM6), homogalacturonan (LM19, LM20), xyloglucan (LM15), xylan (LM10, LM11) and mannan (LM21, LM22) epitopes were examined. Axial resin canal complexes in the xylem were composed of canal, epithelium and subsidiary cells (parenchyma and strand tracheids). Strand tracheids were absent in axial resin canals in the phloem. Strand tracheids showed a completely different ultrastructure and chemistry from normal mature tracheids and other types of axial resin canal cells. Immunolocalization of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in axial resin canals showed an overall similar cell wall composition in epithelial cells and subsidiary parenchyma between the xylem and phloem. All types of axial resin canal cells in both xylem and phloem contained homogalacturonan (HG), rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and xyloglucan with a high variation in amount and chemical structure depending on cell wall region and between cell types. In particular, epithelial cell walls facing the canal showed significant differences in HG distribution from other epithelial cell wall regions. No xylan and mannan epitopes were detected in any of axial resin canal cells. Together, our results suggest that the chemistry of axial resin canal cells in Scots pine may be highly compartmentalized depending on functional differences between both cell types and cell wall regions.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 01/2014; 25(3):253-269.
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    ABSTRACT: Microdistribution of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in pit membranes of bordered pits (intertracheid pits between adjacent tracheids), cross-field pits (half bordered pits between tracheids and ray parenchyma cells) and ray pits (simple pits in nodular end walls of ray parenchyma cells) was investigated in mature earlywood of juvenile Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings using immunocytochemistry combined with monoclonal antibodies specific to (1→4)-β-galactan (LM5), (1→5)-α-arabinan (LM6), homogalacturonan (HG, LM19, LM20), xyloglucan (LM15), xylan (LM10, LM11) and mannan (LM21, LM22) epitopes. Using phloroglucinol-HCl and KMnO4 staining, lignin distribution in pit membranes was also examined. Apart from cross-field pit membranes in Scots pine, all pit membranes observed showed a positive reaction for lignin with differences in staining intensity. Ray pit membranes showed strongest reaction with lignin staining in both species. Intensity of lignin staining in bordered pit membranes was stronger in Norway spruce than in Scots pine. With localization of non-cellulosic polysaccharide epitopes, Scots pine showed differences in cross-field pit membranes (rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI), HG and xyloglucan epitopes) from bordered and ray pit membranes (RG-I and HG epitopes). In contrast, Norway spruce showed significant differences in ray pit membranes (RG-I, HG, xyloglucan, xylan and mannan epitopes) from bordered and cross-field pit membranes (HG and no/trace amount of RG-I epitopes). Distributional differences in HG epitopes depending on antibody type/membrane regions were also observed in cross-field pit membranes between the two species. Together, the results suggest that distribution patterns of lignin and non-cellulosic polysaccharides in pit membranes differ significantly between pit types and between Scots pine and Norway spruce. Compared with the same types of pit membranes in hardwoods, the results for Scots pine and Norway spruce (softwoods) differed significantly.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 01/2014; 35(4):407-429.
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    ABSTRACT: The commonest approach to studying cambial productivity is conventional light microscopy, which is widely used in wood formation studies. The number of such studies has increased rapidly in the past decade, usually in order to elucidate the relationship between growth and environmental factors. However, some aspects of cambial seasonality are often overlooked or neglected. Observations with transmission electron microscopy provide a more detailed insight into changes occurring on the ultra-structural level in cambial cells. Criteria for defining cambial activity are not yet fully clarified, especially when observing it at different resolutions, i.e., on cellular, subcellular and ultrastructural levels. The goal of this review is to contribute to clarification of the terms mainly used, such as cambial dormancy, reactivation, activity, productivity and transition between different states, resting period and quiescence, which describe structural modifications of cambial cells during the various phases of their seasonal cycle. Based on our own cambium observations on adult beech trees growing at two different elevations, which were made with light and transmission electron microscopy, we discuss the influence of weather conditions on cambial activity and the advantage of the complementary use of different techniques and resolutions.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 12/2013; 34(4):391-407.