IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: International Association of Wood Anatomists, Brill Academic Publishers

Journal description

Current impact factor: 0.96

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.957
2012 Impact Factor 0.795
2011 Impact Factor 1.042
2010 Impact Factor 1.239
2009 Impact Factor 0.825
2008 Impact Factor 1
2007 Impact Factor 0.687
2006 Impact Factor 0.667
2005 Impact Factor 0.537
2004 Impact Factor 0.734
2003 Impact Factor 0.667
2002 Impact Factor 0.677
2001 Impact Factor 0.868
2000 Impact Factor 0.738
1999 Impact Factor 0.722
1998 Impact Factor 0.526
1997 Impact Factor 0.508
1996 Impact Factor 0.409
1995 Impact Factor 0.232
1994 Impact Factor 0.23
1993 Impact Factor 0.033

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.33
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.15
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.36
Website IAWA Journal - International Association of Wood Anatomists website
Other titles IAWA journal
ISSN 0928-1541
OCLC 28238907
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Brill Academic Publishers

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be deposited after acceptance for peer-review
    • Author's post-print and Publisher's version/PDF on author's personal website
    • Author's post-print on institutional website or institutional repository
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Published source must be acknowledged
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anatomical and chemical characteristics of reaction wood (RW) were investigated in Liriodendron tulipifera Linn. Stems of seedlings were artificially inclined at angles of 30 (RW-30), 50 (RW-50) and 70° (RW-70) from the vertical, and compared with normal wood (NW) from a vertical seedling stem. The smallest values for the wood fibre length and vessel number were observed in RW-50. The pit aperture angle was less than 10° in RW-30 and RW-50, in which reduced lignin content was observed in the S2 layer of the wood fibres. An increase in the glucose content and a decrease in the lignin and xylose content was observed in RW-50. The stem inclination angle affected the degree of RW development with regard to anatomical and chemical characteristics: the severest RW was observed in RW-50, followed by RW-30. RW-70 was similar in anatomical and chemical characteristics to NW, apparently because the inclination was too strong to enable recovery of its original position. In this case a vertical sprouting stem was formed to replace the inclined stem.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 12/2014; 35(4):463-475. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000078
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    ABSTRACT: Microdistribution of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in pit membranes of bordered pits (intertracheid pits between adjacent tracheids), cross-field pits (half bordered pits between tracheids and ray parenchyma cells) and ray pits (simple pits in nodular end walls of ray parenchyma cells) was investigated in mature earlywood of juvenile Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings using immunocytochemistry combined with monoclonal antibodies specific to (1→4)-β-galactan (LM5), (1→5)-α-arabinan (LM6), homogalacturonan (HG, LM19, LM20), xyloglucan (LM15), xylan (LM10, LM11) and mannan (LM21, LM22) epitopes. Using phloroglucinol-HCl and KMnO4 staining, lignin distribution in pit membranes was also examined. Apart from cross-field pit membranes in Scots pine, all pit membranes observed showed a positive reaction for lignin with differences in staining intensity. Ray pit membranes showed strongest reaction with lignin staining in both species. Intensity of lignin staining in bordered pit membranes was stronger in Norway spruce than in Scots pine. With localization of non-cellulosic polysaccharide epitopes, Scots pine showed differences in cross-field pit membranes (rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI), HG and xyloglucan epitopes) from bordered and ray pit membranes (RG-I and HG epitopes). In contrast, Norway spruce showed significant differences in ray pit membranes (RG-I, HG, xyloglucan, xylan and mannan epitopes) from bordered and cross-field pit membranes (HG and no/trace amount of RG-I epitopes). Distributional differences in HG epitopes depending on antibody type/membrane regions were also observed in cross-field pit membranes between the two species. Together, the results suggest that distribution patterns of lignin and non-cellulosic polysaccharides in pit membranes differ significantly between pit types and between Scots pine and Norway spruce. Compared with the same types of pit membranes in hardwoods, the results for Scots pine and Norway spruce (softwoods) differed significantly.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 12/2014; 35(4):407-429. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000075
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microscopic wood identifications were performed on five Buddhist temple structures and on one secular building located in Sikkim, an Indian state in the Eastern Himalayas. In all, twenty wood species were identified, two of which - Michelia (Magnolia) doltsopa and Picea cf. spinulosa - were considered in more detail. Building type, specific physical and mechanical properties of the wood species, local availability, and religious considerations were apparently the leading criteria for timber selection.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 12/2014; 35(4):444-462. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000077
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of reaction wood is an adaptive feature of trees in response to various mechanical forces. In gymnosperms, reaction wood consists of compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) that are formed on the underside and upperside of bent trunks and branches. Although reaction wood formed in bent trunks has been extensively investigated, relatively little has been reported from conifer branches. In this study SilviScan® technology was used to characterize radiata pine branches at high resolution. Compared to OW formed in the branches, CW showed greater growth, darker colour, thicker tracheid walls, higher coarseness, larger microfibril angle (MFA), higher wood density, lower extensional stiffness and smaller internal specific surface area. However, tracheids of CW were similar to those of OW in their radial and tangential diameters. These results indicated that gravity influenced tracheid cell division and secondary wall formation but had limited impact on primary wall expansion. Furthermore, seasonal patterns of CW formation were not observed in the branches from cambial age 4 while earlywood and latewood were clearly separated in all rings of OW. The marked change of MFA during reaction wood formation suggested that branches could be ideal materials for further study of cellulose microfibril orientation.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 12/2014; 35(4):385-394. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000073
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    ABSTRACT: Branches of Platanus × hispanica with distinct symptoms of the Massaria disease were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and cellular UVmicrospectrophotometry. The samples collected in the city of Mannheim, Germany, were infected in vivo with the fungus Splanchnonema platani and showed various degrees of wood decay. The investigations were focused on the decay pattern of cell walls in the different cells, i.e., fibres, vessels as well as ray and axial parenchyma cells. The following results were obtained. Hyphae of the ascomycete fungus Splanchnonema platani penetrated from cell to cell through the pits and not through the cell wall middle lamella, by the formation of thin perforation hyphae. During this process, the 1–5 μm thick hyphae became narrower without attacking the wall around the pit canal. After penetration through a pit, the hyphae again enlarged to their original diameter. This is true for all pit pairs connecting the various cell types. Late decay stages did not show a decay of cell corner regions and middle lamellae of fibres as well as vessel and parenchyma cell walls. Phenolic deposits in parenchyma cells were still present in severely attacked xylem tissue. These features point to a low lignolytic capacity of the fungus. The frequently found microscopic decay pattern with the formation of oval or spherical cavities in the S2 layer of the secondary wall with an often structurally intact S3 layer is a characteristic of softrot decay. This classification is also supported by the remaining cell corner and middle lamella regions in advanced decay stages. As a consequence of this decay type, branches fracture in a brittle mode.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 12/2014; 35(4):395-406. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000074
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    ABSTRACT: Stem regeneration after wounding was studied in 110-year-old trees of Pinus sylvestris L. over a period of 30 years. The changes of cambial surface are shown as 3D models. For construction of the models ArcGIS and geodesic Surfer programs were applied. The trees responded to stem injury by increasing the cambial activity near the wound edge. The result was longitudinal rolls or spindles which gradually covered the wounded stem surface. The successively formed tree rings changed their orientation to perpendicular with respect to the wound surface. The disturbances of wood formation near the wound edge were manifested by oblique orientation of xylem rays with respect to annual ring boundaries. The spatial distribution of the xylem ray orientation is presented on the Surfer contour maps. Near the fusion of the wound spindles there were some areas consisting of irregularly oriented xylem cells. The cellular ordering of the xylem tissue in these areas was measured by applying digital image analysis software. Measurements shown on color-coded maps revealed that the tracheid orientation (seen on tangential sections) deviated between 0 and 90 degrees from the stem axis. In some areas a circular pattern of tracheid orientation was visible. Crooked and forked tracheids were also present. These results support the view that the adaptive growth occurring in the case of deep wounding is analogous to that observed when an inanimate body is in lateral contact with a tree stem. The intensive growth and accumulation of newly deposited tissue in the wound spindles seems to be the most effective mechanism for the tree stem regeneration to restore its biomechanical and transport functions. This could be considered as an illustration of Wolff’s law that the shape of an organ follows its function.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 35(3):270-280. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000065
  • IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 35(3):332-332. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000069
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    ABSTRACT: The microdistribution of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in epithelial cells of axial resin canals was investigated in Norway spruce xylem using immunolocalization methods combined with monoclonal antibodies specific for (1→4)-β-galactan (LM5), (1→5)-α-arabinan (LM6), homogalacturonan (LM19, LM20), xyloglucan (LM15), xylan (LM10, LM11) and mannan (LM21, LM22). The ultrastructure and lignin distribution of epithelial cell walls was also examined after cytochemical staining for lignin. Compared with tracheids, epithelial cells showed several different ultrastructural characteristics, such as the thickness of three layers forming the cell wall, the boundary structure between layers and the lamellate structure of cell walls, with slightly stronger reaction with chemical staining for lignin than tracheids. After staining with potassium permanganate, the layer of the epithelial cell wall adjacent to the canal showed typical characteristics of middle lamella (C-ML). However, C-ML regions showed completely different chemical characteristics from E-ML (middle lamella between epithelial cells) regions of epithelial cells and compound middle lamella (CML) regions of tracheids. Unlike tracheids, epitopes of pectic polysaccharides were detected in the epithelial cell wall with variations in amounts between cell wall layers. Epitopes of hemicelluloses were also detected in the epithelial cells with differences in distribution patterns from tracheids, particularly xyloglucan (LM15) and low substituted xylan (LM10) epitopes. Together, our results suggest that the ultrastructure and chemistry of epithelial cells including C-ML regions significantly differ from tracheids.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 35(3):236-252. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000063
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    ABSTRACT: Peduncles of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. undergo extensive secondary growth, which is a rare and unexplored feature so far. In the present investigation seasonal behaviour of vascular cambium was studied in fruit-bearing peduncles and compared with the vegetative branches of similar diameter. In peduncles, the cambium remained active throughout the year. The number of cambium cells and differentiating xylem cells increased from May and reached a maximum in July-August. Although cambial growth occurred throughout the year, it was relatively sluggish in February despite the development of new leaves and ongoing extension growth. In contrast, cambial cell division in young branches initiated in February, peaked in the same months as peduncle cambium while cambial cell division and differentiation of xylem remained suspended from October to January. Cessation of cambial cell division in the branches during this period may be correlated with the presence of mature leaves. In both (branches and peduncle), rapid cell division and increase in the number of differentiating xylem elements in April-May is positively correlated with the development of flower buds and new leaves. The present anatomical investigation revealed that cambial activity in both peduncle and vegetative branches are independent of phenology and climatic conditions. In conclusion, we believe that variations in the number of differentiating cambium derivatives in peduncles benefits from a dual source of growth hormone supply, i.e. from developing new leaves and flower buds.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 35(3):281-292. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000066
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial microfibrils as well as finer diameter tangential fibrils. The former formed fascicles of fibrils that merged into even thicker buttresses during the act of pit membrane aspiration. AFM showed a discontinuous layer of non-microfibrillar material on the surface of both torus and margo. It is hypothesized that this material is responsible for adhesion of the pit membrane to the surface of the pit border during the process of aspiration. Taken as a whole, intervascular pit membranes of Ephedra more closely resemble those of conifers than those of torus-bearing pit membranes of angiosperms.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 35(3):217-235. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000062
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    ABSTRACT: Axial resin canals in wood are distinguished into two types based on the morphology of epithelial cells; resin canals with narrow canals and thick-walled epithelial cells (Type I), and resin canals with wide canals and thin-walled epithelial cells (Type II). Following studies on Norway spruce (Type I), the distribution of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in axial resin canals of Scots pine (Type II) is reported here using cytochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The distribution of (1→4)-β-galactan (LM5), (1→5)-α-arabinan (LM6), homogalacturonan (LM19, LM20), xyloglucan (LM15), xylan (LM10, LM11) and mannan (LM21, LM22) epitopes were examined. Axial resin canal complexes in the xylem were composed of canal, epithelium and subsidiary cells (parenchyma and strand tracheids). Strand tracheids were absent in axial resin canals in the phloem. Strand tracheids showed a completely different ultrastructure and chemistry from normal mature tracheids and other types of axial resin canal cells. Immunolocalization of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in axial resin canals showed an overall similar cell wall composition in epithelial cells and subsidiary parenchyma between the xylem and phloem. All types of axial resin canal cells in both xylem and phloem contained homogalacturonan (HG), rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and xyloglucan with a high variation in amount and chemical structure depending on cell wall region and between cell types. In particular, epithelial cell walls facing the canal showed significant differences in HG distribution from other epithelial cell wall regions. No xylan and mannan epitopes were detected in any of axial resin canal cells. Together, our results suggest that the chemistry of axial resin canal cells in Scots pine may be highly compartmentalized depending on functional differences between both cell types and cell wall regions.
    IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 09/2014; 25(3):253-269. DOI:10.1163/22941932-00000064