Strabismus (Strabismus )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Strabismus is a quarterly, serving strabismologists worldwide. The journal publishes articles on strabismus and related fields such as neuro-physiology.

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  • Website
    Strabismus website
  • Other titles
    Strabismus (Online)
  • ISSN
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Strabismus 06/2014; 22(2):88-89.
  • Strabismus 06/2013; 21(2):150-154.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal distortions that occur in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic vision. Twelve subjects with strabismic (n = 4), anisometropic (n = 4), mixed amblyopia (n = 3) and bilateral refractive amblyopia (n = 1) were asked to describe and sketch their subjective percept of different geometrical patterns, as seen with their amblyopic eye. Based on their descriptions, computer-animated patterns were generated, which were then validated by the subjects. Both spatial distortions and temporal instability were perceived mainly by strabismic and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopes. Temporal instability occurred mainly at high spatial frequencies. Our data suggest that strabismus, in addition to amblyopia, is needed to elicit significant spatial and temporal distortions. The occurrence of these distortions may be related to the early history of each subject.
    Strabismus 07/2009; 15(1):45-54.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify the predictors for motor outcome and response to surgical treatment of primary exotropia. Taunton and Somerset Hospital, Somerset, United Kingdom. Retrospective analysis of the surgical treatment of primary exotropia performed in our department over a period of 12 years from April 1991 to May 2003. Case-notes of the patients who had surgical treatment for primary exotropia for the specified period were identified by a hospital computer database (MDI coding). All case-notes were reviewed and the following data were recorded and used for statistical analysis: age at the time of surgery, type and severity of exotropia, presence of amblyopia, AV pattern and vertical deviation, the level of stereopsis, type of surgery, and motor and cosmetic results. The surgical outcome was determined as good motor outcome if tropia was within 10 PD of orthotropia. The response to surgery was derived from the difference between the preoperative and postoperative angle of deviation for distance per amount of muscle surgery in millimetres. A total of 124 cases were included in the study. Good motor outcome was achieved in 83 (67%) cases. There was a positive correlation between the preoperative angle of deviation at distance and dose response to surgery (r = 0.6 and p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between average corrected visual acuity and response (r = -0.21 and p = 0.025). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between preoperative stereopsis and response to surgery (p = 0.02). Surgical treatment for exotropia is effective and the dose response is correlated to the preoperative angle of deviation and average visual acuity. Poor or no preoperative stereopsis was associated with better response to surgery.
    Strabismus 07/2009; 15(3):127-31.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the correlation between the degree of anisometropia with depth of amblyopia and presence of stereopsis. A retrospective chart review of 119 patients treated during 1995-2004 was carried out. All patients had undergone a full ophthalmological examination. Inclusion criteria were: anisometropia >1 diopter (spherical and/or cylindrical), age at first examination between 2 and 8 years, no previous optical correction, absence of ocular and neurological disorders, absence of ocular motility disorders, and minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean 7.9 +/- 4.3). Optical correction was prescribed at first visit and, at a second visit, the need for patching or penalization was evaluated. The results show a correlation between the degree of anisometropia and visual acuity at first visit (p < 0.001). There were, however, several subjects with good levels of visual acuity despite considerable anisometropia, and also subjects where mild or moderate anisometropia was sufficient to induce a severe amblyopia. Compared to other types of anisometropia, anisomyopic patients appeared to have a higher degree of binocular vision recovery when corrected optically. First evaluation with the presence of good stereoacuity seems to be a prognostic indicator for amblyopic recovery. This study demonstrates the difficulty of developing a guideline for screening and treatment of anisometropia. Even though there seems to be a correlation between type and degree of anisometropia in a majority of patients, there is also a significant number of cases that do not follow this pattern. Another important observation is the presence of binocular vision at the first evaluation as a good prognostic indicator for visual recovery with optical correction alone, even without penalization therapy.
    Strabismus 07/2009; 15(4):209-14.
  • Strabismus 07/2009; 14(2):57-57.
  • Strabismus 07/2009; 8(2):77-77.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate heterotropia, heterophoria, head posture, nystagmus, stereo acuity, ocular motility and near point of convergence (NPC) in children with hydrocephalus treated surgically before 1 year of age. In addition, the effects of being born with hydrocephalus, the effect of the etiology of hydrocephalus, number of shunt revisions and the size of the ventricles on these variables were studied. A population-based study was performed in 75 children and the results were compared with the results of an age- and sex-matched group (comp group) (n = 140). Heterotropia 68.9% (comp group 3.6%; p < 0.001), abnormal head posture 41.3% (comp group 0; p < 0.001), nystagmus 44.0% (comp group 0; p < 0.001), stereo acuity < or =60'' 33.8% (comp group 97.1%; p < 0.001) and ocular motility defects 69.7% (comp group 0.7%; p < 0.001) were more common among children with hydrocephalus than in the comparison group. Children with overt hydrocephalus at birth had significantly more heterotropia (p = 0.0006), esotropia (p = 0.002), abnormal head posture (p = 0.02) and motility defects (p = 0.003) compared to those with hydrocephalus developing during the first year of life. The etiology, number of shunt revisions and the size of the ventricles had no significant effect on any of the investigated variables. Children with hydrocephalus surgically treated before the age of one year commonly present orthoptic abnormalities. The etiology of hydrocephalus, number of shunt revisions and ventricle size seem to be of minor importance compared with the age of onset of hydrocephalus with regard to the risk for orthoptic abnormalities.
    Strabismus 07/2009; 15(2):79-88.
  • Strabismus 07/2009; 13(3):149-150.
  • Strabismus 07/2009; 14(1):1-2.
  • Strabismus 07/2009; 14(3):171-174.
  • Strabismus 07/2009; 6(4):201-220.
  • Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):1-2.
  • Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):3.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ocular motility (OM) deficit in myasthenia has not been studied systematically. Anecdotal reports yield no consensus, with the pattern mimicking infranuclear, internuclear or supranuclear disorders. The current study defines the pattern of extra-ocular muscle (EOM) weakness at presentation for a group of newly diagnosed untreated ocular myasthenics (OMG). Cases referred to one consultant neurologist (RAM) between 1991 and 2001 were reviewed. EOM weaknesses were quantified using an established scoring method in 49 patients with OMG and 49 age- and sex-matched controls, to differentiate age-related changes from those secondary to myasthenia. Bilateral and multiple EOM weaknesses were typical. Only 6 cases mimicked isolated cranial nerve palsy. Weakness of the elevator muscles (superior rectus and inferior oblique) was common in both the OMG and control groups, but the amount of weakness was significantly greater for the myasthenia group (p = 0.003). All control subjects had a normal range of depression. EOM weaknesses for the control group were not confined to the older subjects. This is the first detailed analysis of EOM involvement in ocular myasthenia. The EOM weaknesses for the control group were invariably bilateral and symmetrical, mainly involving the superior recti. The preponderance for involvement of the elevator muscles is discussed.
    Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):11-8.
  • Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):39-44.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smoking cannabis has been described to reduce acquired pendular nystagmus in MS, but its effect on congenital nystagmus is not known. To report the effect of smoking cannabis in a case of congenital nystagmus. A 19-year-old male with congenital horizontal nystagmus presented to the clinic after smoking 10 mg of cannabis. He claimed that the main reason for smoking cannabis was to improve his vision. At the next clinic appointment, he had not smoked cannabis for 3weeks. Full ophthalmologic examination and eye movement recordings were performed at each visit. Visual acuity improved by 3 logMar lines in the left eye and by 2 logMar lines in the right eye after smoking cannabis. The nystagmus intensities were reduced by 30% in primary position and 44%, 11%, 10% and 40% at 20-degree eccentricity to the right, left, elevation and depression, respectively, after smoking cannabis. Cannabis may be beneficial in the treatment of congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN). Further research to clarify the safety and efficacy of cannabis in patients with CIN, administered for example by capsules or spray, would be important.
    Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):29-32.
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    ABSTRACT: A 30-year-old male suffered an orbital trauma due to a traffic accident. At the Emergency Unit, the patient presented with avulsion of the upper left eyelid in the medial canthus, wounds in the lower eyelid and the inferior canaliculus, conjunctival laceration, proptosis and palpebral hematomas. The patient reported persistent diplopia. During the examination, exotropia and total absence of adduction were observed. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed a discontinuity at the left medial rectus. No orbital fractures were identifiable. The medial rectus was still attached to its anatomic insertion at the globe. The discontinuity was suggestive of laceration or rupture of this muscle at approximately 10-12 mm from its insertion. Surgical exploration revealed total rupture of the medial rectus at approximately 12 mm from its insertion. The posterior edge of the damaged muscle was found and sutured to its anterior edge with 6-0 polyglactin. The following day, the eyes were completely straight and the patient did not mention any signs of diplopia. Botulinum toxin injection into the ipsilateral lateral rectus was not necessary. After six months of follow-up, the patient still reported no diplopia. When muscular laceration is suspected after an orbital trauma, early CT is recommended. The only procedures that assure a significant recovery of the normal function of the eye are early muscle repair and avoidance, if possible, of transposition surgery.
    Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):33-7.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Malformations of the cerebellum have been well-known to coexist with abnormalities of the oculomotor system. Rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) is a rare malformation of the cerebellum of unknown etiology in which the vermis is hypoplastic and the two cerebellar hemispheres are fused. The type of oculomotor disorders associated with RES is not well documented in the literature. Here, two cases are presented. CASE 1: A 15-year-old girl presented with large-angle infantile esotropia and inferior oblique overaction. Slow (3 to 4 cps) rhythmic anteroposterior oscillation movement of the head was observed while walking and left-sided postural tremor was present. CASE 2: An 8-month-old baby girl presented with facial dysmorphism, right esotropia, anisometropia, motor delay and truncal ataxia. Cranial MRI demonstrated RES in both patients. CONCLUSION: The clinical findings in two children presenting with infantile esotropia and RES may suggest a role of the vermis in ocular alignment. Head nodding in a child with strabismus can be observed only when walking and its presence should prompt neuroimaging.
    Strabismus 01/2008; 16(1):23-7.