Cancer treatment and research (Canc Treat Res )

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  • Other titles
    CTAR
  • ISSN
    0927-3042
  • OCLC
    311541220
  • Material type
    Series
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An attempt at summarizing, however incompletely, the variety of topics and research perspectives as presented at the third conference of "Advances in Nutrition and Cancer" in Naples, May 2012 and herein reported in this volume would be at best repetitious, at worst confusing. Therefore, this summary will address a few selected issues that have emerged or are emerging since the previous conference "Advances in Nutrition and Cancer 2", held in Naples in October 1998.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:457-460.
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    ABSTRACT: The theory that nutrition might be involved in the causation and prevention of cancer arose over 100 years ago from laboratory studies of the effect of diet on tumour growth. During the mid-20th century, the major focus of cancer epidemiology was on the role of tobacco and alcohol. It was not until the early 1980s, following a seminal report from Doll and Peto on cancer causes, that major research programmes on nutrition and cancer were instigated. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was established at IARC-WHO as a large prospective cohort study designed specifically to investigate the relationship of diet, nutritional factors, anthropometry and physical activity with cancer risk. Since the early 1990s, EPIC has made a major contribution to understanding the effect of these factors on population risk of cancer. This chapter summarises the development of the field of nutritional cancer epidemiology, and describes how the EPIC study was designed to investigate cancer and nutrition. Key findings from EPIC in the role of nutrition and metabolic factors and cancer are highlighted.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:3-20.
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that lifestyle after the diagnosis of cancer may affect prognosis. Several studies have shown that a Western dietary pattern, obesity, weight gain, a sedentary lifestyle, metabolic syndrome, high serum levels of insulin, growth factors, and inflammatory cytokines after the diagnosis of cancer are associated with an increased incidence of recurrences. Most studies have been on breast and colon cancer. However, in the clinical management of cancer, little attention is presently paid to improving lifestyle and controlling body weight. Lifestyle intervention trials are needed to corroborate or confute the observational results on cancer recurrences, but, even now, there is no contraindication to promoting moderate physical exercise, moderate calorie restriction (CR), and a Mediterranean dietary pattern. In fact, the AICR/WCRF 2007 systematic literature review recommends cancer patients to adopt the lifestyle recommended for the prevention of cancer. Interestingly, the evidence-based AICR/WCRF recommendations coincide with traditional rules, based on far Eastern philosophy, of avoiding extremely yin food, such as sugared beverages and calorie-dense foods, and extremely yang food, such as processed meat, and relying on the equilibrium of slightly yang food, such as whole-grain unprocessed cereals, eaten with slightly yin food, such as legumes and vegetables.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:341-351.
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly 36 % of adults and 20 % of children in the USA are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity, which is accompanied by metabolic dysregulation often manifesting in the metabolic syndrome, is an established risk factor for many cancers. Within the growth-promoting, proinflammatory environment of the obese state, cross talk between macrophages, adipocytes, and epithelial cells occurs via obesity-associated hormones, cytokines, and other mediators that may enhance cancer risk and/or progression. This chapter synthesizes the evidence on key biological mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link, with particular emphasis on obesity-associated enhancements in growth factor signaling, inflammation, and vascular integrity processes, as well as obesity-dependent microenvironmental perturbations, including the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These interrelated pathways represent possible mechanistic targets for disrupting the obesity-cancer link.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:21-33.
  • Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 160:185-210.
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    ABSTRACT: Humans began to use large amounts of salt for the main purpose of food preservation approximately 5,000 years ago and, although since then advanced technologies have been developed allowing drastic reduction in the use of salt for food storage, excess dietary salt intake remains very common. Gastric cancer is a common neoplasia, and dietary factors, including salt consumption, are considered relevant to its causation. A number of experimental studies supported the cocarcinogenic effect of salt through synergic action with Helicobacter pylori infection, in addition to some independent effects such as increase in the rate of cell proliferation and of endogenous mutations. Many epidemiological studies analyzed the relationship between excess salt intake and risk of gastric cancer. Both cross-sectional and prospective studies indicated a possibly dose-dependent positive association. In particular, a comprehensive meta-analysis of longitudinal studies detected a strong adverse effect of total salt intake and salt-rich foods on the risk of gastric cancer in the general population. Altogether, the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence supports the possibility of a substantial reduction in the rates of gastric cancer through progressive reduction in population salt intake.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:83-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the nature of their underlying illness and treatment regimens, cancer patients are at increased risk of infection. Though the advent and widespread use of anti-infective agents has allowed for the application of ever-greater immune-suppressing therapies with successful treatment of infectious complications, prevention of infection remains the primary goal. The evolutionary changes of microorganisms, whereby resistance to anti-infective therapy is increasingly common, have facilitated a paradigm shift in the field of healthcare epidemiology. No longer is the focus on "control" of infection once established in a healthcare environment. Rather, the emphasis is on prevention of infection before it occurs. The most basic tenet of infection prevention, and the cornerstone of all well-designed infection prevention and control programs, is hand hygiene. The hands of healthcare workers provide a common potential source for transmission of infectious agents, and effective decontamination of the hands reduces the risk of transmission of infectious material to other patients. Once infection is suspected or established; however, implementation of effective control strategies is important to limit the spread of infection within a healthcare environment. This chapter outlines the basic tenets of infection prevention, principles of isolation precautions and control measures, and elements for a successful infection control and prevention program.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 161:463-83.
  • Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 160:59-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer patients, particularly those with neutropenia, are at risk for enteric and intra-abdominal infections. Specific infections and infectious syndromes in this setting include neutropenic enterocolitis, bacterial infections such as Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), viral infections such as CMV colitis, and parasitic infections such as strongyloidiasis. Diagnosing and gauging the severity of CDI presents challenges, as chemotherapy may produce symptoms that mimic CDI and laboratory findings such as leukocytosis are not reliable in this population. Treatment for enteric infections should be pathogen specific, although broad-spectrum antibiotics are often required as initial empiric therapy in patients with neutropenia.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 161:237-51.
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    ABSTRACT: The respiratory tract is a common site of infection in cancer patients and is associated with substantial moribidity and mortality in this population. Cancer, chemotherapy, and radiation can all cause noninfectious pulmonary infiltrates and respiratory symptoms that can masquerade as a respiratory tract infection. Cancer patients are at a particular risk for infection by a wide variety of different viruses, fungi, and bacteria that can be difficult to treat. Although noninvasive diagnostics have significantly improved recently, patients with severe pneumonia and those not responding to usual therapy should be candidates for aggressive diagnostic testing and tissue sampling. Initial therapy should be carefully chosen and individually tailored to account for the individual patient's underlying risk factors for multi-drug-resistant pathogens, viral pathogens, or fungi. Once diagnostic testing returns, therapy should be altered to appropriately narrow the spectrum of coverage.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 161:203-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The intent of this chapter is to review the types of adverse drug reactions and interactions associated with antimicrobial agents, specifically in the setting of patients with malignancies. The initial sections will discuss categorizing and describing the mechanisms of adverse reactions and interactions. The later sections include a detailed discussion about adverse reactions and drug interactions associated with commonly used antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agents in this subpopulation. Where relevant, the clinical use and indication for the drugs will be reviewed. The antibacterial section will specifically address the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and drugs of last resort (newer agents, such as linezolid and daptomycin and novel uses of older previously retired agents, such as polymyxin B). The antifungal section will address the ramification of pharmacokinetic interactions and the need to measure drug levels. The chapter is not meant to be exhaustive and as such will not extensively address all antimicrobials or all interactions for each of these agents.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 161:413-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Although epigenetic aberrations frequently occur in aging and cancer and form a core component of these conditions, perhaps the most useful aspect of epigenetic processes is that they are readily reversible. Unlike genetic effects that also play a role in cancer and aging, epigenetic aberrations can be relatively easily corrected. One of the most widespread approaches to the epigenetic alterations in cancer and aging is dietary control. This can be achieved not only through the quality of the diet, but also through the quantity of calories that are consumed. Many phytochemicals such as sulforaphane from cruciferous vegetables and green tea have anticancer epigenetic effects and are also efficacious for preventing or treating the epigenetic aberrations of other age-associated diseases besides cancer. Likewise, the quantity of calories that are consumed has proven to be advantageous in preventing cancer and extending the lifespan through control of epigenetic mediators. The purpose of this chapter is to review some of the most recent advances in the epigenetics of cancer and aging and to provide insights into advances being made with respect to dietary intervention into these biological processes that have vast health implications and high translational potential.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:257-267.
  • Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 160:241-272.
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    ABSTRACT: Viral infections are common in cancer patients. The risk and severity of infection are influenced by patient, disease, treatment, and viral factors. Severe viral infections are more likely to occur in treatment regimens that are more immunosuppressive. Historically, the most frequent severe infections have been due to herpesviruses, but more recently, other pathogens, especially community respiratory and hepatitis viruses, have received increasing attention as major viral pathogens in cancer patients. Because of the new diagnostic assays and the introduction of better therapeutic options, knowledge of viral infections is important in optimizing antineoplastic therapies.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 161:157-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections are frequent complications among patients treated for cancer. The type, severity, and treatment of bacterial infections vary and depend upon the specific malignancy, associated chemotherapies, and transplantation. This chapter discusses commonly encountered bacterial pathogens as well as Nocardia and mycobacteria in patients with cancer and addresses the clinical syndromes and management. Drug-resistant bacteria are becoming an increasingly recognized problem in patients with cancer. Antimicrobial resistance in select gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are discussed along with the mechanisms of resistance and recommended therapies.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 161:91-128.
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    ABSTRACT: Asymptomatic prostate inflammation and prostate cancer have reached epidemic proportions among men in the developed world. Animal model studies implicate dietary carcinogens, such as the heterocyclic amines from over-cooked meats and sex steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, as candidate etiologies for prostate cancer. Each acts by causing epithelial cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response that can evolve into a chronic or recurrent condition. This milieu appears to spawn proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) lesions, a type of focal atrophy that represents the earliest of prostate cancer precursor lesions. Rare PIA lesions contain cells which exhibit high c-Myc expression, shortened telomere segments, and epigenetic silencing of genes such as GSTP1, encoding the π-class glutathione S-transferase, all characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. Subsequent genetic changes, such as the gene translocations/deletions that generate fusion transcripts between androgen-regulated genes (such as TMPRSS2) and genes encoding ETS family transcription factors (such as ERG1), arise in PIN lesions and may promote invasiveness characteristic of prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Lethal prostate cancers contain markedly corrupted genomes and epigenomes. Epigenetic silencing, which seems to arise in response to the inflamed microenvironment generated by dietary carcinogens and/or estrogens as part of an epigenetic "catastrophe" affecting hundreds of genes, persists to drive clonal evolution through metastatic dissemination. The cause of the initial epigenetic "catastrophe" has not been determined but likely involves defective chromatin structure maintenance by over-exuberant DNA methylation or histone modification. With dietary carcinogens and estrogens driving pro-carcinogenic inflammation in the developed world, it is tempting to speculate that dietary components associated with decreased prostate cancer risk, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, especially tomatoes and crucifers, might act to attenuate the ravages of the chronic or recurrent inflammatory processes. Specifically, nutritional agents might prevent PIA lesions or reduce the propensity of PIA lesions to suffer "catastrophic" epigenome corruption.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:51-68.
  • Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 160:273-282.