Applied Catalysis A General (APPL CATAL A-GEN )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Scientific understanding of any catalytic phenomena. Phenomena of relevance to current industrial processes, processes under industrial development or of interest for future commercial applications are particularly welcome. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis are included. Scientific aspects of preparation, activation, aging, deactivation, rejuvenation, regeneration and start-up transient effects of commercially interesting or representative model catalysts. Scientific methods of characterization of catalysts, especially if they are applicable to industrial catalysts. Chemical engineering aspects relevant to an improved understanding of catalytic phenomena or application to catalysis. Results involving a joint approach by chemical engineering and catalytic science are particularly welcome. New catalytic reactions, catalytic routes and processes of potential practical interest. The journal will accept original letters, research papers and reviews. A News Brief section contains information on new scientific facts related to the application of catalysis (new reactions, catalysts, processes, etc.). It also contains reports on technical perspective of historic developments in catalysis, book reviews and calendar of forthcoming events Applied Catalysis B: Environmental will publish papers covering all aspects of environmental catalysis. Since the scope of Elsevier journals of Applied Catalysis A and B and Journal of Molecular Catalysis are complementary, an appropriate choice for submission to any journal could be borderline, in which case the advice of the editors should be sought.

Impact factor 3.67

  • Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    3.91
  • Cited half-life
    7.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.51
  • Eigenfactor
    0.04
  • Article influence
    0.93
  • Website
    Applied Catalysis A: General website
  • Other titles
    Applied catalysis
  • ISSN
    0926-860X
  • OCLC
    38523368
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two types of Fe-containing Pt/KL catalysts were prepared, characterized and examined using an n-hexane aromatization reaction. Pt/FeKL contained framework Fe, which was incorporated through hydrothermal synthesis, while Pt-Fe/KL contained non-framework Fe, which was introduced through impregnation. The differences between the framework and non-framework Fe were examined using XRD, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pt dispersion and reducibility as well as the electronic states of the Fe and Pt particles were detected using H2-chemisorption, H2-TPR and XPS, respectively. With the non-framework Fe, an electron-rich platinum species (Ptδ−) formed after reduction. With the framework Fe, an electron-deficient platinum species (Ptδ+) was detected. The n-hexane aromatization results from adding 0.3 wt% non-framework Fe include conversion after 3.5 h on stream at 450 °C, H2/n-hexane = 3.0 (mole ratio) and 3 h−1 WHSV over the Pt-Fe/KL, which was maintained at 77%; these values are greater than the 41% Pt/KL and 25% Pt/FeKL. The Pt-Fe/KL benzene selectivity was 89%, which is also greater than the 83% Pt/KL and 53% Pt/FeKL. We discuss the effect of Fe on the Pt particle states and the relationship between the Pt states and catalyst activity.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: NiSn bimetallic catalysts supported over Al2O3 modified with different promoter (Mg and/or Ce) were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorptometry, and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). Hydrogen production by glycerol steam reforming over these catalysts was investigated. Among the catalysts, NiSn/AlMgCe catalyst shows the highest hydrogen yield as well as the best stability during the reaction. The effect of reaction temperature, water/glycerol molar ratio and space velocity on the glycerol steam reforming over NiSn/AlMgCe were also investigated. Finally, it was verified that the catalyst can be regenerated by oxidation of carbonaceous deposits.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed oxides of manganese, cobalt and their mixture were synthesized by auto-combustion and co-precipitation methodology maintaining a constant M2+/Al3+ ratio of 3.0, which is characteristic of the oxides obtained from the thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite-type precursors (in manganese oxides M2+ = Mg + Mn, in cobalt oxides M2+ = Mg + Co and in manganese-cobalt oxides M2+ = Mg + Mn + Co). The catalysts were characterized by the following techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption, temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), temperature programmed desorption of oxygen (O2-TPD) and 18O isotope exchange. All of the materials were evaluated for the catalytic oxidation of two organic compounds of different reactivities: toluene and 2-propanol. It was observed that the joint participation of the absorbed oxygen species on the surface and the lattice oxygen atoms are responsible for the catalytic activity of the materials. However, the redox properties and the oxygen mobility play a determining role in the oxidation of the two volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with the oxygen mobility playing a more significant role in the cobalt oxides, whereas the redox properties are fundamental in the manganese oxides and in the Co and Mn mixture. The existence of a cooperative effect between the Co and Mn oxides is demonstrated when the co-precipitation method is used for the synthesis of the mixed oxide. This effect is not observed when auto-combustion is used for the synthesis; therefore, the autocombustion manganese oxide is the most active catalyst in the oxidation of the two VOCs by this methodology.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: A Rh/SiO2 catalyst with excellent activity and stability for ethylene hydroformylation was developed by modifying with tethered diphenylphosphinopropyl and doped with an Al promoter. The catalyst was characterized by means of N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscope, NH3 temperature programmed desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Experimental results showed that the existence of the Al promoter inhibited the growth of Rh particles, increased the number of exposed Rh atoms, changed the acidity of the catalyst surface, promoted in situ formation of active species that were similar to their corresponding homogeneous counterparts, and enhanced electron density of the P atom in the phosphine ligand.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Indium and cerium co-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanocomposites with different weight percentage were synthesized by sol–gel route using Pluronic P123 as the structure directing template. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption studies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Indium and cerium co-doped on TiO2 nanocomposites shifted the light absorption band-edge position to visible region and showed high surface area with large pore diameter. The optimum loading of In2O3 and CeO2 on TiO2 was 0.2 wt%. Ce4+ is good electron scavengers, which easily trapped the exited electrons and transferred the electrons to the adsorbed O2 molecules to produce O2−•. Hence the electron–hole recombination was efficiently suppressed, which was revealed by the photoluminescence spectroscopy. The large number of structural defects by the substitution of In3+ for Ti4+ enhanced the surface Brønsted acidity and the adsorption of cationic methylene blue. Consequently, In2O3/CeO2-TiO2 exhibited promising photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation due to the formation of large number of O2−• and •OH radicals.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Cu with variable weight loading (1–5 wt%) was introduced to 5 wt% Zn mixed mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN) via an electrochemical method to synthesize CuO–ZnO/MSN (C-ZM) catalysts. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, N2 adsorption–desorption, ESR, and cyclic voltammetry. 3 wt% Cu and 5 wt% Zn were also introduced alternately to MSN (3C-ZM and Z-3CM) to study the metal introduction sequence effect on the properties and catalytic activity. The characterization data showed that an altered arrangement of the silica network was observed with a different structure, particularly in the numbers of Sisingle bondOsingle bondSi, Sisingle bondOsingle bondZn, and Sisingle bondOsingle bondCu bonds as well as oxygen vacancies. The catalytic activity regarding the photodecolorization of methyl orange (MO) was in the following order: 3C-ZM > 5C-ZM > Z-3CM > 1C-ZM. The higher numbers of Sisingle bondOsingle bondZn, oxygen vacancies, and the higher pore volume of the 3C-ZM catalyst seemeed to be the main factors behind its higher photoactivity compared to the other catalysts. Further optimization by response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD) model was performed for the decolorization of MO. RSM demonstrated that the experimental value (99.89%) was reasonably close to the predicted value (99.99%) with only 0.1% error for MO decolorization at pH 3.5 using 1.6 g L−1 catalyst with 4 wt% Cu loading.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; x(x):x.
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    ABSTRACT: Mesopores with zeolite walls were generated through desilication of bulk crystals of MFI zeolite in a NaOH solution in the presence or absence of cetyltrimethylammonium surfactant, as reported in the literature. Catalytic functions of the Brønsted acid sites existing on the mesopore walls were evaluated in comparison with external surfaces of 2.5-nm thick MFI zeolite nanosheets, which were hydrothermally synthesized using a meso-micro dual structure-directing surfactant. Acid sites were characterized with respect to the strength and concentration by 31P NMR signals of adsorbed tributylphosphine oxide. Catalytic functions were evaluated for decalin cracking, and acetal formation of benzaldehyde with pentaerythritol. The result from desilication was quite sensitive to the particle diameters of the initial zeolite samples. In our best case of desilication, the mesopore walls exhibited similar catalytic activity for the acetal formation to the external surfaces of MFI nanosheets. In contrast to the condensation reaction occurring at mild or moderate acid sites, the result for decalin cracking requiring strong acid sites indicated that the desilicated zeolite corresponded to about 60% of the MFI nanosheets.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: The surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were covered with thin silica layers through the application of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to enhance the deposition of precious metal and transition metal oxide nanoparticles. Pt metal particles smaller than 2 nm in diameter could be deposited, using a conventional impregnation method, on CNTs coated with silica layers, whereas Pt particles supported on bare CNT surfaces were approximately 3 nm in diameter. Thus, coating CNTs with thin silica layers enhanced the catalytic activity of the Pt catalysts. In addition, CNTs with thin silica layers could be uniformly covered with transition metal oxide layers (ZrO2, Nb2O5 and Ta2O5) by hydrolysis of the corresponding metal alkoxides. In contrast, metal oxides were very difficult to deposit on bare CNTs. The thin silica layers produced on the CNTs via the use of APTES evidently function as adsorption sites for precursor metals and metal oxides, as well as nucleation sites for metals and metal oxides, allowing the formation of precious metal-CNT and transition metal oxide-CNT composites.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-layered thin films of TiO2 and TiN were created by RF reactive magnetron sputtering and were compared with homogeneous thin films of N doped TiO2 having the same thickness. The crystalline, chemical, optical and photoactive properties were measured and discussed in detail. The number of bilayers was kept constant either 9 or 18 bilayers, but the overall composition (TiN to TiO2 ratio) was varied. The TiN and TiO2 layer thicknesses were controlled systematically in order to produce films with TiN to TiO2 ratio ranging from 5% to 28%. The TiN/TiO2 ratio was controlled for both bilayers in order to get the best synergic effect of light absorption/reflection and charge separation based on the generation of the photo-electrochemical current and the photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light. A maximum photocurrent generation was found for thin films having a TiN/TiO2 ratio of 21% and 28% for the 9 bilayer and the 18 bilayer films, respectively. The superiority of the configuration of the 18 bilayer has been confirmed by studying the photocatalytic activity. The photoactive improvement of the bilayered thin films as compared to non-doped TiO2 is the result of the enhanced charge separation at the heterogeneous junction, interfacial effects between TiN and TiO2, which is found to depend on the thickness of the TiN layers. Electronic as well as optical approaches have been presented to explain the superiority of the bilayers strategy. This study has shown that a bilayered morphology of TiN and TiO2 can significantly enhance the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical behavior of TiO2 under visible light illumination conditions which is applicable to numerous fields.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the mechanism of CO2 hydrolysis by Co-(1,4,7,10-tetrazacyclododecane), also referred to as cobalt-cyclen, and evaluate the associated thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. A microkinetic model was then built based on the kinetics and thermodynamics derived from first principles. The intrinsic reaction rate constant was calculated to be 10572 M−1 s−1, three times larger than that of zinc-cyclen. The high activity was ascribed to a very large pKa value of 13.3. The monodentate structure of a key intermediate along the reaction coordinate, [Cyclen-Co-HCO3]+, was more stable than the bidentate isomer, due to a hydrogen bond formed between bicarbonate and the ligand. The reaction rate constant decreased significantly over 0–12 ms, which was attributed to the fast decrease of the concentration of the catalytic form, CoOH−. The conversion of CO2 at 1000 ms as a function of pH was calculated to compare the relative activity of zinc-cyclen and cobalt-cyclen, and zinc-cyclen was found to be a much better catalyst. Through calculating the ratio of the net rate to the forward rate of each elementary reaction, the rate-limiting step of the catalytic cycle was identified as the adsorption of CO2, which was the same as that for zinc-cyclen, though the product-releasing step was regarded as more difficult in cobalt-cyclen, compared to zinc-cyclen.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Ni and Pt on alumina supports to form monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with initial particle sizes of 1–2.4 nm. The ALD catalysts were more active (per mass of metal) than catalysts prepared by incipient wetness (IW) for dry reforming of methane (DRM), and they did not form carbon whiskers during reaction due to their sufficiently small size. Catalysts modified by Pt ALD had higher rates of reaction per mass of metal and inhibited coking, whereas NiPt catalysts synthesized by IW still formed carbon whiskers. Temperature-programmed reduction of Ni catalysts modified by Pt ALD indicated the presence of bimetallic interaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that under reaction conditions, the NiPt surfaces form Ni-terminated surfaces that are associated with higher DRM rates (due to their C and O adsorption energies, as well as the CO formation and CH4 dissociation energies).
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of metal content on catalyst properties was studied by comparing unmodified HZSM-5 and 0.5–7 wt.% Ga, Fe and Ni modified HZSM-5 in the ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons at 623 K by combining detailed catalyst characterization (XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD) and catalytic testing. Low metal amounts (<1 wt.%) were found to have a positive effect on the production of light olefins, C2–C4 paraffins, aromatics and C5+ hydrocarbons. Increasing the amount of metal leads to a decreased production of these hydrocarbons, which is attributed to bulky metal clusters formation. These clusters decrease the accessibility of the acid sites due to pore blockage. For the first time, catalyst performance in ethanol conversion have been assessed at similar conditions, i.e. same conversion, showing that the selectivity towards the various product classes was not altered by the metal introduction. The site time yields of the metal modified HZSM-5 catalysts, based on the total concentration of accessible acid sites, exhibit a decreasing trend as function of metal content. This can be attributed to a lower acid strength of the accessible acid sites.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroperoxidase was encapsulated into hybrid polysaccharide-silica matrices by means of sol-gel processing. Chitosan was found to be the most effective additive to improve enzyme catalytic performances. At the standard initial experimental conditions, enzyme was able to perform five complete reaction cycles and a substrate conversion of 60% at the sixth cycle. The optimization of the procedure, which consisted in the reduction of reaction time, the elimination of washes between cycles and the increase of the chitosan concentration in matrices, allowed a considerably higher reusability of the biocatalyst, up to 18 consecutive reaction cycles.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: A facile, highly efficient and phosgene-free synthesis process of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) with n-butanol (BuOH) to dibutyl carbonate (DBC) by transesterification reaction has been studied in detail using tetraethylammonium-based amino acid ionic liquids ([N2222][AA]) as homogeneous catalysts. The results indicated that tetraethylammonium prolinate ([N2222][Pro]) exhibited the best catalytic activity in compared to other four [N2222][AA], and DBC could be obtained at a yield of 72% under optimum conditions. Furthermore, quantum-mechanical calculations manifested that such high DBC yield originated from the synergistic dual activation catalysis of [N2222][Pro]. [N2222][Pro] could activate BuOH and DMC well at the same time, which enhances the electrophilicity of BuOH and the nucleophilicity of DMC respectively, leading to the excellence catalytic performance.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Ring aromatics such as naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalenes constitute a high fraction in the diesel boiling point range by-products from oil refining and petrochemical plants. A two-step catalytic process, consisting of a selective hydrogenation of naphthalenes to tetralins and a subsequent hydrocracking of tetralins into light alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbons rich in BTX (benzene, toluene, xylenes), was postulated and studied in a fixed bed down-flow reactor under a moderate pressure of 3–4 MPa. For the selective hydrogenation of naphthalenes to tetralins, it was found that the catalytic performances of Mo2C-supported catalysts were superior in terms of tetralins yield as well as selectivity to the conventional metal-supported catalysts such as Pt, Co, Ni and NiW supported catalysts. The hydrocracking of tetralin was demonstrated to produce light alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbons rich in BTX over a monofunctional H-Beta and a bifunctional Ni/H-Beta catalyst. For the high per pass yield of BTX in the hydrocracking of tetralin in which chemical equilibrium limits its conversion and product selectivity, the bifunctional Ni/H-Beta catalyst was found to be highly promising compared with the monofunctional H-Beta catalyst. The bifunctional Ni/H-Beta showed the BTX selectivity in liquid product and the total BTX yield as high as 69.5% and 40.7 wt%, respectively, at the tetralin conversion of 99.5% at 450 °C under 4 MPa. The catalytic behavior of Ni/H-Beta suggests that BTX yield can be much improved by properly controlling the hydrogenation power of metallic sites (i.e., suppressing the hydrogenation activity), the acidity of H-Beta and their balance on the bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 492.
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    ABSTRACT: Catalytic properties of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles for thermal ammonia decomposition were investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized from Ni(C5H5)2 in/on pores of zeolite with an aim to prevent diffusion and sintering of the nanoparticles at high temperature. The Ni nanoparticles were smaller than 5 nm and maintained their nano-size after the NH3 decomposition reaction at 500 °C, whereas Ni particles synthesized by a conventional impregnation method formed large particles, such as 50 nm, after the reaction. The Ni nanoparticles showed much higher activity than Ni particles synthesized by the conventional impregnation method. By the investigation of kinetic properties, it was confirmed that the frequency factor was related to the high catalytic activity. Therefore, both high dispersion level and high thermal stability brought Ni nanoparticles the enhancement of their catalysis.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 491.
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    ABSTRACT: Vapor-phase catalytic dehydration of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) was investigated over rare earth oxide catalysts and In2O3 at around 400 °C. In the dehydration of 2,3-BDO over Sc2O3, 1,3-butadiene was mainly produced together with butanone, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-propanol, 3-buten-2-ol, and butene isomers. Sc2O3 calcined at 800 °C showed the highest 1,3-butadiene yield of 88.3% at 411 °C in H2 carrier gas flow. Since 3-buten-2-ol is produced selectively from 2,3-BDO over Sc2O3 at a low temperature of 325 °C, 3-buten-2-ol rather than butanone is a probable intermediate from 2,3-BDO to 1,3-butadiene. 3-Buten-2-ol is readily converted into 1,3-butadiene at temperatures lower than 411 °C over Sc2O3 and Al2O3. In addition, double-bed catalysts composed of an upper catalyst bed of Sc2O3 and a lower of Al2O3 successfully converted 2,3-BDO directly into 1,3-butadiene with a stable selectivity higher than 94% at 318 °C and 100% conversion of 2,3-BDO.
    Applied Catalysis A General 02/2015; 491.