Restorative neurology and neuroscience (RESTOR NEUROL NEUROS )

Publisher: IOS Press

Description

The journal is interdisciplinary. Papers relating the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental of experimental injuries or in-terventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders, and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery will be considered for publication. Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance, and interest to a multidisciplinary audience. Experiments on unanesthetized animals should conform with the standards for the use of laboratory animals as established by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, US National Academy of Sciences. Experiments in which paralytic agents are used must be justified. Patient identity should be concealed. All manuscripts are sent out for blind "peer review" to editorial board members or outside reviewers.

  • Impact factor
    2.93
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    3.41
  • Cited half-life
    5.40
  • Immediacy index
    0.42
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    1.10
  • Website
    Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience website
  • Other titles
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience (Online)
  • ISSN
    0922-6028
  • OCLC
    47094437
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

IOS Press

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal, institutional or funding agency's website
    • Non-commercial use only
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Author's version can be used
    • Publisher's pdf can be used on institutional. company or funding agency website for a fee
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Evidence suggests that deafness-induced changes in visual perception, cognition and attention may compensate for a hearing loss. Such alterations, however, may also negatively influence adaptation to a cochlear implant. This study investigated whether involuntary attentional capture by salient visual stimuli is altered in children who use a cochlear implant. Methods: Thirteen experienced implant users (aged 8-6 years) and age-matched normally hearing children were presented with a rapid sequence of simultaneous visual and auditory events. Participants were tasked with detecting numbers presented in a specified color and identifying a change in the tonal frequency whilst ignoring irrelevant visual distractors. Results: Compared to visual distractors that did not possess the target-defining characteristic, target-colored distractors were associated with a decrement in visual performance (response time and accuracy), demonstrating a contingent capture of involuntary attention. Visual distractors did not, however, impair auditory task performance. Importantly, detection performance for the visual and auditory targets did not differ between the groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that proficient cochlear implant users demonstrate normal capture of visuospatial attention by stimuli that match top-down control settings.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Independent mobility is one of the most pressing problems facing people who are blind. We present the EyeCane, a new mobility aid aimed at increasing perception of environment beyond what is provided by the traditional White Cane for tasks such as distance estimation, navigation and obstacle detection. Methods: The "EyeCane" enhances the traditional White Cane by using tactile and auditory output to increase detectable distance and angles. It circumvents the technical pitfalls of other devices, such as weight, short battery life, complex interface schemes, and slow learning curve. It implements multiple beams to enables detection of obstacles at different heights, and narrow beams to provide active sensing that can potentially increase the user's spatial perception of the environment. Participants were tasked with using the EyeCane for several basic tasks with minimal training. Results: Blind and blindfolded-sighted participants were able to use the EyeCane successfully for distance estimation, simple navigation and simple obstacle detection after only several minutes of training. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the EyeCane's potential for mobility rehabilitation. The short training time is especially important since available mobility training resources are limited, not always available, and can be quite expensive and/or entail long waiting periods.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Existing treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) have limited proven efficacy. New treatments that have been suggested involve targeted, brain-directed interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We describe findings from seven individuals with treatment-resistant AN who received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS, over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Material and method: In this open-label, single-arm study, seven patients received anodal tDCS (2mA) for 25 minutes over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex daily for ten days. Assessments pre-tDCS, post-tDCS and one month later included the Eating Attitude Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Three patients improved in all three rating scales immediately after the treatment sessions and one month later. Two patients showed improvement at the end of treatment but returned to the baseline after one month. One subject improved only on the BDI scale but not eating scales. The scores in the three rating scales were unaffected by treatment in the remaining patient. There was a significant effect of time (pre, post and 1 month later) on the three rating scores; BDI (P = 0.016), EDI (P = 0.018) and EAT (P = 0.016) and a significant correlation between the percent improvement of BDI and EAT (p = 0.01), and between BDI and EDI (P = 0.006). Conclusions: These findings suggest that tDCS has potential as an adjuvant treatment for AN and deserves further study.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to delineate the relationship between several types of T1-weighted MRI pathology and motor rehabilitation potential following Constraint Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in chronic stroke. Methods: Stepwise regression was employed (n = 80) to identify predictors of motor recovery (prior to therapy) and of response to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy [measured via the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and Motor Activity Log (MAL)] from among the following: age, side of motor deficit, chronicity, gender, lesion volume, peri-infarct damage volume, white matter hypointensity volume, ventricular asymmetry, and lesion location. Results: Although extent of total stroke damage weakly correlated with poorer performance on the WMFT prior to therapy, this relationship was mediated by the location of the damage. No metric of tissue damage examined here was associated with real-world arm use at baseline (MAL at pre-treatment) or with CI therapy-induced improvement in either best motor performance upon request (WMFT) or spontaneous arm use for daily activities (MAL). Conclusions: In sum, the extent of brain tissue damage of any type examined here poorly predicted motor function and response to rehabilitation in chronic stroke.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine how age at the time of left middle cerebral artery stroke affects language lateralization in a combined sample of subjects with perinatal, childhood, and adult stroke. Methods: 19 participants who had perinatal stroke (<1 month of age), 32 with later stroke, and 51 sex-/age-matched healthy controls (HCs) received fMRI of language using verb generation task (VGT). Results: Percent lesion volumes were not different between groups (perinatal vs. late stroke) when taking brain volume into account (p = 0.084). Perinatal stroke group showed bilateral signal increases compared to more left-lateralized signals in matched HCs; late stroke group and HCs both showed left-hemispheric signal increases. LIs in the stroke groups were consistently more bilateral than in HCs (all p < 0.008) except for the late group's posterior LI (p = 0.080). There was greater proportion of leftward language lateralization in HCs compared to their respective stroke groups (78.9% vs. 31.6% in perinatal; 87.5% vs. 59.4% in late stroke; p = 0.004) and a larger proportion of leftward lateralization in late compared to perinatal stroke (p = 0.039). The age of stroke occurrence showed significant positive associations with global and frontal LI (both p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion: As expected, the age of stroke occurrence affects subsequent verb generation lateralization. Greater cortical plasticity is observed in earlier stroke while later stroke is associated with reliance on the repair of the previously damaged left-hemispheric networks.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Fifty percent of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are estimated to have cognitive impairments leading to considerable decline in productivity and quality of life. Cognitive intervention has been considered to complement pharmacological treatments. However, a lack of agreement concerning the efficacy of cognitive interventions in MS still exists. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of cognitive interventions in MS. Methods: To overcome limitations of previous meta-analyses, several databases were searched only for Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) with low risk of bias. Results: Five studies (total of 139 participants) met our eligibility criteria. Although good completion and adherence rates were evident, we found no evidence of intervention effects on cognition or mood in post-intervention or follow-up assessments. Conclusions: This is the first meta-analysis assessing the effects of cognitive intervention in MS including only RCTs with comparable conditions. Research regarding efficacy, cost-effectiveness and feasibility is still in its infancy. Caution is advised when interpreting these results due to the small number of RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria. Considering the costs of disease, good completion and adherence rates of this approach, further research is warranted. Recommendations concerning improved research practices in the field are presented as well.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: When central nervous system axons are injured, regeneration is partly inhibited by myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs). Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the rat, pharmacological neutralisation of the MAIs Nogo-A and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) resulted in improved functional outcome. In contrast, genetic or pharmacological neutralization of the MAI receptors Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) or paired-immunoglobulin like receptor-B (PirB) showed an unaltered or impaired outcome following TBI in the mouse. The aim of the present study was thus to evaluate the MAI expression levels following TBI in mice. Methods: Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure total RNA isolated from brains of young adult male C57BL/6 mice at one, three or seven days following controlled cortical impact TBI or sham injury. Hippocampal and neocortical tissue ipsi- and contralateral to the injury was analyzed for Nogo-A, oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), MAG, and the MAI receptors PirB and NgR1, including its co-receptor Lingo1. Results: Compared to sham-injured controls, PirB neocortical expression was significantly upregulated at one day and NgR1 expression downregulated at seven days post-TBI. In the hippocampus, transcriptional upregulation was observed in Nogo-A (one day), MAG and PirB at seven days post-injury. In contrast, the hippocampal transcripts of NgR1 and Lingo1 were decreased at seven days post-injury. The expression of OMgp was unaltered at all time points post-injury. Conclusion: These results suggest that early dynamic changes in MAI gene expression occur following TBI in the mouse, particularly in the hippocampus, which may play an inhibitory role for post-injury regeneration and plasticity.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Anxiety-like (ANX) and depression-like (DEP) symptoms are common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Environmental enrichment (EE) attenuates many deficits, though its impact on ANX and DEP symptoms has yet to be described. Methods: Adult male Long-Evans rats were subject to a medial frontal cortex (mFC) cortical impact injury or sham preparation, then placed into EE or standard housing (SE). ANX symptoms were analyzed using the open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM). The forced swim task (FST) and sucrose consumption task (SCT) were used to quantify DEP symptoms. In order to measure changes in spatial learning and motor performance, the Barnes maze (BM) and rotor rod (RR) were utilized. Results: Damage to the mFC resulted in functional losses in motor and cognitive behavior and an increase in ANX and DEP symptoms. Placement of injured rats into the EE improves motor functioning after TBI and resulted in an decreased latency to locate the escape box in the BM. Though the application of an EE attenuated deficits in BM and RR performance, the ANX and DEP behavioral symptoms persisted. Conclusions: Additional therapeutic approaches paired with EE may be necessary to address all functional changes post-TBI. Additionally, no single behavioral assessment appears to clearly identify symptoms of ANX or DEP in rats following TBI, however utilizing multiple tests can be potentially confounding.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the site-specific effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with parkinsonism. Methods: Twenty patients with parkinsonism and FOG were included. A single session of 10 Hz rTMS was applied over three different cortical regions of the dominant hemisphere: the primary motor cortex of the lower leg (M1-LL), the supplementary motor area (SMA), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We also performed sham stimulation as a control. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Turn Steps and Turn Time in 180° turning, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III, FOG Questionnaire (FOG-Q), and motor evoked potential (MEP) studies were performed before and after each intervention. Results: There were significant improvements in TUG test times after rTMS over the M1-LL and the DLPFC. Improvement was significantly greater after the M1-LL stimulation than sham condition. The M1-LL and DLPFC stimulation also resulted in significant improvements in both the number of Turn Steps and Turn Time. UPDRS-III scores were significantly decreased after the M1-LL and DLPFC stimulation. Conclusions: Use of 10 Hz rTMS on the M1-LL and DLPFC is therapeutically effective for FOG in patients with parkinsonism.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Despite advances towards potential clinically viable therapies there has been only limited success in improving functional recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In rats, exposure to an enriched environment (EE) improves learning and fosters motor skill development. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have been shown to survive transplantation and influence the recovery process. The current study evaluated EE and iPSC as a polytherapy for remediating cognitive deficits following medial frontal cortex (mFC) controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Methods: Sixty adult male rats received a midline mFC CCI or sham injury and were randomly placed in either EE or standard environment (SE). Seven days post-injury rats received bilateral transplantation of iPSCs or media. Behavioral measures were conducted throughout the remainder of the study. Following behavioral analysis, brains were extracted and prepared for histological analysis. Results: Open-field data revealed that combined therapy resulted in typical Sham/EE activity rearing patterns by the conclusion of the study. On the Vermicelli Handling task, rats with EE/iPSC polytherapy performed better than media-treated rats. Furthermore, rats treated with polytherapy performed equivalently to Sham/EE rats on the Morris water maze. Proficiency on the Rotarod was consistently better in EE when compared to SE counterparts. Confocal microscopy confirmed that iPSCs survived and migrated away from the transplantation site. Conclusions: Overall, EE or iPSC therapy improved cognition and motor performance, however, full cognitive restoration was seen only with the EE/iPSC treatment. These data suggest that EE/iPSC therapy should be explored as a potential, clinically relevant, treatment for TBI.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The mechanism underlying forced limb-use -induced structural plasticity remains to be studied. We examined whether the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signal transduction pathway was involved in brain plasticity and promoted behavioral recovery induced by forced limb-use after stroke. Methods: Adult rats were divided into a sham group, an ischemia group, an ischemia group with forced limb-use, and an ischemia group with forced limb-use and infusion of N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H89). Forced limb-use began on post-stroke day 7. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the sensorimotor cortex on post-stroke day 14. Behavioral recovery was evaluated on post-stroke days 29 to 32, and the levels of cAMP, PKA C-α, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), synaptophysin, PSD-95, BDA, and BrdU/NeuN were measured. Results: The number of midline-crossing axons and the expression levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 were increased after forced limb-use. Forced limb-use enhanced the survival of the newborn neurons and increased the levels of cAMP, PKA C-α and pCREB. These were significantly suppressed by H89. Behavioral performance improved with forced limb-use and was reversed with H89. Conclusions: Enhanced structural plasticity and the behavioral recovery promoted by post-stroke forced limb-use are suggested to be mediated through the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal transduction pathway.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The illusory ownership of a fake hand as part the body follows synchronous tactile stimulation over a visible rubber hand and a covered hand. Whether brain plasticity mechanisms after sensory and motor disconnection modulates this illusion remain unexplored. Methods: We tested a tetraplegic man after synchronous and asynchronous stimulation of the hand and face. Results: The illusory ownership of the fake hand was tested four times in separate days and always reported. To verify whether this ownership feeling generalized also to object not resembling the human body we tested this illusion with a plastic bottle and a rubber hand. The illusionary perception of owning an external object using the rubber hand paradigm showed that the temporally matched tactile stimulation on a fake hand and visual capture mechanism create the illusionary feeling that the rubber hand was part of his body. Conclusions: Despite lesions that dramatically disconnect the access to sensory inputs and motor outputs our data suggests a strong visual capture of a rubber hand and a possible remapping of hand-face representations after the spinal lesion. We suggest that vision and brain plasticity may represent a supportive tool for motor rehabilitation in patients with sensory deficits.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Today's implanted brain-computer interfaces make direct contact with the brain or even penetrate the tissue, bearing additional risks with regard to safety and stability. What is more, these approaches aim to control prosthetic devices as assistive tools and do not yet strive to become rehabilitative tools for restoring lost motor function. Methods: We introduced a less invasive, implantable interface by applying epidural electrocorticography in a chronic stroke survivor with a persistent motor deficit. He was trained to modulate his natural motor-related oscillatory brain activity by receiving online feedback. Results: Epidural recordings of field potentials in the beta-frequency band projecting onto the anatomical hand knob proved most successful in discriminating between the attempt to move the paralyzed hand and to rest. These spectral features allowed for fast and reliable control of the feedback device in an online closed-loop paradigm. Only seven training sessions were required to significantly improve maximum wrist extension. Conclusions: For patients suffering from severe motor deficits, epidural implants may decode and train the brain activity generated during attempts to move with high spatial resolution, thus facilitating specific and high-intensity practice even in the absence of motor control. This would thus transform them from pure assistive devices to restorative tools in the context of reinforcement learning and neurorehabilitation.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate: 1) the feasibilty of administering a modified CILT (mCILT) treatment session immediately after TMS; and 2) if this combined therapy could improve naming and elicited propositional speech in chronic, nonfluent aphasia. Methods: Two chronic stroke patients with nonfluent aphasia (mild-moderate and severe) each received twenty minutes of rTMS to suppress the right pars triangularis, followed immediately by three hours of mCILT (5 days/week, 2 weeks). (Each patient had received TMS alone, 2-6 years prior.) Language evaluations were performed pre- TMS+mCILT, and post- at 1-2 months, and 6 or 16 months. Results: Both patients showed significant improvements in naming pictures, and elicited propositional speech at 1-2 months post- TMS+mCILT. The improved naming was still present at 6 months post- TMS+mCILT for P2; but not at 16 months post- TMS+mCILT for P1. Conclusions: It is feasible to administer mCILT for three hours immediately after a TMS session. It is unknown if the significant improvements in naming pictures, and elicited propositional speech were associated with the second series of TMS, or this first series of mCILT, or a combination of both. A larger, sham controlled clinical trial is warranted.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting a large proportion of patients and having a severe impact on their quality of life. Nevertheless, there exists a large variability in the neuropsychological profiles of MS patients and some of them appear to withstand better than others the MS-related brain pathology before showing cognitive decline. In recent years, many studies have made use of concepts such as cognitive reserve and brain reserve to take account of the inter-individual discrepancy between cognitive impairment and MS pathology. Critically, these studies have left open the fundamental issue of the clinical implications of this research for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MS. Methods and Results: We provide an updated and extensive overview of the studies that have explored cognitive and brain reserve in MS and discuss their implications for non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies aimed at potentiating patients' reserve. In particular, the possible utility of integrated approaches based on mind-body techniques such as mindfulness-meditation is considered. Conclusions: We conclude that these techniques represent challenging mental enriching activities that may help cultivating cognitive reserve and more systematic research on their efficacy to protect against cognitive degradation in MS is encouraged.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In this study we investigated in observers with low myopia: (i) the pattern of lateral interactions between stimuli activating early cortical analyzers and its modulation by perceptual learning (PL), and (ii) whether PL transferred to untrained stimuli and tasks and whether it exhibits interocular transfer. Method: Participants (seven adults with low myopia) performed 12 training sessions. Participants were trained on a contrast detection task of a central Gabor target flanked by two co-oriented and co-aligned high contrast Gabor patches. Target-to-flankers separation along the vertical axis was varied from 2 wavelengths (λ) to 8λ. Results: The results showed that before PL facilitatory lateral interactions in the myopic eye were reduced in strength, but PL increased contrast sensitivity and improved facilitatory lateral interactions. However, PL did not transfer to different local/global orientations and lower spatial frequencies. On the other hand, PL resulted in an enhancement of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and of the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) both in the trained and untrained eye. Conclusions: Such improvements seem to be associated to a modulation of lateral interactions between target and flankers and it is likely to take place at a level in which the inputs from the two eyes converge.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The present study clarified the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in rats with vascular dementia (VaD) and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Two-vessel occlusion was used as a VaD model. Two weeks after carotid artery occlusion, high (5 Hz) or low (1 Hz) frequency rTMS were applied for 10 days. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested with a Morris water maze. Hippocampal CA1 neurons were histologically examined. The expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E) in CA1 were detected by western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results: Unlike unlesioned control animals, VaD rats had an impaired morphology of CA1 neurons and a reduced ability of spatial memory. rTMS significantly improved both, the morphology and the learning and memory abilities of VaD rats compared to untreated lesioned rats. Protein expressions of mTOR and eIF-4E in CA1 of VaD rats were lower than in control rats but rTMS significantly increased the expression compared to untreated VaD rats. Conclusions: rTMS promotes recovery of learning and memory abilities of VaD rats. Molecular analysis suggests that the beneficial effect of rTMS may be partly induced by upregulation of protein expressions of mTOR and eIF-4E in CA1.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;

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