Restorative neurology and neuroscience (RESTOR NEUROL NEUROS )

Publisher: IOS Press


The journal is interdisciplinary. Papers relating the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental of experimental injuries or in-terventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders, and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery will be considered for publication. Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance, and interest to a multidisciplinary audience. Experiments on unanesthetized animals should conform with the standards for the use of laboratory animals as established by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, US National Academy of Sciences. Experiments in which paralytic agents are used must be justified. Patient identity should be concealed. All manuscripts are sent out for blind "peer review" to editorial board members or outside reviewers.

  • Impact factor
    Hide impact factor history
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience website
  • Other titles
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience (Online)
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

IOS Press

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website, institutional website or funder's website, including PubMed Central
    • Non-commercial use only
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Author's version can be used
    • Publisher's pdf can be used on institutional website, company website or funding agency website for a fee
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Despite substantial advances in surgical care and rehabilitation, the consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) continue to present major challenges. Here we investigate whether transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in mice during the chronic stage of SCI has benefits in terms of morphological and functional outcomes. Methods: Mice were subjected to laminectomy at the T9 level, followed by a 1 minute spinal cord compression with a vascular clip. Four weeks later, 8 × 105 MSCs obtained from GFP mice were injected into the injury site. After eight weeks the analyses were performed. Results: The spinal cords of MSC-treated animals exhibited better white-matter preservation, greater numbers of fibers, higher levels of trophic factor expression, and better ultrastructural tissue organization. Furthermore, transplanted MSCs were not immunoreactive for neural markers, indicating that these cells mediate functional recovery through a paracrine effect, rather than by transforming into and replacing damaged glia in the spinal cord. MSC-treated mice also showed better functional improvement than control animals. Conclusion: We conclude that MSC-based cell therapy, even when applied during the chronic phase of SCI, leads to changes in a number of structural and functional parameters, all of which indicate improved recovery.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and measurements of upper limb function were longitudinally applied to gain further insights into processes involved in functional recovery from the acute to the chronic stage after stroke. Methods: 10 acute stroke patients were monitored over 6 months behaviourally and with established TMS protocols. By using neuronavigated motor mapping, behavioural sparameters, and a mixed model analysis, the role of the frontal and parietal part of the motor area of both hemispheres for functional recovery was determined. Results: Size and volume of the ipsilesional motor area (MAipsi) were significantly decreased in the acute phase compared to the contralesional motor area (MAcontra). Size of MAipsi, especially its frontal part, changed over time and was positively correlated with functional recovery, whereas resting motor threshold, volume of both MA or the shift of its center of gravity did not show any association with recovery. Conclusion: The present data suggests the presence of a positive correlation between changes of the motor representation of the lesioned hemisphere and functional recovery after stroke. A possible interpretation is that rather (re-)activated corticomotor outputs are substrates of functional recovery after stroke than increased efficacy of residual, non-lesioned pathways.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Based on several positive effects of whole-body-vibration (WBV) therapy on recovery after SCI, we looked for correlations between functional (analysis of locomotion), electrophysiological (H-reflex) and morphological (density of functioning capillaries) measurements after SCI and WBV-treatment. Methods: Severe compression SCI at low-thoracic level (T8) in adult female Wistar rats was followed by WBV twice a day (2 × WBV) over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats and rats with SCI but no WBV-therapy ("No-WBV") served as controls. Recovery of locomotion was determined by BBB-locomotor rating, foot stepping angle (FSA), rump-height index (RHI), correct ladder steps (CLS) and H-reflex at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after SCI. Animals were sacrificed by an overdose of Isoflurane (Abbott). One hour later their spinal cords were fixed in 4% PFA for 24 h. Samples from the thoracic cord containing the lesion site and from the lumbar intumescence were cut into 10 μm thick longitudinal frozen sections. Results: All functioning capillaries were unequivocally identified because the endogenous peroxidase of the erythrocytes was clearly visualized with 0.05% diaminobenzidine (DAB). A determination of their absolute (in μm2) and proportional areas (percent of photographed tissue) revealed a significantly denser capillary network in the WBV-treated rats: 1,66 ± 0,41% in the "vibrated" rats versus 0,79 ± 0,19% in the "No-WBV" animals. The portion of the capillary network in intact rats was 1,51 ± 0,69%. Surprisingly, even though the vascularization in the treated animals was significantly increased, this had no beneficial influence on the recovery of functions after SCI. Conclusion: The results of this study provide for the first time evidence that intensive WBV-therapy leads to a significantly denser capillary network in the lesioned spinal cord. However, since this higher capillary density is not associated with improved functional recovery (possibly because it exceeded the balance necessary for functional improvements), optional treatments with lower intensity or less time of WBV-therapy should be tested.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Upper limb robot-assisted rehabilitation is a highly intensive therapy, mainly recommended after stroke. Whether robotic therapy is suitable for subacute patients with severe impairments including cognitive disorders is unknown. This retrospective study explored factors impacting on motor performance achieved in a 16-session robotic training combined with standard rehabilitation. Methods: Seventeen subacute inpatients (age 53 ± 18; 49 ± 26 days post-stroke) were assessed at baseline using upper extremity motor impairments scales, Functional Independence Measure, aphasia and neglect scores. Number of movements and robotic assistance were compared between Session 2 (S2), 8 (8) and 16 (S16), Motricity Index between pre and post-treatment. Correlation analyses explored predictors of motor performance. Results: Overall, number of movements and Motricity Index increased significantly while robot-assistance decreased. The mean number of movements per session correlated positively with baseline motor capacities but not with age, aphasia and neglect. However, the increase in Motricity index correlated negatively with baseline Motricity index and the increase in the number of movements correlated negatively with the number of movements at S2. Conclusion: High intensity robot-assisted training may be associated with motor improvement in subacute hemiparesis. More severely impaired patients may derive greater benefit from robot-assisted training; age, aphasia and neglect do not represent exclusion criteria.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional protein with antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic and neurogenic properties. The effect of PEDF on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been explored. In this study, we aimed to show the in vivo effects of PEDF on lesion volume, cell death and cell proliferation after TBI. Methods: Rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury (CCII). PEDF mRNA brain levels were measured by RT-PCR. The lesion volume, cell proliferation, cell death and microglia activation were assessed in the brains of lesioned animals with intraventricular alzet infusion of PEDF or aCSF, and intraperitoneal injections of BrdU. Results: We detected a significant increase of PEDF mRNA levels after TBI. PEDF intraventricular infusion showed no significant effect on the contusion volume, whereas the number of dead cells, activated microglia, BrdU-positive cells around the lesion were significantly decreased. In contrast, PEDF application increased cell proliferation in the ipsilateral subventricular zone. No effect was found on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Conclusion: The present work indicates that PEDF acts as a multifunctional agent after TBI influencing cell death, inflammation and cell proliferation.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Rehabilitation interventions need to be optimized to maximize therapeutic effects and minimize stroke-related disability. However, a comprehensive understanding of the neural substrates underlying recovery is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between brain anatomy, physiology and hand motor function in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches were used to evaluate cortical excitability and brain structural morphometry in individuals with chronic stroke. Hemispheric differences and relationships between these measures and hand dexterity were evaluated. Results: Hemispheric differences were observed for TMS and MRI measures. Bilateral hand dexterity correlated with TMS resting motor threshold and precentral gyral thickness. Transcallosal inhibition across hemispheres was positively associated with midcallosal white matter volume. Regression modeling results demonstrated that combining TMS and MRI measures predicted unique amounts of variance in hand dexterity. Conclusions: Results confirm and extend findings showing differences in brain structure and function after stroke. Results suggested a structure-function relationship underlying interhemispheric connectivity in chronic stroke. The utility of combined TMS and MRI measures to predict motor function can be used in future investigations to aid identifying optimal biomarkers of stroke recovery to predict response to rehabilitation to maximize treatment outcomes.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Intra- and crossmodal neuroplasticity have been reported to underlie superior voice processing skills in congenitally blind individuals. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) in order to test if such compensatory plasticity is limited to the developing brain. Methods: Late blind individuals were compared to sighted controls in their ability to identify human voices. A priming paradigm was employed in which two successive voices (S1,S2) of the same (person-congruent) or different speakers (person-incongruent) were presented. Participants made an old-young decision on the S2. Results: In both groups ERPs to the auditory S2 were more negative in person-incongruent than in person-congruent trials between 200-300 ms. A topographic analysis suggested a more posteriorly shifted distribution of the person match effect (person-incongruent minus person-congruent trials) in late blind individuals compared to sighted controls. Conclusion: In contrast to congenitally blind individuals, late blind individuals did not show an early person match effect in the time range of the N1, suggesting that crossmodal compensation is mediated by later processing steps rather than by changes at early perceptual levels.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Our experiments aimed at exploring potential neurorestorative mechanisms of selegiline, a compound routinely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and previously shown to improve the functional recovery of stroke patients. Methods: Selegiline was administered continuously via osmotic mini-pumps between 48 and 216 hours following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Twenty-four hours before sacrifice, the animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After decapitation, the peri-infarct region was dissected to perform a TAQMAN array gene expression study, and brains were fixed for immunolabeling. Results: In addition to the previously known induction of anti-apoptosis genes, selegiline significantly increased the mRNA level of Notch 1 receptor and its ligand Jagged 1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated elevated Notch 1 and Jagged 1 immunoreactivities in the peri-infarct region. Double labeling with glial markers revealed that both Notch 1 and Jagged 1 were expressed in astrocytes but not in microglia. MRI examination indicated significantly reduced edema in selegiline-treated rats compared to control MCAO rats, and increased capillary network density was found in the peri-infarct region of the selegiline-treated animals. Conclusion: Our results suggest that selegiline treatment enhances Notch-Jagged signaling in astrocytes, reduces peri-lesional edema and potentially helps preserve the capillary network following focal ischemia.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 10/2014;
  • Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Independent mobility is one of the most pressing problems facing people who are blind. We present the EyeCane, a new mobility aid aimed at increasing perception of environment beyond what is provided by the traditional White Cane for tasks such as distance estimation, navigation and obstacle detection. Methods: The "EyeCane" enhances the traditional White Cane by using tactile and auditory output to increase detectable distance and angles. It circumvents the technical pitfalls of other devices, such as weight, short battery life, complex interface schemes, and slow learning curve. It implements multiple beams to enables detection of obstacles at different heights, and narrow beams to provide active sensing that can potentially increase the user's spatial perception of the environment. Participants were tasked with using the EyeCane for several basic tasks with minimal training. Results: Blind and blindfolded-sighted participants were able to use the EyeCane successfully for distance estimation, simple navigation and simple obstacle detection after only several minutes of training. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the EyeCane's potential for mobility rehabilitation. The short training time is especially important since available mobility training resources are limited, not always available, and can be quite expensive and/or entail long waiting periods.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine how age at the time of left middle cerebral artery stroke affects language lateralization in a combined sample of subjects with perinatal, childhood, and adult stroke. Methods: 19 participants who had perinatal stroke (<1 month of age), 32 with later stroke, and 51 sex-/age-matched healthy controls (HCs) received fMRI of language using verb generation task (VGT). Results: Percent lesion volumes were not different between groups (perinatal vs. late stroke) when taking brain volume into account (p = 0.084). Perinatal stroke group showed bilateral signal increases compared to more left-lateralized signals in matched HCs; late stroke group and HCs both showed left-hemispheric signal increases. LIs in the stroke groups were consistently more bilateral than in HCs (all p < 0.008) except for the late group's posterior LI (p = 0.080). There was greater proportion of leftward language lateralization in HCs compared to their respective stroke groups (78.9% vs. 31.6% in perinatal; 87.5% vs. 59.4% in late stroke; p = 0.004) and a larger proportion of leftward lateralization in late compared to perinatal stroke (p = 0.039). The age of stroke occurrence showed significant positive associations with global and frontal LI (both p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion: As expected, the age of stroke occurrence affects subsequent verb generation lateralization. Greater cortical plasticity is observed in earlier stroke while later stroke is associated with reliance on the repair of the previously damaged left-hemispheric networks.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Fifty percent of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are estimated to have cognitive impairments leading to considerable decline in productivity and quality of life. Cognitive intervention has been considered to complement pharmacological treatments. However, a lack of agreement concerning the efficacy of cognitive interventions in MS still exists. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of cognitive interventions in MS. Methods: To overcome limitations of previous meta-analyses, several databases were searched only for Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) with low risk of bias. Results: Five studies (total of 139 participants) met our eligibility criteria. Although good completion and adherence rates were evident, we found no evidence of intervention effects on cognition or mood in post-intervention or follow-up assessments. Conclusions: This is the first meta-analysis assessing the effects of cognitive intervention in MS including only RCTs with comparable conditions. Research regarding efficacy, cost-effectiveness and feasibility is still in its infancy. Caution is advised when interpreting these results due to the small number of RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria. Considering the costs of disease, good completion and adherence rates of this approach, further research is warranted. Recommendations concerning improved research practices in the field are presented as well.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the site-specific effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with parkinsonism. Methods: Twenty patients with parkinsonism and FOG were included. A single session of 10 Hz rTMS was applied over three different cortical regions of the dominant hemisphere: the primary motor cortex of the lower leg (M1-LL), the supplementary motor area (SMA), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We also performed sham stimulation as a control. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Turn Steps and Turn Time in 180° turning, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III, FOG Questionnaire (FOG-Q), and motor evoked potential (MEP) studies were performed before and after each intervention. Results: There were significant improvements in TUG test times after rTMS over the M1-LL and the DLPFC. Improvement was significantly greater after the M1-LL stimulation than sham condition. The M1-LL and DLPFC stimulation also resulted in significant improvements in both the number of Turn Steps and Turn Time. UPDRS-III scores were significantly decreased after the M1-LL and DLPFC stimulation. Conclusions: Use of 10 Hz rTMS on the M1-LL and DLPFC is therapeutically effective for FOG in patients with parkinsonism.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Anxiety-like (ANX) and depression-like (DEP) symptoms are common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Environmental enrichment (EE) attenuates many deficits, though its impact on ANX and DEP symptoms has yet to be described. Methods: Adult male Long-Evans rats were subject to a medial frontal cortex (mFC) cortical impact injury or sham preparation, then placed into EE or standard housing (SE). ANX symptoms were analyzed using the open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM). The forced swim task (FST) and sucrose consumption task (SCT) were used to quantify DEP symptoms. In order to measure changes in spatial learning and motor performance, the Barnes maze (BM) and rotor rod (RR) were utilized. Results: Damage to the mFC resulted in functional losses in motor and cognitive behavior and an increase in ANX and DEP symptoms. Placement of injured rats into the EE improves motor functioning after TBI and resulted in an decreased latency to locate the escape box in the BM. Though the application of an EE attenuated deficits in BM and RR performance, the ANX and DEP behavioral symptoms persisted. Conclusions: Additional therapeutic approaches paired with EE may be necessary to address all functional changes post-TBI. Additionally, no single behavioral assessment appears to clearly identify symptoms of ANX or DEP in rats following TBI, however utilizing multiple tests can be potentially confounding.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 07/2014;