Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition (J BIOMAT SCI-POLYM E )

Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers

Description

The Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition publishes fundamental research on the properties of polymeric biomaterials and the mechanisms of interaction between such biomaterials and living organisms, with special emphasis on the molecular and cellular levels. The scope of the journal includes polymers for drug delivery, tissue engineering, large molecules in living organisms like DNA, proteins, and more. As such, the Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition combines biomaterials applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical and biological fields.

Impact factor 1.36

  • Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.02
  • Cited half-life
    7.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.43
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.49
  • Website
    Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition website
  • Other titles
    Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer ed., Polymer edition
  • ISSN
    0920-5063
  • OCLC
    21171173
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Brill Academic Publishers

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be deposited after acceptance for peer-review
    • Author's Post-print on author's personal website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • Publisher version may be posted on author's personal website only
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used in institutional repository
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Published source must be acknowledged
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation effectively cross-links collagen into network with enhanced anti-degradability and biocompatibility, while radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold lacks flexibility, satisfactory surface appearance, and performs poor in cell penetration and ingrowth. To make the radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold to serve as an ideal artificial dermis, dextran was incorporated into collagen. Scaffolds with the collagen/dextran (Col/Dex) ratios of 10/0, 7/3, and 5/5 were fabricated via (60)Co γ-irradiation cross-linking, followed by lyophilization. The morphology, microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties were investigated. Compared with pure collagen, scaffolds with dextran demonstrated more porous appearance, enhanced hydrophilicity while the cross-linking density was lower with the consequence of larger pore size, higher water uptake, as well as reduced stiffness. Accelerated degradation was observed when dextran was incorporated in both the in vitro and in vivo assays, which led to earlier integration with cell and host tissue. The effect of dextran on degradation was ascribed to the decreased cross-linking density, looser microstructure, more porous and hydrophilic surface. Considering the better appearance, softness, moderate degradation rate due to controllable cross-linking degree and good biocompatibility as well, radiation-cross-linked collagen/dextran scaffolds are expected to serve as promising artificial dermal substitutes.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 02/2015; 26(3):162-80.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of new ophthalmic drug delivery systems capable of increasing the residence time of drugs in the eye and improve its bioavailability relatively to eyedrops has been object of intense research in recent years. Several studies have shown that drug-loaded therapeutic soft contact lenses (SCLs) constitute a promising approach, with several potential advantages as compared with collyria. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of repetitive load and friction cycles caused by the eye blinking, on the drug release from hydrogels used in SCLs which, as far as we know, was never investigated before. Two poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-based hydrogels, pHEMA-T and pHEMA-UV, were used as model materials. Levofloxaxin was chosen as model drug. The hydrogels were fully characterized in what concerns structural and physicochemical properties. pHEMA-UV revealed some superficial porosity and a lower short-range order than pHEMA-T. We observe that the load and friction cycles enhanced the drug release from pHEMA-UV hydrogels. The application of a simple mathematical model, which takes into account the drug dilution caused by the tear flow, showed that the enhancement of the drug release caused by blinking on this hydrogel may be relevant in in vivo conditions. Conversely, the more sustained drug release from pHEMA-T is not affected by load and friction cycles. The conclusion is that, depending on the physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of the hydrogels, blinking is a factor that may affect the amount of drug delivered to the eye by SCLs and should thus be considered.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of phospholipid release from an experimental reusable wear silicone hydrogel contact lens was performed to assess the possible use of these lenses for phospholipid delivery to increase eye comfort to patients who prefer reusable wear lenses. Contact lenses were loaded with 200 μg of radio-labeled 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) from a solution of n-propanol. To simulate 30 days of diurnal use with overnight cleaning, these lenses were eluted for 16 h at 35 °C into artificial tear fluid (ATF), and then eluted at room temperature (~22 °C) for 8 h in one of three commercial contact lens cleaning systems. This was repeated for 30 days. The elution of DMPC into ATF was greater on the first day, followed by a fairly constant amount of elution each day thereafter. The type of cleaning system had a statistically significant effect on the elution rate during daily exposure to ATF. The rate of elution into cleaning solutions did not show any enhanced elution on the first day; there was a fairly constant elution rate. Again, the type of cleaning system significantly influenced the elution rate into the nightly cleaner.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate in vitro degradability and osteoblast biocompatibility of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate/multi-(amino acid) (DCPA/MAA) composites prepared by in situ polymerization method. The results revealed that the composites could be slowly degraded in PBS solution, with weight loss of 9.5 ± 0.2 wt.% compared with 12.2 ± 0.2 wt.% of MAA copolymer after eight weeks, and the changes of pH value were in the range of 7.18-7.4 and stabilized at 7.24. In addition, the compressive strength of the composite decreased from 98 to 62 MPa while that of MAA copolymer from 117 to 86 MPa. Furthermore, with non-toxicity demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, the addition of DCPA to the MAA copolymer evidenced an enhancement of osteoblast differentiation and attachment compared with pure MAA materials regarding to alkaline phosphatase activity as well as initial cell adhesion. The results indicated that the DCPA/MAA scaffolds with good osteoblast biocompatibility, degradability, and sufficient strength had promising potential application in bone tissue engineering.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, poly (methyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) [poly(MMA-GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of MMA with GMA as a functional comonomer. Reactive Green 19 dye was then attached to the cryogel by nucleophilic substitution reaction, and this dye-attached cryogel column was used for lysozyme adsorption. Characterization of the cryogel was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Pore size of the cryogels was 15-30 μm and pores were interconnected structure. Attached amount of Reactive Green 19 to cryogel support was calculated as 106.25 μmol/g cryogel. Lysozyme adsorption studies were carried out by using a continuous system. It was found that the maximum amount of lysozyme adsorption (32 mg/g cryogel) obtained from experimental results was found to be approximately same with the calculated Langmuir adsorption capacity (33 mg/g cryogel). Desorption of adsorbed lysozyme was carried out by using 1.5 M NaCl in pH 4.5 acetate buffer, and desorption yield was found to be 97.4%. Cryogels were very stable, and it was found that there was no remarkable reduction in the adsorption capacity at the end of ten adsorption-desorption cycles. As a result, Reactive Green 19-attached cryogels have great advantages such as easy preparation, rapid adsorption, and desorption, being economic and allowing the direct separation of proteins.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Producing uniform nanofibers in high quality by electrospinning remains a huge challenge, especially using low concentrated polymer solutions. However, emulsion electrospinning assists to produce nanofibers from less concentrated polymer solutions compared to the traditional electrospinning process. The influence of individual surfactants towards the morphology of the emulsion electrospun poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/bovine serum albumin (PCL/BSA) nanofibers were investigated by using (i) non-ionic surfactant sorbitane monooleate (Span80); (ii) anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); and (iii) cationic benzyltriethylammonium chloride, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer Pluronic F108 of different concentrations. The morphology, along with the chemical and mechanical properties of the fibers, was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, water contact angle, and tensile tester. With the addition of surfactants, the electrospinnability of dilute PCL solution was enhanced, with either branched or uniform fibers were obtained. Electrospinning of an emulsion containing 0.4% (w/v) SDS produced the smallest and the most uniform nanofibers (167 ± 39 nm), which was attributed to the high conductivity of the solution. Analysis revealed that the emulsion electrospun nanofibers containing different surfactants and surfactant concentrations differ in fiber morphology and mechanical properties. Results suggest that surfactants have the ability to modulate the fiber morphology via electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, depending on their chemical structure.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 01/2015; 26(1):57-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Natural hydrogels such as collagen offer desirable properties for tissue engineering, including cell adhesion sites, but their low mechanical strength is not suitable for bladder tissue regeneration. In contrast, synthetic hydrogels such as poly (ethylene glycol) allow tuning of mechanical properties, but do not elicit protein adsorption or cell adhesion. For this reason, we explored the use of composite hydrogel blends composed of Tetronic (BASF) 1107-acrylate (T1107A) in combination with extracellular matrix moieties collagen and hyaluronic acid seeded with bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMC). This composite hydrogel supported BSMC growth and distribution throughout the construct. When compared to the control (acellular) hydrogels, mechanical properties (peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus) of the cellular hydrogels were significantly greater. When compared to the 7-day time point after BSMC seeding, results of mechanical testing at the 14-day time point indicated a significant increase in both ultimate tensile stress (4.1-11.6 kPa) and elastic modulus (11.8-42.7 kPa) in cellular hydrogels. The time-dependent improvement in stiffness and strength of the cellular constructs can be attributed to the continuous collagen deposition and reconstruction by BSMC seeded in the matrix. The composite hydrogel provided a biocompatible scaffold for BSMC to thrive and strengthen the matrix; further, this trend could lead to strengthening the construct to match the mechanical properties of the bladder.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Regeneration science has been studied using tissue engineering techniques due to the self-renewal difficulties of damaged or degenerated cartilage. A scaffold with biodegradability and biocompatibility features plays a key role in developing cartilage tissue similar to human biological materials. Herein, we have fabricated three-dimensional sponge using purified alginate for the regeneration of chondrocytes cells and formation of cartilage. We demonstrated that the alginate purification can effectively minimize inflammatory reaction through reducing the content of mannuronic acid causing immune rejection. Cartilage regeneration research was performed using three-dimensional non-purified and purified alginate sponges synthesized by modified Korbutt method. In vitro cell viability and specific gene expression in the cartilage cells were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after seeding chondrocytes on the as-fabricated sponges. Specific extracellular matrix (ECM) of chondrocytes, sGAG, and the content of collagen were also measured. Histological staining was carried out after purified alginate sponge seeded with chondrocytes and was implanted in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction. Compared to the non-purified ones, the purified alginate sponges showed positive effects on maintaining affinities and phenotype of chondrocytes. From these results, it can be suggested that the purified alginate sponges provide a promising platform for cartilage regeneration.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of demineralized bone particle/ poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (DBP/PLGA) scaffolds on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). DBP/PLGA hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by solvent casting/salt-leaching with DBP contents of 0, 20, 40, and 80 wt%. MSCs were seeded on the DBP/PLGA scaffolds and then evaluated by a series of analytical process: SEM, MTT, RT-PCR, and in vivo histological assay. As the DBP contents increased, the cell attachment behavior and cell viability also increased. A DBP content of 80 wt% marked the best water absorption performance and the highest cell viability. Gene expression of aggrecan on DBP/PLGA scaffolds tended to increase, whereas that on PLGA scaffolds was decreased at 1 week. However, strong expression of aggrecan was observed at 2 weeks regardless of the contents of DBP. Scaffolds showed a trend of increasing type II and I collagen at 2 weeks. The results showed that MSCs on DBP/PLGA scaffolds showed more efficient cell proliferation and tissue formation in the presence of tissue-inductive stimuli. Suitable biomaterials could be more conducive to proliferation of MSCs. These results suggest that the DBP/PLGA scaffolds are a feasible biomaterial for intervertebral disc regeneration.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Novel acrylate monomer of quinoline-based chalcone 1-(4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl) acrylate (CPA) was synthesized using (4-(2-chloroquinolin-5-ylamino)phenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (CPE) and acryloyl chloride. CPA is characterized by different techniques like IR, (1)H NMR and UV-visible spectrometry techniques. Poly(CPA), poly(CPA-co-AA) and poly(CPA-co-HEA) are prepared by solution polymerization technique using CPA, acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA), respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds are tested using four different micro-organisms. In vitro cumulative drug release studies are done using UV visible spectroscopic technique. The molecular weights of these polymers are found to be around 5000 g/mol. The synthesized polymers showed two stages of thermal decomposition temperature centred around 220 and 350 °C, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer sample is found to be very high and especially for gram-negative bacteria with a minimum value of 3.91 μg/mL. The in vitro drug-releasing rate is dependent on the comonomer, pH and temperature of the medium.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) drug-eluting microspheres containing anti-tumor drugs, cisplatin, and sorafenib tosylate have been prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation method with diameter between 200 and 400 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cisplatin microspheres had smooth surfaces, while sorafenib tosylate microspheres and cisplatin + sorafenib tosylate microspheres were porous at the surface and the pits of the latter were larger than those of the former. Notably, cisplatin + sorafenib tosylate microspheres had a fast drug release rate compared with microspheres containing one drug alone. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments and classical matrigel endothelial tube assay certificated the maintaining bioactivity of cisplatin and sorafenib tosylate released from the microspheres, respectively. This work provides a useful approach for the fabrication of drug-eluting beads used in transarterial chemoembolization.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An in situ-formed hydrogel was synthesized by enzymatic cross-linking of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-tyramine conjugates (PGA-Tyr) using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gelation time ranged from 25 s to 5 min was accomplished by tuning the concentration of HRP, H2O2/Tyr molar ratio and the degree of substitution (DS) of Tyr groups. The storage modulus (G'), cross-link density, and mesh size can be tailored by controlling the H2O2/Tyr ratio and DS. The rheological analysis indicated that the storage modulus (G') can be tailored from approximately 40 to over 1100 Pa with the increasing H2O2/Tyr ratio and DS. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as model protein and encapsulated into the hydrogel during the enzyme-mediated cross-linking reaction. Controlled release of BSA in vitro from the PGA-Tyr hydrogel was obtained. The release rate and cumulative release amount of encapsulated BSA were manipulated by controlling the H2O2/Tyr ratio and DS. More than 90% of encapsulated BSA was released from the hydrogel with low cross-link density and lager mesh size in 60 h, while only 68% of BSA was released from the hydrogel with high cross-link density and small mesh size. The results indicated that the PGA-Tyr hydrogel is a promising material for the controlled release of therapeutic protein or peptides.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are an optically attractive option for bioimaging, but are known to display high cytotoxicity. Nanoparticles synthesized from chitosan, a natural biopolymer of β 1-4 linked glucosamine, display good biocompatibility and cellular uptake. A facile, green synthetic strategy has been developed to embed green fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) in biocompatible CNPs to obtain a safer preparation than 'as is' QDs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the crystal lattice corresponding to CdTe QDs embedded in CNPs while thermogravimetry confirmed their polymeric composition. Electrostatic interactions between thiol-capped QDs (4 nm, -57 mV) and CNPs (~300 nm, +38 mV) generated CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs that were stable up to three months. Further, viability of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells in vitro increased in presence of QDs-embedded CNPs as compared to bare QDs. At the highest concentration (10 μg/ml), the former shows 34 and 39% increase in viability at 24 and 48 h, respectively, as compared to the latter. This shows that chitosan nanoparticles do not release the QDs up to 48 h and do not cause extended toxicity. Furthermore, hydrolytic enzymes such as lysozyme and chitinase did not degrade chitosan nanoparticles. Moreover, QDs-embedded CNPs show enhanced internalization in NIH3T3 cells as compared to bare QDs. This method offers ease of synthesis and handling of stable, luminescent, biocompatible CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs with a favorable toxicity profile and better cellular uptake with potential for bioimaging and targeted detection of cellular components.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional porous chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) scaffolds were fabricated for tissue engineering applications via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid phase separation. A mixture of an acidic aqueous solution with butanol as a non-solvent and a chitosan-PVP quaternary system were freeze-dried. We then studied the homogenous open pore structure and the minute pore distribution in order to improve the mass transfer and cell seeding efficiency while also obtaining the optimal ratio of PVP to provide high interconnectivity and to improve the open-pore structure. The properties of the porous chitosan-PVP scaffolds - including the microstructure, chemical release, water absorption properties, and cell proliferation tests were studied - and the results were compared against those obtained from conventional scaffolds. chitosan-PVP scaffolds with a porosity of over 70% were obtained, and the pore morphology on the surface and within the porous scaffolds showed the presence of homogenous open pores with excellent interconnectivity. As the PVP content increased, main pores (50-100 μm) and minute pores (4-10 μm) could be clearly observed. Also, the porous scaffold showed an improved efficiency for cell adhesion after the cells were cultured for 4 h. After 72 h, the cultured cells presented an increase in the cell proliferation and on the porous scaffolds. These results strongly suggest that the porous chitosan-PVP scaffolds can be widely used in tissue engineering, including for biopatches and artificial skin applications.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We postulate that immobilization of tyramine-substituted hyaluronan (THA) into an extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold may be a strategy to promote an anti-inflammatory response to the ECM. Further, we posit that the implantation site could influence the inflammatory response and remodeling of an ECM scaffold. Eight beagles underwent implantation of fascia ECM grafts, treated with either immobilized low molecular weight (57 kDa) THA or water only, in both the shoulder injury and body wall sites. Dogs were euthanized at 12 weeks and fascia grafts harvested en bloc for histology. Grafts implanted at the body wall had significantly higher inflammatory cell infiltrate and vascularity, and significantly lower retardance (collagen density), than grafts at the shoulder, suggestive of a more intense, persistent, and perhaps degradative inflammatory and remodeling response at the body wall than shoulder injury site in the canine model. However, the presence of immobilized low MW THA had no effect on the inflammation response or remodeling of fascia ECM compared to water-treated controls. Importantly, these results suggest that the inflammatory response and remodeling of biomaterial implants depends on the location of implantation and therefore our animal models need to be carefully chosen. Further, the potential anti-inflammatory advantages of hyaluronan (HA) in wound healing do not appear to be realized when presenting it to the host as non-degradable hydrogel even if its capacity for binding HA binding protein is maintained. Further study treating ECM with uncross-linked (free) HA or immobilized low MW THA as a means to deliver free HA or other biomolecules to a surgical repair site is warranted.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, nanofibrous 3D tubular (~4-mm-diameter tube) scaffolds of poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) were fabricated by electrospinning. The role of surface charge in the success of these scaffolds for potential small-diameter artificial vascular grafts has been investigated using streaming potential study. Prior to endothelial cell culture, surface properties such as wettability and the surface charge of these tubular scaffolds were evaluated using unmodified and fibrinogen-adsorbed surfaces to understand their interaction with surrounding environment. The tubular scaffolds constructed using electrospinning show similar mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elastic modulus as those of native vessels. Whilst endothelial cell proliferation on unmodified tubes, as analysed by scanning electron microscopy, was found to be moderate, a simple process of dynamic fibrinogen adsorption was seen to enhance the endothelialisation of these tubular grafts. The high negative zeta potential values, high strength, robustness and structural reliability of the scaffolds represent them to be promising biomaterials for vascular graft applications.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gelatin is one of the most promising materials in tissue engineering as a scaffold component. This biopolymer indicates biocompatibility and bioactivity caused by the existence of specific amino acid sequences, being preferred sites for interactions with cells, with high similarity to natural extracellular matrix. The present paper does not aspire to be a full review of electrospinning of gelatin and gelatin containing nanofibers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is focused on the still open question of the role of the higher order structures of gelatin in scaffold's bioactivity/functionality. Gelatin molecules can adopt various conformations depending on temperature, solvent, pH, etc. Our review indicates the potential ways for formation of α-helix conformation during electrospinning and the methods of further structure stabilization. It is intuitively expected that the native α-helix conformation appearing as a result of partial renaturation of gelatin can be beneficial from the viewpoint of bioactivity of scaffolds, providing thus a much cheaper alternative approach as opposed to expensive electrospinning of native collagen.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method of constructing a glycosylated surface on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] membrane surface for the selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylic acid followed by the chemical binding of carboxyl groups with glucosamine in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxy-succinimide. The chemical structures of the fabricated membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes, respectively. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the LDL adsorption on the plain and modified membrane surfaces. It was found that the surface glycosylation of P(3HB-co-4HB) membrane greatly enhanced the affinity interactions with LDL and the absorbed LDL could be easily desorbed with eluents, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to the surface. Furthermore, the hemocompatibility of glycosylated membrane was improved as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the glycosylated P(3HB-co-4HB) membrane is promising for application in LDL apheresis therapy.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 10/2014;