Wildlife Biology (WILDLIFE BIOL)

Publisher: Nordic Council for Wildlife Research, Nordic Council for Wildlife Research

Current impact factor: 0.88

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.88
2013 Impact Factor 1.071
2012 Impact Factor 1.102
2011 Impact Factor 0.989
2010 Impact Factor 0.697
2009 Impact Factor 0.984
2008 Impact Factor 0.853
2007 Impact Factor 0.894
2006 Impact Factor 0.73
2005 Impact Factor 0.724
2004 Impact Factor 0.535
2003 Impact Factor 0.547
2002 Impact Factor 0.561
2001 Impact Factor 0.603

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.31
Cited half-life 8.70
Immediacy index 0.13
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.47
Website Wildlife Biology website
Other titles Wildlife biology
ISSN 0909-6396
OCLC 33213382
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Nordic Council for Wildlife Research

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Permission must be obtained from the publisher
  • Conditions
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • All titles are open access journals
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A variety of Amazonian mammals serve as sources of food for its human inhabitants, but hunting can have a strong negative impact on them. Diversity, abundance, biomass, and average group size of medium-sized and large mammals are compared across two forest areas of the northern Amazon: the Viruá National Park (protected) and the Novo Paraíso settlement (a human settlement where hunting is permitted). Hunting pressure was also characterized in Novo Paraíso. A total of 33 mammal species were recorded. There were no significant differences in the sighting rates, relative abundance and biomass, and mammal group sizes between the two areas, although the totals of all these variables were higher in Viruá due to the higher abundance of Tayassu pecari, which was not recorded at Novo Paraíso. It is suggested that T. pecari may be on the verge of local extinction, as it was the most hunted species in the settlement area. Through interviews with 50 hunters, we estimate that 541 mammals of 20 species were hunted during the study year, resulting in an estimated biomass take of 8517 kg. While the hunting intensity in Novo Paraíso may be sustainable in the short term, the reported decline of hunting efficiency, combined with the extirpation of T. pecari, suggests that mammal abundance may decline there in the near future. In the study year, 849 hunts were carried out in a hunting effort of 4575 hours, with a maximum distance travelled of 5.4 km. There was an average of 4.82 consumers for each hunt, and a per capita harvest rate of 2.24 individuals/consumer year. Hunting was not only for subsistence, but also for retaliation, although some species may not be hunted due to cultural taboos. The need for quantification of harvesting rates to maintain hunting at sustainable levels is highlighted.
    Wildlife Biology 12/2015; 21(5):234-245. DOI:10.2981/wlb.00095
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the survival and breeding success of common pheasants Phasianus colchicus of two origins and in two predator densities. We translocated hand-reared and wild pheasant hens to southern Finland (60°N, 24°E) and hand-reared ones to central Finland (63°N, 27°E). Both groups of birds were treated similarly before release and translocated to areas with no local pheasant populations. Both areas appeared similar, the only major difference being the amount of predators. The red fox Vulpes vulpes was the major predator of pheasants present in the southern study, where it was abundant, whereas it was almost non-existant in central Finland. In accordance with earlier studies, the wild birds survived much better than the hand-reared ones in the area with a high red fox density. The hand-reared birds located in the low red fox density area survived better than the hens in the area of high red fox density. However, no significant difference was observed in the survival of the hand-reared birds in the low fox density area and wild birds in the high fox density area. Interestingly, after the first two weeks, the survival of pheasants in different groups was equal. We additionally found no significant differences between the bird-groups in terms of hatching success when comparing hens that managed to initiate nesting. No difference was also observed between the hand-reared birds in the low fox density area and the wild in the high fox density area in brood survival to the age of six weeks. We conclude that even hand-reared pheasants can succeed in brood production in an area with low fox densities. We furthermore suggest that pheasants that survive the two first weeks after translocation have good chances of producing a brood whether they are wild or hand-reared.
    Wildlife Biology 12/2015; 21(5):269-276. DOI:10.2981/wlb.00052
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    ABSTRACT: Coyotes Canis latrans, bobcats Lynx rufus and gray foxes Urocyon cinereoargenteus are all common mammalian mesopredators in coastal California and are found sympatrically in much of North America. Scats produced by these three animals are quite similar, but have historically been differentiated largely by morphology. I tested the efficacy of morphological classification of scat to species by building predictive models for species identification with a set of well-described, DNA-verified scats. I compiled a database of morphological, biogeochemical and contextual traits for a set of 122 DNA-verified bobcat, coyote and gray fox scats. I then took two different approaches to predictive modeling, using both discriminant function analysis and random forests to predict scats to species. I found significant differences among species in only three (diameter, mass and C:N ratio) of the 12 variables I considered. Linear discriminant analysis was only 71% predictive with the inclusion of a non-morphological variable in addition to morphological traits. Random forests similarly had only a 62% correct classification rate. Although scat morphology is not generally diagnostic to species for this set of mammalian mesopredators, these predictive morphometric models may still prove to be useful first-pass identification tools. The linear discriminant model in particular is able to identify scats with certain traits to species with a high degree of confidence, lending credence to the idea of 'end member morphologies' for scats produced by these different animals. I suggest that researchers take similar measurements to either use in the morphometric models presented here, or build similar models for their target species. These results also suggest that some previous studies using morphology-based scat identifications may have misrepresented or misinterpreted diets and space use by these sympatric mammals.
    Wildlife Biology 12/2015; 21(5):254-262. DOI:10.2981/wlb.00105

  • Wildlife Biology 12/2015; 21(6):323-328. DOI:10.2981/wlb.00131
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    ABSTRACT: Salamanders are an important ecological component of eastern hardwood forests and may be affected by natural or silvicultural disturbances that alter habitat structure and associated microclimate. From May to August in 2008 (pretreatment) and 2011 (post-treatment), we evaluated the response of salamanders to three silvicultural practices designed to promote oak regeneration — prescribed fire, midstory herbicide application and shelterwood harvest — and a control. We trapped salamanders using drift fences with pitfall traps in five replicates of the four treatments. Only the southern gray-cheeked salamander Plethodon metcalfi and the southern Appalachian salamander P. teyahalee were captured in sufficient numbers for robust statistical analysis. We analyzed data for these species using single-species dynamic occupancy models in statistical software program R. We allowed changes in four covariates to influence extinction probability from pre- to post-treatment implementation: 1) percent leaf litter cover; 2) percent understory cover; 3) percent CWD cover; and 4) percent canopy cover. The final combined model set describing extinction probability contained four models with ΔAIC < 2 for P. metcalfi and nine models with ΔAIC < 2, including the null model, for P. teyahalee. For both species, the 95% confidence intervals for model-averaged extinction probability parameter estimates overlapped zero, suggesting none were significant predictors of extinction probability. Absence of short-term salamander response in midstory herbicide and prescribed burn treatments was likely because of minor or transitory changes to forest structure. In shelterwood harvests, any potential effects of reduced canopy and leaf litter cover may have been mitigated by rapid post-treatment vegetation sprouting. Additionally, climatic conditions associated with high elevation sites and high amounts of rainfall in 2011 may have compensated for potential changes to microclimate. Continued monitoring of Plethodon salamanders to assess responses at longer time scales (e.g. > 3 years post-treatment) is warranted.
    Wildlife Biology 08/2015; 21(4). DOI:10.2981/wlb.00076
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    ABSTRACT: Migratory and non-migratory passerine birds can carry several pathogens, including parasites, which may cause significant diseases in birds, other animal species and humans. Parasites have been shown to negatively impact many populations of wildlife, and this may become more significant with global temperature changes. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in faecal samples of European passerines. Intestinal parasites identified were statistically associated with passerines phylogenetic classification, migratory habits (migratory, non-migratory) and the type of diet (omnivorous, insectivorous and granivorous). A total of 385 passerines of 42 species were captured and their droppings collected. The prevalence of parasites in faecal samples of passerines was 15.6%. Intestinal parasites were identified in 50/309 (16.2%) migratory passerines and 10/76 (13.2%) non-migratory passerines using the faecal flotation method. Coccidia were most often identified parasites; they were more likely to be present in an omnivorous bird species (p = 0.02). Syngamus spp. was more likely to be detected in omnivorous passerines (p = 0.04). Tits (p = 0.01) and finches (p = 0.006) were less likely to have intestinal parasites present in their faecal samples than passerines classified in other phylogenetic clades. Tits (p = 0.02) and finches (p = 0.008) were also less likely to have coccidia present in their faecal samples. Phylogeny was associated with the presence of parasites in faecal samples of passerines (p = 0.03). The prevalence of parasites, however, was not associated with the migration habit of passerines, but to the type of diet (p = 0.04). Our analysis suggests that the diversity of feeding sources of omnivore passerines exposes them to infection with intestinal parasites to a greater extent than granivore or insectivore passerines.
    Wildlife Biology 08/2015; 21(4). DOI:10.2981/wlb.00044
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    ABSTRACT: As human population increase, human-wildlife conflicts have reached unprecedented levels, often resulting in negative attitudes toward regional conservation initiatives, and thus are of concern for conservation communities. From April to May 2011, we carried out a survey to quantify carnivore-induced livestock losses perceived by local pastoralists in the Qinghai Lake region on the pastoral Qinghai—Tibetan Plateau and examined the ecological and socio-economic dimensions in the conflict. We finished 286 in-person interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire with mixed closed- and open-ended questions. Our results showed that 93.7% of the respondents reported livestock depredations by carnivores from March 2010 to March 2011. The perceived losses represented 3.7% of total standing value of livestock in the region. The losses were positively correlated with livestock number in each household and showed significant seasonal and diurnal difference. Adult sheep and goats were the mostly killed (54.9%), followed by lambs (21.0%), adult yaks and cattle (19.1%), calves (4.9%) and horses (0.1%). More than 80% of the respondents reported that they could not tolerate the contemporaneous depredations and nearly two thirds expected compensations for their losses. Wolf Canis lupus was blamed for most of the killings (76.0%) and was perceived most negative followed by brown bear Ursus arctos, Tibetan fox Vulpes ferrilata, red fox Vulpes vulpes and raptors. Attitudes toward the problem carnivores were positively correlated with livestock size but negatively with magnitudes of the depredations. The attitudes also varied among the three survey sites, which may be attributed to the different extent of openness and livelihood dependence on animal husbandry. In the light of our results, we suggested possible measures to mitigate the conflict and maintain coexistence between human and wild carnivores on the Qinghai—Tibetan Plateau.
    Wildlife Biology 08/2015; 21(4). DOI:10.2981/wlb.00083
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    ABSTRACT: The lowland paca Cuniculus paca is a large rodent and is one of the most hunted mammal species in the Neotropics. Conservation strategies for the lowland paca that depend on data from live captures have been hampered due to the elusive behavior of the species. Here, we introduce a scientifically standardized version of a traditional method used by hunters in the Amazon to capture pacas and compare its cost-effectiveness with conventional scientific methods. First, we used each of these methods at 11 sites in the Brazilian Amazon. The hunting technique captured 12 pacas, whereas the conventional methods captured none, and the hunting technique proved to be as inexpensive as the least-costly conventional method. Second, we analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the methods by comparing the results obtained in the field with data from previous paca studies. The hunting method was four-fold more efficient than the study with the highest paca capture rates achieved to date. This study shows that the use of a hunting technique to capture paca is an efficient and safe procedure that may be applied at different sites in the Amazon and represents an example of how traditional knowledge can be used in partnership with science to enhance the development of successful conservation efforts.
    Wildlife Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.2981/wlb.00127
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    ABSTRACT: Modern management of natural resources is guided by the normative theory of adaptive management (AM). Behind this theory lies a strong, albeit implicit, expectation that organisations aiming for AM have the capacity to communicate in a way that facilitates the required coordination of the knowledge perspectives involved. The aim of this article is to discuss the extent to which the communication practice of Swedish game management organisations facilitates coordination of knowledge corresponding to AM. Based on operationalizations of communicative rationality and agonistic pluralism, we use the concepts ‘discursive closure’ and ‘discursive opening’ to investigate how the coordination of knowledge is carried out through communication in relatively recently established organisations, the Swedish Game Management Delegations (GMDs). We analyse four communication episodes from GMD meetings and notice that multiple perspectives were expressed (discourse openings) but were not evaluated in a communicative rational way before being closed. The consequences of these closures were that knowledge perspectives with potential relevance, but with unclear validity for game management, were not elaborated upon, in terms of their truth, intelligibility, legitimacy or sincerity, which inhibited AM. The concepts of discursive closure and discursive opening proved useful for investigating communicative capacity. An important question which needs to be addressed to improve communicative capacity for AM is whether it would be practically possible to keep to the agenda and rules of the GMD meetings and still admit discursive openings about differences in perspectives.
    Wildlife Biology 05/2015; 21(3):165-174. DOI:10.2981/wlb.00005