Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (PEDIATR ALLERGY IMMU)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Pediatric Allergy and Immunology publishes original contributions and comprehensive reviews related to the understanding and treatment of immune deficiency and allergic inflammatory and infectious diseases in children. Other areas of interest include development of specific and accessory immunity, and the immunological interaction during pregnancy and lactation between mother and child. As the journal is intended to promote communication between scientists engaged in basis research and clinicians working with children, both clinical and experimental work are published.

Current impact factor: 3.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.859
2012 Impact Factor 3.376
2011 Impact Factor 2.459
2010 Impact Factor 2.874
2009 Impact Factor 2.676
2008 Impact Factor 2.723
2007 Impact Factor 2.454
2006 Impact Factor 2.849
2005 Impact Factor 2.126
2004 Impact Factor 2.151
2003 Impact Factor 1.573
2002 Impact Factor 1.807
2001 Impact Factor 1.753
2000 Impact Factor 1.635
1999 Impact Factor 2.247
1998 Impact Factor 1.306
1997 Impact Factor 1.19

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.96
Cited half-life 4.60
Immediacy index 1.21
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.74
Website Pediatric Allergy & Immunology website
Other titles Pediatric allergy and immunology (Online)
ISSN 0905-6157
OCLC 44974396
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic and sight-threatening form of bilateral conjunctivitis typically characterized by the presence of giant "cobblestone" papillae in the upper palpebral conjunctiva (tarsal form) or at the limbus (bulbar form) (1). Corneal involvement is often present, ranging from superficial keratitis to plaque ulcers and late corneal neovascularization (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 02/2015; 26(3). DOI:10.1111/pai.12360
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of allergy to kiwifruit is increasing in Europe since the last two decades. Different proteins have been identified as kiwifruit allergens; even though with geographical differences, Act d 1, a cysteine protease protein of 30 kDa, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein of 24 kDa, are normally considered the most important. The aim of this study was: 1) to identify at molecular level the sensitization pattern in a group of well characterized patients allergic to kiwifruit, and 2) to assess the role of technological treatments on kiwifruit allergenic potential. The differences in the pattern of antigenicity between fresh and processed kiwifruit were evaluated by both immunoelectrophoretic techniques and clinical tests. In the group of patients included in this study, three proteins were identified as major allergens in fresh kiwifruit, since the specific sensitization was present in >50% of the subjects. These proteins corresponded to actinidin (Act d 1), pectin methyl aldolase (Act d 6), and thaumatin-like protein (Act d 2). Kiwellin (Act d 5) and proteins of Bet v 1 family (Act d 8/act d 11) were also recognized as minor allergens. Immunoreactivity was totally eliminated by industrial treatments used for the production of kiwifruit strained derivative. In this group of allergic children, the technological treatments used in the production of kiwifruit strained product reduced drastically the allergenic potential of kiwifruit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2015; 26(2). DOI:10.1111/pai.12345
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood asthma and related allergic conditions have become the most common chronic disorders in the Western world. Many studies from around the world have demonstrated an increasing trend of asthma prevalence over the last few decades (1,2). A few recent reports also suggested that childhood asthma prevalence may be showing a plateau or even a decline in few developed countries (3-5). Given the rapid changes in the prevalence over a short period of time, environmental factors are the more likely candidates explaining such trend. One of the most consistent epidemiological findings was that subjects living in the rural areas had lower prevalence of allergies when compared to those from urban areas (6-8)(Table 1). Clear understanding of the mechanisms of how the environmental determinants in the rural environment may affect the early immune system resulting in lower risk of allergies and asthma will facilitate the development of future primary preventive strategies. In this paper, we review the recent data from around the world and explore the epidemiology and mechanistic studies that may explain the rural-urban difference of allergies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2015; 26(2). DOI:10.1111/pai.12341
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    ABSTRACT: For optimal therapy of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children, parent education for treatment strategies that consider the episodic course and multiple triggers is essential. Regular consultations with doctors often cannot appropriately provide this. Therefore, supplemental patient education tools have been established. We evaluate single nurse consultations, assessing their global benefit, parents' self-confidence, and children's symptoms and sleep disturbance. Parents of children with AD were invited for an individually tailored nurse consultation by the doctor initially consulted in cases where difficulties in implementing care recommendations were detected and established therapeutic patient education (TPE) group programs were impracticable. Parents' estimation of their own self-confidence, current disease severity and its treatment were assessed by a questionnaire at the consultation and by telephone 14 days later. Parents of 1628 children (mean age 1.7 years) attended consultations in 22 centres (317-6 patients; median 38). At follow-up parents indicated a significantly increased self-confidence to handle the recommendations and > 90% rated the consultation highly supportive. The frequency of severe symptoms was significantly lower (20% of initial cases), as of moderate symptoms (50%). Median scores for sleep disruption and pruritus decreased by >50%. Individually tailored single nurse consultations for AD are associated with a significant benefit for the families after 14 days. We recommend these in addition to the usual medical care in cases where participation in TPE programs is impossible or a short-time follow-up is required. To substantiate their effect, studies with a long-term follow-up and a control group are warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/pai.12338
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term studies of the predictive value of family history and cord blood IgE level until adulthood are few, and their conclusions have been contradictory. Screening of total IgE in 1617 cord blood samples was performed in a Danish birth cohort. All infants with cord blood IgE (CB-IgE) ≥0.5 kU/l and a corresponding randomly chosen group with CB-IgE <0.5 kU/l were chosen for follow-up. Questionnaire-based interviews, physical examination, specific IgE testing, and from 10 yr also spirometry, were carried out at 1½, 5, 10, 15, and 26 yr. Predefined diagnostic criteria were used. A total of 455 infants were included, 188 with CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l and 267 with CB-IgE <0.5 kU/l. Follow-up rates were high, 288 (63%) attended the 26-yr follow-up. Family history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated to allergic disease until 26 yr. Concerning any allergic symptoms at 1½ yr the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), the sensitivity and specificity of CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l, was 29%, 81%, 54%, and 61%, respectively. The corresponding figures at 26 yr were 46%, 62%, 43%, and 65%. Overall, family history as well as CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l was associated with high NPV and specificity, but low PPV and sensitivity. Although family history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated with primarily atopic disease until 26 yr, none of these were strong predictors for subsequent sensitization and allergic symptoms from childhood until early adulthood. It appears that the predictive capacity of CB-IgE decreases in adolescence and early adulthood. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 11/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1111/pai.12264
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    ABSTRACT: With regards to the recent case of suspected anaphylaxis in a patient treated in-season with a sublingual five-grass pollen tablet by Hsiao and Smart (1), Stallergenes is committed to ensuring the authorized use of its medications within their approved labeling. Stallergenes in this instance considers with concerns this misuse and trusts that the indication of the 5-grass pollen tablet in this nine year old patient sensitized to both subtropical and temperate grasses is challengeable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 10/2014; 25(7). DOI:10.1111/pai.12290
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    ABSTRACT: Background Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitisation, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Methods Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand-searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria: study population aged <18 years, diagnosis of asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity meta-analysis was not conducted. Results Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods, and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time-series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Conclusions Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim was to study the clinical efficacy and safety of rush oral immunotherapy (OIT) for severe peanut-allergic children and to measure the antibody responses. Methods: Eighteen Japanese children were enrolled after a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). The patients ingested peanuts up to 3-5 times a day every 30 min, increasing the dose by 20% every time. The goal dose was 3.5-7 g. IgE, IgG, and IgG4 antibody levels to peanut, and peanut allergen components were measured during up to 3 yr of maintenance treatment. Results: Two children dropped out due to side effects. Sixteen patients (14 boys and two girls, median: 9 yr range: 5-14 yr) achieved the goal dose after a median of 11 days (range: 4-19 days). Their median threshold dose at DBPCFC was 0.20 g (range: 0.015-1.0 g). All were sensitized to Ara h 2. Fourteen of them had a history of previous anaphylaxis. In total, 173 adverse events were observed during the treatment (27% of the total ingestions) of which 74 needed medications. The median IgE, IgG, and IgG4 antibody levels to peanut increased during rush OIT. The IgG4 levels were high during the whole maintenance phase. IgE and IgG4 antibodies to Ara h 2 dominated the serological response during the treatment. Conclusions: The present rush OIT protocol for children with severe peanut allergy was effective and relatively safe. A sustained Ara h 2-specific IgG4 antibody response characterized the treatment.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1111/pai.12243
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood asthma frequently has allergic comorbidities. However, there is limited knowledge of the longitudinal development of asthma comorbidites and their association to bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation markers. We therefore aimed to assess the association between childhood asthma with allergic comorbidities and BHR and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and the impact of gender on these associations. Methods: Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, asthma was defined for the three time periods 0-2, 2-10 and 10-16 years of age, using recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years of age as a proxy for early asthma. Asthma comorbidities included atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. At age 16 years BHR, assessed by metacholine bronchial challenge, and airway inflammation, assessed by FENO, were compared between the groups of asthma with or without the two comorbidities, to a reference group with no never asthma, and subsequently stratified by gender. Results: Boys with asthma and AR, regardless of AD had significantly more severe BHR and higher FENO than the other asthma phenotypes. Almost half of the children remained in the asthma and AR category from 10 to 16 years, the entire difference being determined by new incident cases from 10 to 16 years. Conclusions: Asthma phenotypes characterized by allergic comorbidities and AR in particular appears closely associated with BHR and FENO, especially among boys.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1111/pai.12241
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The influence of the intra-uterine environment on the immunity and allergy development in the offspring is unclear. We aimed to investigate (i) whether the pregnancy magnifies the Th2 immunity in allergic and non-allergic women, (ii) whether the maternal chemokine levels during pregnancy influenced the offspring's chemokine levels during childhood and (iii) the relationship between circulating Th1/Th2-associated chemokines and allergy in mothers and children. Methods: The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and the Th2-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 were quantified by Luminex and ELISA in 20 women with and 36 women without allergic symptoms at gestational week (gw) 10-12, 15-16, 25, 35, 39 and 2 and 12 months post-partum and in their children at birth, 6, 12, 24 months and 6 years of age. Total IgE levels were measured using ImmunoCAP Technology. Results: The levels of the Th2-like chemokines were not magnified by pregnancy. Instead decreased levels were shown during pregnancy (irrespectively of maternal allergy status) as compared to post-partum. In the whole group, the Th1-like chemokine levels were higher at gw 39 than during the first and second trimester and post-partum. Maternal CXCL11, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during and after pregnancy correlated with the corresponding chemokines in the offspring during childhood. Increased CCL22 and decreased CXCL10 levels in the children were associated with sensitisation and increased CCL17 levels with allergic symptoms during childhood. Maternal chemokine levels were not associated with maternal allergic disease. Conclusions: Allergic symptoms and sensitisation were associated with decreased Th1- and increased Th2-associated chemokine levels during childhood, indicating a Th2 shift in the allergic children, possibly influenced by the maternal immunity during pregnancy.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1111/pai.12235
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    ABSTRACT: Background: An early IgE response to grass or birch pollen can anticipate seasonal allergic rhinitis to pollen later in life or remain clinically silent. Objective: To identify risk factors early in life that allow discriminating pathogenic from non-pathogenic IgE responses and contribute to the development of seasonal allergic rhinitis to grass pollen. Methods: The German Multicentre Allergy Study examined a birth cohort born in 1990. A questionnaire was yearly administered and blood samples collected at age 1,2,3,5,6,7,10,13 yr. The definition of the primary outcome grass-and birch-pollen-related seasonal allergic rhinitis (SARg, SARb) was based on nasal symptoms in June/July and April, respectively. Serum IgE antibodies to Phleum pratense and Betula verrucosae extracts were monitored with immune-enzymatic singleplex assays. Results: Of the 820 examined children, 177 and 148 developed SARg and SARb, respectively. Among healthy children aged 3 or more years, IgE to grass pollen was the strongest risk factor of SARg (OR 10.39, 95% CI 6.1-17.6, p < 0.001), while parental hay fever was the only risk factor in early childhood independently associated with future SARg (1 parent: OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.4-4.5, p < 0.001; 2 parents: OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.7-10.1) and SARb (1 parent OR: 5.21, 95% CI 2.20-12.4, p < 0.001; 2 parents: OR 8.02, 95% CI 2.0-32.9, p < 0.001). Parental hay fever was associated with an increase of the concentration of pollen-specific IgE in seropositive subjects, after the age of 6 and was also a hallmark of molecularly more complex specific IgE responses to grass or birch pollen at age 6 or older. Conclusions: Parental hay fever and specific IgE to grass and/or birch pollen are strong pre-clinical determinants and potentially good predictors of seasonal allergic rhinitis.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1111/pai.12248
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    ABSTRACT: Background The association between birthweight and asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis is conflicting. AimsTo examine the association between birthweight and symptoms of asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods Parents or guardians of children aged 6-7yr completed written questionnaires about symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and several risk factors, including birthweight. ResultsThere were 162,324 children from 60 centres in 26 countries. Low birthweight (<2.5kg) was associated with an increased risk of symptoms of asthma (current wheeze odds ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.30). Low birthweight was associated with a lower risk of eczema ever. Low birthweight was not associated with rhinoconjunctivitis. Large babies (birthweight 4.5kg) were not associated with any of these outcomes. Conclusions This study has confirmed that low birthweight is a risk factor for symptoms of asthma, but not for rhinoconjunctivitis. The findings for eczema are equivocal.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 05/2014; 25(3-3):264-70. DOI:10.1111/pai.12233_1
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    ABSTRACT: Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 09/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1111/pai.12102
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    ABSTRACT: To cite this article: La Grutta S, Cibella F, Passalacqua G, Cuttitta G, Liotta G, Ferlisi A, Viegi G. Association of Blattella germanica sensitization with atopic diseases in pediatric allergic patients. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 521–527. AbstractBackground: The extent to which the sensitization to the German cockroach Blattella germanica (BG) affects onset/presence of rhinoconjunctivitis (RC) in children is unknown.Objectives: The present work was aimed to assess the prevalence of BG sensitization in an outpatient pediatric population from an allergy clinic, the association with allergic diseases, and the effect of age in children with allergic sensitization.Methods: Five hundred and four consecutive children with at least one positive skin test to a panel of 17 food and inhalant allergens, including BG, and with personal history of atopic diseases, were enrolled in an Allergy Unit of Palermo, Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. A questionnaire was administered to obtain data on epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. Atopy index was computed as the number of the individual positive skin prick tests. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between age classes and BG sensitization and RC, as well as the population‐attributable risk (PAR) for RC.Results: Prevalence of BG sensitization was 10.5% (5.2% and 15.8% in lower and upper age classes respectively, p = 0.0001). Atopy index significantly increased from the lower to the higher age class (p BG sensitization.Conclusion: In the upper age class, the PAR of BG sensitization for RC was 20.6%. BG sensitization increases in the higher ages, along with atopic index, and BG sensitization is associated with rhinoconjunctivis in older allergic children.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2011; 22(5).
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 07/2010; 21(Jul):1-125. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2010.01068