Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (PEDIATR ALLERGY IMMU )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing


Pediatric Allergy and Immunology publishes original contributions and comprehensive reviews related to the understanding and treatment of immune deficiency and allergic inflammatory and infectious diseases in children. Other areas of interest include development of specific and accessory immunity, and the immunological interaction during pregnancy and lactation between mother and child. As the journal is intended to promote communication between scientists engaged in basis research and clinicians working with children, both clinical and experimental work are published.

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    Pediatric Allergy & Immunology website
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    Pediatric allergy and immunology (Online)
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Blackwell Publishing

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitisation, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Methods Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand-searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria: study population aged <18 years, diagnosis of asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity meta-analysis was not conducted. Results Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods, and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time-series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Conclusions Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood asthma frequently has allergic comorbidities. However, there is limited knowledge of the longitudinal development of asthma comorbidites and their association to bronchial hyper‐responsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation markers. We therefore aimed to assess the association between childhood asthma with allergic comorbidities and BHR and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and the impact of gender on these associations.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; 25(4).
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    ABSTRACT: An early IgE response to grass or birch pollen can anticipate seasonal allergic rhinitis to pollen later in life or remain clinically silent.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; 25(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the clinical efficacy and safety of rush oral immunotherapy (OIT) for severe peanut‐allergic children and to measure the antibody responses.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; 25(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of the intra‐uterine environment on the immunity and allergy development in the offspring is unclear. We aimed to investigate (i) whether the pregnancy magnifies the Th2 immunity in allergic and non‐allergic women, (ii) whether the maternal chemokine levels during pregnancy influenced the offspring's chemokine levels during childhood and (iii) the relationship between circulating Th1/Th2‐associated chemokines and allergy in mothers and children.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; 25(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2013; 24(6).
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    ABSTRACT: To cite this article: Cernadas JR. Educational case series: Desensitization to antibiotics in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012. AbstractDrug hypersensitivity reactions can occur to almost all drugs and antibiotics are among the most common cause for this kind of reactions. Drug hypersensitivity may affect any organ or system, and manifestations range widely in clinical severity from mild pruritus to anaphylaxis. In most cases, the suspected drug is avoided in the future. In case of infection, there is usually a safe antibiotic alternative. Nonetheless, in some cases, no alternative treatment exists for optimal therapy. Under these circumstances, desensitization may be performed. Drug desensitization is defined as the induction of a temporary state of tolerance to a drug which can only be maintained by continuous administration of the medication responsible for the hypersensitivity reaction. Desensitization is mainly performed in IgE‐mediated reactions. Increasing doses of the implicated drug are administered over a short period of time, until the therapeutic dose is achieved and tolerated. Very few studies confined to children are found in literature. Most of them are case reports. In general, the proposed desensitization schemes are similar to those used in adults differing only in the final dose administered. The purpose of this study is to review desensitization to antibiotics in children presenting and discussing three clinical practical cases of desensitization in this age group.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2013; 24(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Immunization is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our aim is to detect the long-term immunogenicity of the vaccine in Egyptian children after five and ten years of vaccination. Methods: Two hundreds healthy children were recruited. They were divided into two groups according to their age. Group A included 100 child, around 6 years old, vaccinated 5 years ago. Group `B` included 100 child, around 11 years old, vaccinated 10 years ago. Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titre was tested, booster dose of the vaccine was given to children whose HBsAb was < 10 mIU/ml, then one and half month later, they were retested for HBsAb to evaluate the response. Results: Both groups had a wide range of HBsAb (2-1000 mlU/ml), and there was a significant difference in the level of the two groups. Our data proves the decline of antibody titre with time, In group A, 19 children needed a booster dose, 14 of them were vaccinated, and 10 were retested after one and half month. The results showed that 9 (90%) responded by increased level of HBsAb, with six (66.6%) showing an adequate response. In group B, 52 children had antibody titre < 10, 48 of them were vaccinated and 34 were retested one and half months later. Tow out of the 34 did not respond and 32 (94.2%) responded by an increase in the antibody titre. Of those who responded, 19 had adequate response (HBsAb ≥ 100) and 13 had hypo-response (HBsAb = 10 -100). Eighty percent (80%) of boys versus 51.7% of girls responded adequately. Conclusion: Hepatitis B vaccine is an effective and successful way for preventing HBV infection. No need for booster dose at least for 5 years after vaccination. (Egyptian journal of PED allergy and immunity 2011: ESPI) Key words: HBV, HB vaccine, immunity.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2011; 9(1):35.
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    ABSTRACT: To cite this article: La Grutta S, Cibella F, Passalacqua G, Cuttitta G, Liotta G, Ferlisi A, Viegi G. Association of Blattella germanica sensitization with atopic diseases in pediatric allergic patients. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 521–527. AbstractBackground: The extent to which the sensitization to the German cockroach Blattella germanica (BG) affects onset/presence of rhinoconjunctivitis (RC) in children is unknown.Objectives: The present work was aimed to assess the prevalence of BG sensitization in an outpatient pediatric population from an allergy clinic, the association with allergic diseases, and the effect of age in children with allergic sensitization.Methods: Five hundred and four consecutive children with at least one positive skin test to a panel of 17 food and inhalant allergens, including BG, and with personal history of atopic diseases, were enrolled in an Allergy Unit of Palermo, Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. A questionnaire was administered to obtain data on epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. Atopy index was computed as the number of the individual positive skin prick tests. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between age classes and BG sensitization and RC, as well as the population‐attributable risk (PAR) for RC.Results: Prevalence of BG sensitization was 10.5% (5.2% and 15.8% in lower and upper age classes respectively, p = 0.0001). Atopy index significantly increased from the lower to the higher age class (p BG sensitization.Conclusion: In the upper age class, the PAR of BG sensitization for RC was 20.6%. BG sensitization increases in the higher ages, along with atopic index, and BG sensitization is associated with rhinoconjunctivis in older allergic children.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2011; 22(5).
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 07/2010; 21(Jul):1-125.
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    ABSTRACT: Cassimos DC, Liatsis M, Stogiannidou A, Kanariou MG. Children with frequent infections: A proposal for a stepwise assessment and investigation of the immune system. ‘The immune defense to foreign invaders’ Symphony. Which instrument is out of tune?Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 463–473.© 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S Although many children develop frequent infections, only a few have an underlying immune disorder. Children with dysfunction of the immune system develop frequent infections and/or recurrent, persistent, severe, and rare infections. The aim of this review is to provide to the clinician a valuable tool for recognizing any ‘discords’ of the ‘immune-system symphonic orchestra’. By following a reverse route, it will be possible to brighten up the dark and winding road of immunodeficiencies and identify the exact point of immune dysfunction. This is fundamental and crucial to perceive etiologic management and subsequently achieve the best for these young patients and their families.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2010; 21(3).
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2009; 20(2):202-203.
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    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2009; 20(1):103-103.
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions in children are scarce compared to reports in adults. To assess the prevalence of parental-reported drug allergy in 6- to 9-yr-old urban school children, we performed a cross-sectional study of 6- to 9-yr-old urban children from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during the year 2004, using a self-administered questionnaire by parents. Response rate was 81.6% (2855/3500). The prevalence of parental-reported drug allergy was 2.8% (81/2855). The most common parental-reported drugs were penicillins and other beta-lactams (59.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (11.1%), and acetylsalicylic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (9.9%). The most commonly reported clinical manifestations were cutaneous (n = 76, 93.8%) followed by gastrointestinal (n = 17, 21%) symptoms. In 19 (23.5%) children, the reaction involved more than one organ system. Of these 19 children, 14 used beta-lactams. Systemic reactions were not reported with NSAIDs. Medications were taken by mouth in 88.9% of the reactions. Most of the reported allergic reactions occurred in the first day of treatment (61.7%). The reported time to reaction after the last intake of the drug was <2 h in 35 (43.2%) children and 2-24 h in 45 (55.6%). Oral reactions occurred later than reactions to parentally administered drugs. Parents of 58 children (71.6%) reported that they completely avoided the suspected culprit drug following the reaction. Relapse occurred after re-administration of the drug in 21 (25.9%) children. A diagnostic approach for drug allergy was not undertaken in any of the children. This study may provide some information about the prevalence of drug allergy, although it is based on parental perception and results are unlikely to conform well to true prevalence.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 03/2008; 19(1):82-5.

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