Pharmacology &amp Toxicology (Pharmacol Toxicol)

Publisher: Nordisk selskab för farmakologi

Journal description

Pharmacology & Toxicology is an independent journal, publishing original scientific research in all fields of experimental pharmacology and toxicology, including biochemical, cellular and molecular pharmacology and toxicology. Manuscripts on clinical pharmacology and its aspects, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, are also accepted.

Current impact factor: 0.00

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2005 Impact Factor 1.78
2004 Impact Factor 1.342
2003 Impact Factor 1.302
2002 Impact Factor 1.271
2001 Impact Factor 0.925
2000 Impact Factor 1.189
1999 Impact Factor 1.263
1998 Impact Factor 1.117
1997 Impact Factor 1.255

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Pharmacology & Toxicology website
Other titles Pharmacology & toxicology, Pharmacology and toxicology
ISSN 0901-9928
OCLC 15172115
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 05/2008; 86(5):242-244. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0773.2000.pto860508.x
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the antioxidative role of uric acid, its ability to scavenge carbon-centered and peroxyl radicals and its inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by various model systems were examined. Uric acid efficiently scavenged carbon-centered and peroxyl radicals derived from the hydrophilic free radical generator 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)-dihydrochloride (AAPH). All damage to biological molecules, including protein, DNA and lipids induced by AAPH, was strongly prevented by uric acid. In contrast, alpha-tocopherol had little effect on damage to biological molecules. Lipid peroxidation by the lipophilic free radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) was little inhibited by uric acid, but not by alpha-tocopherol. Copper-induced lipid peroxidation was inhibited by uric acid and alpha-tocopherol. NADPH- and ADP-Fe(3+)-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation was efficiently inhibited by alpha-tocopherol, but not by uric acid. Uric acid seems to scavenge free radicals in hydrophilic conditions to inhibit lipid peroxidation on the lipid-aqueous boundary, and the antioxidation is only little in lipophilic conditions.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 01/2004; 93(6):284-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930606.x
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    ABSTRACT: Mercury exerts a variety of toxic effects in the body. Lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and depletion of reduced glutathione by Hg(II) suggest an oxidative stress-like mechanism for Hg(II) toxicity. Melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland, was recently found to be a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. N-Acetylcysteine, a precursor of reduced glutathione and an antioxidant, is used in the therapy of acute heavy metal poisoning. In this study the protective effects of melatonin in comparison to that of N-acetylcysteine against Hg-induced oxidative damage in the kidney, liver, lung and brain tissues were investigated. Wistar albino rats of either sex (200-250 g) were divided into six groups, each consisting of 8 animals. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1) 0.9% NaCl, control (C) group; 2) a single dose of 5 mg/kg mercuric chloride (HgCl2), Hg group; 3) melatonin in a dose of 10 mg/kg, 1 hr after HgCl2 injection, Hg-melatonin group; 4) melatonin in a dose of 10 mg/kg one day before and 1 hr after HgCl2 injection, melatonin-Hg-melatonin group; 5) N-acetylcysteine in a dose of 150 mg/kg, 1 hr after HgCl2 injection, Hg-N-acetylcysteine group, and 6) N-acetylcysteine in a dose of 150 mg/kg one day before and 1 hr after HgCl2 injection, N-acetylcysteine-Hg-N-acetylcysteine group. Animals were killed by decapitation 24 hr after the injection of HgCl2. Tissue samples were taken for determination of malondialdehyde, an end-product of lipid peroxidation; glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant, and myeloperoxidase activity, an index of neutrophil infiltration. The results revealed that HgCl2 induced oxidative tissue damage, as evidenced by increases in malondialdehyde levels. Myeloperoxidase activity was also increased, and GSH levels were decreased in the liver, kidney and the lungs. All of these effects were reversed by melatonin or N-acetylcysteine treatment. Since melatonin or N-acetylcysteine administration reversed these responses, it seems likely that melatonin or N-acetylcysteine can protect all these tissues against HgCl2-induced oxidative damage.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 01/2004; 93(6):290-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930607.x
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rh(2) (G-Rh(2)) on differentiation of SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cell line in culture. We studied G-Rh(2)-induced differentiation of SMMC-7721 cells through cell proliferation, cell morphology, ultrastructure, cell cycle, cell function and metabolism. The proliferation of treated cells was inhibited, the morphology and ultrastructure seemed normal, the secretory amount and expression of alpha-foetoprotein, and the specific activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and heat-resistant alkaline phosphatase were all significantly decreased, the secretory amount of albumin and alkaline phosphatase activity were remarkably increased, and the cell was arrested at the G(1)/G(0) phase. Furthermore, G-Rh(2) induced elevated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) and p16(INK4a), and declined expressions of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. In addition, G-Rh(2) almost completely inhibited telomerase activity, as measured by polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol coupled with enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA. Based on these data, it is suggested that G-Rh(2) could induce cell differentiation tending to normal and effectively reduce telomerase activity with affecting transcription levels of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, paralleling the induction of cell differentiation.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 01/2004; 93(6):275-83. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930605.x
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid beta peptide in the senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer's disease is considered to be responsible for the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that 6-ethyl-N,N'-bis(3-hydroxyphenyl)[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine, RS-0466, is capable of significantly inhibiting amyloid beta-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. To determine various profiles of RS-0466, we investigated whether RS-0466 would enhance the neuroprotective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on amyloid beta(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity in rat cortical neurones. Consistent with previous observations, brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorated amyloid beta(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, co-application of RS-0466 enhanced the neuroprotective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. RS-0466 also reversed amyloid beta(1-42)-induced decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-triggered phosphorylated Akt. These results raise the possibility that RS-0466 or one of its derivatives has potential to enhance the neuroprotective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and could serve as a therapeutic agent for patients with Alzheimer's disease.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 01/2004; 93(6):264-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930603.x
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary antioxidants protect laboratory animals against induction of tumours by a variety of chemical carcinogens. Among possible mechanism, protection against chemical carcinogenesis could be mediated via antioxidant-dependent induction of detoxifying enzymes, including quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase (GSH transferase). Probucol is used cholesterol-lowering drug used in the clinic, with pronounced antioxidant effect that protect against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. In the present study we therefore examined the ability of probucol to induce activities of quinone reductase in the cytosolic fractions of various tissues of mice. Quinone reductase activity was increased significantly in 6 of 8 tissues examined from probucol-fed mice. The greatest proportionate increase, to 1.8 times control levels, was observed in liver. Probucol also increased quinone reductase activities of forestomach, heart, kidney, lungs and spleen. Quinone reductase is a major enzyme of xenobiotic metabolism that carries out obligatory two-electron reductions and thereby protects cells against toxicity of quinones. It is induced in many tissues coordinately with other enzymes that protect against electrophilic toxicity. The protective effects of probucol appear to be due, at least in part, to the ability of this antioxidant to increase the activities in rodent tissues of several enzymes involved in the non-oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics. The induction of such enzyme, quinone reductase by probucol suggests the potential value of this compound as a protective agent against chemical carcinogenesis and other forms of electrophilic toxicity. The significance of these results can be implicated in relation to cancer chemopreventive effects of probucol in various target organs.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 01/2004; 93(6):259-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930602.x
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    ABSTRACT: Microdialysis was used to sample extracellular unbound concentrations of alovudine in order to study the influence of well-known transport inhibitors (probenecid and quinidine) on the transport of alovudine between the blood and the brain extracellular fluid or whole brain tissue. The AUC (area under the time versus concentration curve) ratio brain extracellular fluid/serum was 0.17+/-0.036 after a subcutaneous injection of alovudine 25 mg/kg in rats treated with probenecid 25 mg/kg subcutaneous (n=5), which was not significantly different from the control group (AUC ratio 0.24+/-0.039). Perfusion through the microdialysis probe with probenecid 100 microM (n=4) also had no effect on the brain extracellular fluid/serum AUC ratio after alovudine 25 mg/kg subcutaneous. The AUC ratio brain extracellular fluid/serum was 0.085+/-0.009 after subcutaneous injection of alovudine 25 mg/kg in rats treated with quinidine 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally (n=8), which was significantly lower than the control group. However, the whole brain tissue concentration was not significantly different between control rats (n=5) and rats treated with quinidine (n=4) 1 hr after subcutaneous injection of alovudine 25 mg/kg (brain to serum ratios being 0.11+/-0.006 and 0.10+/-0.005 respectively). Finally, the microdialysis recovery of alovudine increased with increasing concentrations (10, 50, 250, 1250 microM) of alovudine in the perfusion fluid. The recovery of alovudine was increased in quinidine-treated rats but not in those given probenecid. Thus, probenecid does not significantly influence the concentration gradient of alovudine over the blood-brain barrier in the rat after systemic or after local administration, while quinidine lowered brain extracellular fluid concentration of alovudine, but not total brain tissue concentration. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is not yet known.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 12/2003; 93(5):226-32. DOI:10.1046/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930505.x
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    ABSTRACT: Acute effects on the behaviour of the organophosphate insecticide dichlorvos and its standard antidotes possessing behavioural activity, atropine and diazepam, were studied separately and in combinations in male Wistar rats. In the spontaneous locomotor activity test, dichlorvos and diazepam decreased, whereas atropine increased performance. The effect of dichlorvos was obtained at a dose (5 mg/kg) that induced overt intoxication, and could not be reversed during first half hour-period after administration of any combination of drugs. In the other two tests, active avoidance learning and rotarod performance, the effective dose of dichlorvos (2 mg/kg) was devoid of somatic signs of intoxication. In these more sensitive tests, the effective atropine dose (40 mg/kg) completely reversed dichlorvos-induced incapacitation. In the rotarod test, diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) contributed to the incapacitating effect of dichlorvos, and impeded desirable influence of atropine as well. In the active avoidance test, diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) contributed to failure to escape; it did not influence the dichlorvos-induced decrease of avoidance performance, nor did it impair the completely reversing effects of atropine. The results point to the possible summation of acute incapacitating effects of organophosphates and diazepam on motor performance, which seems to be, at least partly, antagonized by sufficiently high doses of atropine. However, taking into account the long-term neuroprotective role of the anticonvulsant diazepam, and hence its delayed beneficial influences on behaviour, the immediate testing of atropine/diazepam treatment of organophosphate intoxication in active avoidance paradigm could possess beside sensitivity the predictive value as well.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 12/2003; 93(5):211-8. DOI:10.1046/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930503.x
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    ABSTRACT: Stereoselectivity has been known to play a role in drug action for 100 years or more. Nevertheless, chiral drugs have been developed and used as racemates, neglecting the fact that they comprise mixtures of two or more compounds which may have quite different pharmacological properties. A very limited access to pure enantiomers in the past has been responsible for this unsatisfactory state of affairs. During the last 20 years, significant achievements have made it possible to perform stereoselective synthesis and analysis. Today, novel chiral drugs are as a rule developed as single enantiomers. Yet, studies of old racaemic drugs are still designed, performed and published without mention of the fact that two or more compounds are involved. In recent years, a number of old racaemic drugs have been re-evaluated and re-introduced into the clinical area as the pure, active enantiomer (the eutomer). While in principle correct, the clinical benefit of this shift from a well established racaemate to a pure enantiomer often seems to be limited and sometimes exaggerated. Racaemic drugs with a deleterious enantiomer that does not contribute to the therapeutic effect (the distomer), may have been sorted out in the safety evaluation process. However, in the future any pharmacological study of racaemic drugs must include the pure enantiomers. This will generate new, valuable information on stereoselectivity in drug action and interaction.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 12/2003; 93(5):203-10. DOI:10.1046/j.1600-0773.2003.pto930502.x
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    ABSTRACT: Aspirin (acetylsalicylate) is an inexpensive drug that is used extensively to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Emerging evidence suggests that aspirin reduces the risk of other chronic diseases such as certain forms of cancer. Salicylate may contribute to the disease reduction effects. It is present naturally in fruits and vegetables and individuals with a low intake of these foods may be 'salicylate deficient'. This deleterious state may constitute a significant public health threat. Interventions to prevent deficiency, such as low-dose aspirin programmes, could have substantial beneficial health impacts around the world.
    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 11/2003; 93(4):153-5. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0773.2003.930401.x
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    Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 11/2003; 93(4):197-200. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0773.2003.930408.x